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Wales

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/* Medieval */
[[Image:{{Country|name =Cymru<br/>Wales|map =|flag =Flag of Wales.png|thumbarms =|The capital =Cardiff|capital-raw =|government =|government-raw =|language =Welsh flag]], English|king =|queen =Elizabeth II|monarch-raw =|governor general=|governor general-raw=|president =|president-raw =|chancellor =|chancellor-raw =|pm =|pm-raw =|chairman =|general secretary=|governor =|governor-raw =|premier =|premier-raw =|area =8,022 sq mi |pop =3,004,600|pop-basis =2008|gdp =$85.4 billion|gdp-year =2006|gdp-pc =$30,546|currency =Pound Sterling|idd =|tld =}}'''Wales''' is a principality which is a part of the [[United Kingdom]]. It occupies the peninsula of land between the [[Bristol Channel]] and the [[River Dee]], on the west side of southern [[Great Britain]]. [[Anglesey]], [[Holy Island]], and the bardic island of Bardsey are also part of Wales.
Much of Wales is mountainous; Althouh politically controlled by England for 800 years, throughout the [[Cambrian Mountains]] run the length centuries, a sense of the country, from [[Snowdon]]ia national identity in the north. Several [[geological period]]s are named after the ancient Welsh tribes that lived Wales has manifested itself in regions where strata characteristic a variety of the period are ways: aspirations to be found; the [[Ordovician]] (Ordovices)statehood, the [[Silurian]] (Silures)a unique language, cultural distinctiveness, religious affiliation, sporting achievement, and the [[Cambrian]] period is named for Cambria, the [[Latin]] for Walesmost recently, political devolution.
===Geography===
Much of Wales is mountainous; the [[Cambrian Mountains]] run the length of the country, from [[Snowdon]]ia in the north. Several [[geological period]]s are named after the ancient Welsh tribes that lived in regions where strata characteristic of the period are to be found; the [[Ordovician]] (Ordovices), the [[Silurian]] (Silures), and the [[Cambrian]] period is named for Cambria, the [[Latin]] for Wales.
===Cities===
The largest city in Wales is [[Cardiff]], which was declared to be the capital city in 1955, against competition from [[Swansea]]. Other important locales include the ports of [[Holyhead]] and [[Milford Haven]]; the mining and industrial centres of Llanelli, Neath, Pontypridd, [[Rhondda]], Merthyr Tydfil and [[Wrexham]]; the ecclesiastical cities of [[St. Asaph]] and [[St. Davids]]; the resorts of Pwllheli, [[Llandudno]], Colwyn Bay, Rhyl and Prestatyn; the university towns of Bangor and [[Aberystwyth]]; and the villages of [[Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch]] (the longest place name in Britain) and [[Llanddewi Brefi]].
===Language===
see [[Welsh language]]
[[English]] is universally spoken in Wales - however, the ancestral Celtic language of [[Welsh Language|Welsh]] is still spoken as a first or second language by approximately a quarter of the population (In 2001, Apporximately Approximately 600,000 people claimed some knowledge of welshWelsh). The long-term decline in Welsh-speakers has stabilised since the early 1990s owing to the introduction of compulsory Welsh language classes in schools.
The national emblems are the [[leek]] and the [[daffodil]]. The Welsh national day is March 1, [[Saint David]]'s day. The Welsh flag has a picture of a dragon, usually called Idris. The Welsh flag forms no part of the Union Flag as at the time the flag was first devised Wales was considered as part of the Kingdom of England.
==History==
===Medieval===
Wales emerged as a nation from the collapse of [[Romans|Romano]]-British Britannia following the invasions of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes from the fifth century AD onwards. What is now known as Wales was for a time known as 'North Wales', while [[Devon]] and [[Cornwall]] (in SW England) were 'West Wales' until their conquest. The Mercian king [[Offa]] (Mercia equates roughly to the English Midlands) created an substantial earthwork, [[Offa's Dyke]] running between the [[Irish Sea]] and the [[River Severn|Severn]] estuary in the later eighth century to separate his kingdom from Welsh lands. The dyke broadly marks the Anglo-Welsh boundary to this day.
Wales emerged as a nation from the collapse The [[Norman Conquest]] of Romano-British Britannia England following 1066 gave rise to Norman attempts to occupy Wales; by the invasions thirteenth century much of the Angles, Saxons eastern and Jutes from southern Wales were under Norman control in autonomous 'Marcher Lordships' owing loyalty to the fifth century AD onwardsEnglish crown. What is now known as was left of independent Wales was for not a time known as 'North Wales'unitary nation, but comprised a number of separate, often warring, principalities, while [[Devon]] and [[Cornwall]] (in SW England) were only late on, under English pressure, did these unite to acknowledge one 'West Prince of Wales' until their conquest. The Mercian king [[Offa]] (Mercia equates roughly to These princes were provided by the English Midlands) created an substantial earthworkmost powerful of the Welsh states, [[Offa's Dyke]] running between Gwynedd, in the mountainous NW of the country. Most notable was [[Irish Sea]] and Llewelyn the [[River Severn|SevernGreat]] estuary in (1173-1240; who unified the later eighth century to separate his kingdom from Welsh lands. The dyke broadly marks the Anglo-Welsh boundary to this daycountry, and gave it a code of laws).
The [[Norman Conquest]] of England following 1066 gave rise to Norman attempts to occupy Wales; by the thirteenth century much of eastern and southern Wales were under Norman control in autonomous 'Marcher Lordships' owing loyalty to the ===English crown. What was left of independent Wales was not a unitary nation, but comprised a number of separate, often warring, principalities, and only late on, under English pressure, did these unite to acknowledge one 'Prince of Wales'. These princes were provided by the most powerful of the Welsh states, Gwynedd, in the mountainous NW of the country. Most notable was [[Llewelyn the Great]] (1173-1240; who unified the country, and gave it a code of laws). conquest===His grandson, [[Llewelyn ap Gruffydd]], was unable to resist a powerful invasion mounted by the English king [[Edward I]], and his death in battle in 1282 and the later execution of his brother Daffyd (executed for treason due to his betrayal of the English king, with whom he had previously been allied) marked the extinction of independent Wales.
A number of huge fortifications were built by Edward to pacify the country, notably that of [[Caernafon Castle]], and maintained by his successors. These castles wer known as the ''Iron Ring''.
Much as Owain Glyndwr emerged from the ranks of the Welsh gentry, so too did Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who in 1485, as a somewhat tendentious claimant to the throne of England through the Lancastrian line, led an army of disaffected English magnates to victory over the Yorkist king [[Richard III]] at the [[Battle of Bosworth Field]]. Henry became King [[Henry VII]] and the progenitor of the [[Tudor dynasty]], the first Welsh king of England. Henry's son, [[Henry VIII]], completed the absorption of Wales into England in 1536, when the remaining parts of Wales were formally annexed to England and 'shired' - that is, divided into counties (shires) with sheriffs and lords lieutenant, rather than being ruled as marcher lordships.
[[Charles]], eldest son of [[Queen Elizabeth II]]===Schools===“Ragged schools” were schools for children in rags, that is for poor and destitute children. They were established in the current Prince newly industrialized towns of Wales, a title normally bestowed on in the firstmid-born son Victorian period, drawing widespread support from all levels of the sovereign but implying no particular monarchical role society and from all religious denominations. Promoters of ragged schools combined evangelical and charitable motives in an effort to rescue children from lives of immorality and crime, and, despite a lack of qualified teachers, they did provide an education for children denied opportunities because of poverty. The schools provided instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, and often some industrial training, and the Principalitymovement achieved remarkable results before declining with the gradual introduction of compulsory free elementary schooling from 1870 onward. <ref>Russell Grigg, "The Welsh flag has Origins and Growth of Ragged Schools in Wales, 1847-c.1900," ''History of Education'' 2002 31(3): 227-243</ref>===Soccer===Soccer became enormously popular in northeast Wales during 1870-90, a picture development that resembled the growth of the sport in England and reflected aspects of Welsh national identity. During this period, soccer transformed from an informal game enjoyed mostly by schoolchildren into a [[dragon]]regulated, usually called Idrisprofessional, and spectator-friendly sport. The Welsh flag forms no part growing popularity and interclass participation was seen as an agent of social cohesion and Victorian values of health, though frequent outbreaks of fighting during matches was frowned on by some religious groups. Soccer maintained its popularity in northeast Wales, but industrial decline generally meant that local teams could not as easily draw the Union Flag same crowds and attract talented players as at those in the time the flag was first devised English Midlands.<ref>Martin Johnes, and Ian Garland, "'The New Craze': Football and Society in North-east Wales , c. 1870-90," ''Welsh History Review'' 2004 22(2): 278-304</ref> Soccer was considered as part of easily the Kingdom most popular sport in Wales throughout the whole of Englandthe twentieth century.
Even today in modern ===Religion===Walesis known for the strength of Nonconformist denominations, vestiges especially the Methodists. Nonconformist social and political activism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was based more on moral and economic concerns than theological principles. Public controversy over publication of anti-English sentiment remain strong R. J. Campbell's ''The New Theology'' in some parts; 1907 sparked the Welsh Nationalist Party, [[Plaid Cymru]] typically returns several members development of a theology-based activism that strengthened Nonconformist ties with the radical labor movement and Socialism. It was similar to the British [[ParliamentSocial Gospel]]in the United States, but more radical and with the unaffiliated Welsh terrorist group more inclined toward socialism as promoted by the [[Meibion GlyndwrLabour Party]].<ref>Robert Pope, ("From New Theology to Social Gospel," ''Welsh Journal of Religious History'' 2007 2: 87-104,</ref> The major Nonconformist groups were the Sons Baptists, Congregationalists, and three varieties of Glendower"Methodists (the Calvinistic, Primitive, and Wesleyan) conducting . Each combined communal (largely involuntary involvement) and associational (voluntary involvement) aspects among their members and adherents. The membership declined during the early 20th century. To a sporadic campaign large degree that decline is attributable to each church body becoming more associational, bureaucratic, and denominational. Connections to local communities broke down and promoted secularization although revivalism occurred to roll back the secularization process on occasion.<ref>Peter Yalden, "Association, Community and the Origins of arson against Secularisation: English-owned holiday homes in recent yearsand Welsh Nonconformity, c.1850-1930," ''Journal of Ecclesiastical History'' 2004 55(2): 293-324</ref>http====Revival of 1904-5==== ''See also://www'' [[Welsh Revival of 1904-1905]] From 1904 to 1905 Wales experienced a religious revival with a strong tone of what became [[Pentecostalism]].welshdragonIt was most famously associated with Evan Roberts (1878-1951), but the movement was broad based with many leaders.net/resources/Articles/arson Begun as an effort to kindle nondenominational, nonsectarian spirituality, the Welsh revival of 1904-05 coincided with the rise of the labor movement, socialism, and a general disaffection with religion among the working class and youths.shtmlWhile Roberts heavily emphasized the need for individual prayer in his revival, he also engaged in considerable preaching and, like other evangelists, acted spontaneously. Roberts's mental health was a topic of discussion among his followers and detractors at the time of the revival, a debate that has continued ever since. Evidence indicates he was not particularly stable prior to the revival, and that during the revival he claimed to possess various spiritual and supernatural powers. Not merely a Welsh phenomenon, the movement also spread to other countries. The revival produced some lasting effects including the establishment of Pentecostalism in Wales. Revivalists at firct condemned all activities not related to religion, prayer, and the service of God, it temporarily crippled the growing sport of rugby, itself an increasingly powerful element of Welsh identity. Within months, however, extremist views waned and innocuous pastimes and sport returned to Welsh daily life. International success for Wales in rugby matches in 1905 restored the sport's earlier standing and reinforced its place in the self-image of modern Wales.<ref>Robert Pope, "Demythologising the Evan Roberts Revival, 1904-1905," ''Journal of Ecclesiastical History'' 2006 57(3): 515-534</ref>
[[Druidry]] survived as The revival lasted less than a major force year, but in that period 100,000 converts were made. The revival spread from south Wales to north Wales until the 18th century, then to Britain, and may never have completely died out. eventually to Los Angeles, California, where [[Pentecostalism]] flourished.<ref>Edward J. Gitre, "The first modern 1904-05 Welsh druids date from 1717Revival: Modernization, but they took many Technologies, and Techniques of their rites from existing practicesthe Self," ''Church History'' 2004 73(4): 792-827</ref> ==Prince of Wales==[[Prince Charles|Charles]], eldest son of [[Queen Elizabeth II]], is the current Prince of Wales, a title normally bestowed on the first-born son of the sovereign but implying no particular monarchical role in the Principality. The winner  Even today in modern Wales, vestiges of anti-English sentiment remain strong in some parts; the chair at Welsh Nationalist Party, [[Plaid Cymru]] typically returns several members to the national British [[EisteddfodParliament]] becomes , and with the unaffiliated Welsh terrorist group the [[Meibion Glyndwr]], ("the Sons of Glendower") conducting a druidsporadic campaign of arson against English-owned holiday homes in recent years.<ref>http://www.welshdragon.net/resources/Articles/arson.shtml</ref>
== Government ==
! Position || Current Holder
|-
| [[British_monarchyBritish monarchy|Monarch]] || Queen [[Elizabeth II]]
|-
| [[UK_Prime_MinistersUK Prime Ministers|Prime MinsterMinister]] || [[Gordon BrownDavid Cameron]] MP
|-
| [[Secretary of State for Wales|Secretary of State]] || [[Peter HainCheryl Gillan]] MP
|-
| [[First Minister of Wales|First Minister]] || [[Rhodri MorganCarwyn Jones]] AM
|}
Although constitutionally the United Kingdom is a unitary state with one sovereign, parliament and government - there has been moves to give power to national legislature in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, this has taken the form of devolution. Power for certain areas of government like education, health and the environment are fully the responsibility of their national governments. However, central government maintains the right to overturn any decision by a national assembly, as as such the [[Parliament of the United KingomKingdom]] remains sovereign in the United Kingdom as a whole.
=== Devolution ===
[[File:Wales1.jpg|thumb|200px]]A [[National Assembly for Wales]] as established under the ''Government of Wales Act of 1998''. The assembly consists of 60 ''Assembly Members'' or ''AM''s. The [[Welsh Assembly GovernemntGovernment]] is the executive arm who have been delegated much of the powers of the Assembly.
== Industry ==
== Sport ==
[[Soccer]] enjoys major popularity, with [[rugby union]] being particularly popular in South Wales. In addition, as is common with many universities, both Cardiff and Aberystwyth Universities have their own American Football teams (the Cardiff Cobras and the Tarannau Aberystwyth), and there are other American Football teams in Wales<ref>http://www.southwaleswarriors.co.uk/cgi-bin/swwarriors/baseweb2.exe?vid=82057&src=794</ref> (indeed there are many other American Football teams in the whole of the UK<ref>http://www.bafa.org.uk/</ref>). Ice hockey is also extremely popular; major teams include the Cardiff Devils.
== World significance References==<references/>
Welsh==Further reading==* Davies, John. ''A History of Wales'' (2007) [https://www.amazon.com/History-derived surnames are common in the United StatesWales-John-Davies/dp/0140284753/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1260143161&sr=1-1 excerpt and text search]* Evans, Chris. '''The Welsh name Labyrinth of Flames': Work and Social Conflict in Early Industrial Merthyr Tydfil'Jones'(1993). 237 pp.* Fagge, Roger. ' is 'Power, Culture and Conflict in fact the fourth commonest surname in the UCoalfields: West Virginia and South Wales, 1900-1922'' (1996). S290 pp.<ref>Smith* Francis, Johnson Hywel and Williams ranking firstSmith, second and third</ref>; within David. ''The Fed: A History of the hundred commonest surnames, South Wales Miners in the Welsh names EvansTwentieth Century'' (1980). 530 pp.* Gilbert, EdwardDavid. ''Class, MorganCommunity, and Collective Action: Social Change in Two British Coalfields, 1850-1926'' (1992). 293 pp.* Jenkins rank 48th, 49th, 57th, and 83rd respectivelyGeraint H.<ref>''A Concise History of Wales'' (2007) [httphttps://nameswww.mongabayamazon.com/most_common_surnamesConcise-History-Wales-Cambridge-Histories/dp/0521530717/ref=sr_1_10?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1260143161&sr=1-10 excerpt and text search]* Jenkins, Philip.htm Most Common Surnames ''A History of Modern Wales, 1536-1990'' (1992). 451 pp.* Jenkins, Geraint H. and Smith, J. Beverley, eds. ''Politics and Society in the UWales, 1840-1922'' (1988). S201 pp.]* Jenkins, website which claims its source is Geraint H. ''The Foundations of Modern Wales: Wales, 1642-1780'' (1988). 490 pp.* Jones, J. Barry, and Denis Balsom, eds. ''The Road to the UNational Assembly of Wales'' (2000)* Jones, Gareth Elwyn.S''Modern Wales: A Concise History, c. Census Bureau1485-1979'' (1985). 364 pp.* Jones, Population DivisionJ. Gwynfor. ''Early Modern Wales, Population Analysis & Evaluation Staff</ref> Names beginning with a double Lc. 1525-1640'' (1994).* Jones, such as J. Gwynfor, ed. ''LloydClass, Community, and Culture in Tudor Wales'' (1989). 300 pp.* Morgan, Kenneth O. ''Wales in British Politics: 1868-1922'' (1963) * Morgan, Kenneth O. ''Modern Wales: Politics, Places, and People''Llewellyn(1995). 492 pp.* Morgan, Kenneth O. '' are almost certain Rebirth of a Nation: Wales 1880-1980 (History of Wales) (Vol 6)'' (1981)* Neil Evans, "'When Men and Mountains Meet': Historians' Explanations of the History of Wales, 1890-1970," ''Welsh History Review'' 2004 22(2): 222-251** The the thesis advanced by Owen Morgan Edwards c. 1900 stressed geographical determinism, and was similar to contemporary findings in the United States by [[Frederick Jackson Turner]]. TheEdwards model was augmented and revised by subsequent generations of historians, most notably by John Lloyd and William Stubbs in their work on preconquest Wales, which considered questions of race and political organization. In later decades, Edward A. Lewis and William Rees followed with similar approaches to be modern Welshsocial and economic history, as is while A. H. Dodd and Glanmor Williams focused on Welsh industrialization. * Owen, Trefor. ''FloydCustoms and Traditions of Wales'' (1991) 108pp* Pope, Robert, ed. ''Religion and National Identity: Wales and Scotland c. 1700-2000'' (2001)* Smith, Dai. ''Aneurin Bevan and the "Fl" being an attempt World of South Wales.'' (1993). 359 pp. 20c coal mining and politics* Stephens, Meic, ed. ''The Oxford Companion to imitate the sound Literature of the Welsh doubleWales.'' (1986). 682 pp.* Wallace, Ryland. ''Organise! Organise! Organise! A Study of Reform Agitations in Wales, 1840-L1886'' (1991). 267 pp.* Weisser, Henry. ''Wales: An Illustrated History'' (2003) [https://www.amazon.com/Wales-Illustrated-History-Hippocrene-Histories/dp/0781809363/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1260143161&sr=1-2 excerpt and text search]* Williams, Glanmor. ''The History of Wales, Vol. 3: Recovery, Reorientation, and Reformation: Wales, c. 1415-1642'' (1987). 528 pp.
== Alphabet See also== Although it should be noted that the Welsh Alphabet uses the same characters as English (indeed both are examples of the Latin Alphabet) direct comparisons cannot always be made between the two. Welsh developed as an oral language with no corresponding written language and so* [[David Lloyd George]], when it did develop a written language, it was developed powerful prime minister in the written alphabet of the time, the Latin Alphabet. Of principle differences it should be noted that unlike English, Welsh has seven vowels, comprising of A, E, World War I, O, U, W and Y (occasionally h) . In addition, certain sounds in Welsh are represented in the Latin Alphabet by two characters but are considered to be only one letter. In truth this makes little practical difference in everday use but is of use in such things as crosswords (where, for instance, the letter ''ff'' would occupy one space). In addition the Welsh alphabet has sounds (phones {speech sounds}) that do not occur in either English or American English. Listed below is the Welsh alphabet, along with the name of the letter as prounced in Welsh (which varies compared to how it is pronounced in English) and a (rough) guide to pronounciation. A, a : {Name = â) '''Short''' = a, as in Mam (Welsh version of Mum or Mom) or Slam. '''Long''' = a as in Mad, aaa! (an exclaimation), but never ah as in Lard or bard B, b : (Name = bî) b, as in Boy, Butter, etc. C, c : (Name = èc) k, as in Cat, Coin, '''but never''' s, as in ceiling. CH, ch : (Name = èch) a sound that has no corresponding sound in English, similar to the 'ch' in loch or Bach when these words are pronounced correctly in their original phones. D, d : (Name = dî) d, as in Dog, Drag, Dip, etc. DD, dd : (Name = èdd) a soft 'th' sound, as in The or Them E, e : (Name = ê) '''Short''' = eh, as in Hen, Pen, etc. '''Long''' = air, as in the 'ea' sound in Pear. F,f : (Name = èf) v, as in Van, Vote, Value. FF, ff : (Name = èff) f, as in Fair, Fast, Feisty. G, g : (Name = èg) g, as in Gasp, Grip, '''but never''' j, as in Judge. NG, ng : (Name = èng) ng, as in Sing, Ding, Fling, Flung, Long, etc. ''but'' is only considered a single letter in Welsh. H, h : (Name = âets,hâ) h, as in Hat, Hope, Hero. I, i : (Name = î (North Wales), î dot (South Wales)) '''Short''' = i, as in me, he, she. '''Long''' = ee, as in Seen, Dean, Mean. Strictly speaking there is no 'J' in the Welsh Alphabet, where a 'J' would appear in English the Latin form of replacing it with an 'I' occurs, so James becomes Iago in Welsh (as it does in Spanish) and Santiago or (Sant Iago) means Saint James in both Spanish and English. There is no 'K' in Welsh. That sound is formed using the letter 'C'. L, l : (Name = èl) l, as in Long, Last, Lambeth, Lament. LL, Ll, ll : (Name = ell) No corresponding sound in English. Prounced as an aspirated 'l' which is in practice formed by prouncing l, a hard th and a hissing sound from one side of the mouth, all at the same time. Used in the words Llewellyn, Llanberis, Llanelli, etc. M, m : (Name = èm) m, as in Mam, Merry, Mercury. N, n : (Name = en) n, as in Name, Number, Never. O, o : (Name = ô) '''Short''' = o, as in Hockey, Gone, Bomb. '''Long''' = oa as in oar, boar P, p : (Name = pî) p, as in Pet, Pogo, Ping. Ph, ph : (Name = ffî) an aspirated 'p' as it is in English, and the same prounciation as the Welsh letter 'ff'. However, in Welsh the 'ph' letter is considered to be a mutated form, and the letter 'ff' is more likely to be used. R, r : (Name = èr) r, as in Rat, Ran, Rubbish. However, the pronounciation of the letter 'r' in Welsh is slightly more trilled and rolled in pronounciation than it is in English. Rh, rh : (Name = rhî, rhô) Again, no corresponding sound in English. 'Rh' is pronounced as 'hr'. S, s : (Name = ès) s, as in Sat, Sorry, Song and, if you insist (even if you don't), Sox. T, t : (Name = tî) t, as in Tea, Test, Time. Th, th : (Name = èth) a hard th sound, as in Thought, Thespian, Theocracy. U, u : (Name = û (North Wales), û bedol (South Wales)) '''Short''' = i, as in me, he, she. '''Long''' = ee, as in Seen, Dean, Mean. (exactly the same as i) W, w : (Name = ŵ) '''Short''' = never 'w' as in english. Thus, gweld (to see) is goo-eld (although it does sound similar to gw-eld). A short oo as in spook, fluke. '''Long''' = long oo as in goo, moo.  Y, y : (Name = ŷ) '''Short (1)''' = i, as in Sit, Bit, Flit. This occurs in one syllable words like mynd (to go), llyn (lake) '''Short (2''') = uh, as in Gun, Fun. This occurs in multi syllable words like cymru (wales), or non stressed one syllable words like fy (my), yn (in). '''Long''' = ee, Seen, Been, Lean.  As can be seen, there appears to be three letters (i, u, y) in Welsh that all have the same sound (ee when pronounced). In North Wales, u and û are often pronounced as what s known as a 'close central unrounded vowel', which doesn not occur in English. It should be noted that in addition to single letters (as listed above) the * [[Welsh language also combines letters to form other sounds (as English does). Some examples include Si (the 'sh' sound, as in Siân (SH-ahn)), Oe (oy, as in boy), Wy (oo-y, no comparable sound in English), Tch (which can produce the 'tch' sound in match as opposed to the sound of t followed by the gutteral 'ch' in Welsh), di{vowel} (which produces a j sound, i.e. diyg is the Welsh phonetic for jug). A common occurance in the language is the direct use of English words (commonly known as "Wenglish"), or a phonetic welsh version of it (known as cymreigeiddio - welshification). This generally occurs for technical words, like 'niwclear' (nuclear) and 'biwrèt' (burette).   Some fun words in Welsh and a (even rougher) guide to their pronounciation:Ynysybwl = A place name, that in English contains no vowels, but in Welsh is pronounced Uh-Nis-Uh-Bull Eglwys = A church. Pronounced Egg-l-ooy-s. The official church of Wales (by virtue of the fact that Wales is a Principality of England and the Established Church of England is the Anglican Church of England) is Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru, or The Church in Wales. Cymru = Wales. Pronounced K-um-ri, although when Cymru is used in a sentence the beginning of the word is altered to fit the syntax of the sentence (i.e. The Church in Wales is Yr(The) Eglwys(Church) yng(in) Nghymru(Wales) as opposed to Yr Eglwys yng Cymru). Capel = Chapel. Pronounced K-ap-el. Ysgol = School. Pronounced Us-gol (not Us-goal). Siarad = To speak or talk. Pronounced Sh-ah-rad. Dim siarad = No Talking. Pronounced Dim Sh-ah-rad. Cwtch = Closest meaning is 'safe place', often used to indicate an affectionate hug or cuddle (a safe place emotionally and physically) or a place of storage. Pronounced as Butch but with a hard 'C' at the beginning instead of a 'B'. Hiraeth = No comparable English word. It's a deep seated longing, almost a depressing and obsessive (but not actually either of those things) need for something, often a return to Wales. It can also be used to indicate a deep longing for something unobtainable. Pronounced Hi-r-eye-th (as in thought).  Most English dictionaries contain some Welsh-derived English words such as ''cwm'' (a circular valley or ''cirque'') and ''crwth'' (an traditional Celtic fiddle-like musical instrument). These can be very effective stumpers when playing word games, provided of course that they are actually included in whatever dictionary is the authority agreed on by the players.  ==References==<references/>]]
[[Category:United Kingdom]]
[[Category:Wales| ]]
[[Category:PrincipalitiesBritish History]]
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