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Mao Zedong

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{{Dictator bio| image =[[Image:Ncvjgfu.jpg|right|thumb200px]]|name =Mao Zedong| birth =December 26, 1893<br/>Shaoshan, Xiangtan, Hunan, China| parents =Mao Jen-sheng<br/>Wen Chi-mei| religion =[[Confucianism]] (rejected)<br/>[[Buddhism]] (rejected)<br/>[[Atheism]]| education =Hunan Normal School<br/>Peking University| spouse =Luo Yixiu (married 1907-1910)<br/>Yang Kaihui (married 1921-1927)<br/>He Zizhen (married 1928-1939)<br/>Jiang Qing: (married 1939-1976)| children =Mao Anying (from Yang)<br/>Mao Anqing (from Yang)<br/>Li Min (from He)<br/>Li Na (from Jiang)| death =September 9, 1976<br/>Beijing, China| deathmanner =Complications after heart attack| burial =Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing, China| country =[[People's Republic of China]]| military =[[People's Liberation Army]]| rank =Grand Marshal| polbeliefs =Communism<br/>Maoism| party =[[Communist Party of China]]| dictatordate =October 1, 1949| war =[[Chinese Civil War]]<br/>[[Great Leap Forward]]<br/>[[Cultural Revolution]]| deathnumber =40,000,000 to 80,000,000 est. Rummel: 77,000,000}}'''Mao Zedong''', (December 26, 1893-September 9, 1976) , also known as '''Mao Tse-tung''', was the leader of Chinese Communism and a ruthless [[Atheism|atheist]] dictator after he came to power in 1949. While not the founder, he was an early member of the [[Chinese Communist Party]] in 1921. In 1935, Mao was elected to the Executive Committee of the [[Comintern]] in Moscow and remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. Mao is regarded as perhaps the biggest most prolific [[mass murder]]er in human history, not even counting the inummerable unborn female fetuses whom he [[abortion|callously slaughtered]]. <ref>["20th Century Democide"]. ''''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref>
Mao was the author of ''==Soviet national liberation movement==[[Quotations from Chairman Edgar Snow]], an admirer of the Chinese communists, introduced Maoand [[Zhou Enlai]]to American readers in 1937 in his book,'' published in 1966Red Star Over China'', informally shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]'s rout by [[Chiang Kai-shek]] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[Yenan]] known as "the little red book[[Long March]]. Snow wrote, " During his lifetimeThe political ideology, almost everyone in tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the [[People's Republic of ChinaCommunist International]] was expected to have , which during the last decade has become virtually a copy. One bureau of his most well known statements was the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "political power grows out strategic requirements of [[Soviet Russia]], under the barrel leadership of a gun[[Stalin]]."<ref>''Red Star Over China'' by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.</ref> In 1957, in ominous foreshadowing of his true callous nature, Mao Zedong boasted in his "American Imperialism is a Paper Tiger" speech regarding the prospect of China entering [[nuclear war]] that:
[[Image:Little red book.jpg{{Quote|left|200px|thumb|During I’m not afraid of nuclear war. There are 2.7 billion people in the [[Cultural Revolution]], world; it was required for every Chinese citizen to own, readdoesn’t matter if some are killed. China has a population of 600 million; even if half of them are killed, and carry at all times ''Quotations from Chairman there are still 300 million people left. I’m not afraid of anyone.|Mao'', also known as "the little red book"Zedong|]]html}}
[[Edgar Snow]] introduced Mao and [[Zhou Enlai]] to American readers in 1937 in his book, ''Red Star Over China'', shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]’s rout by defeated [[Chiang Kai-shek]] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[Yenan]] known as the [[Long March]]. Snow wrote's Nationalists, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership taking control of the Chinese Communists have been under mainland and establishing the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, so-called People's Republic of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of [[Soviet Russia]], under the leadership of [[Stalin]]."<ref>Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.</ref>
Mao defeated [[Chiang Kai-shek]]'s Nationalists, taking control ==Three Years of the Chinese mainland and establishing the People's Republic of China. Disasters==As the leader of China, Mao initiated the [[Great Leap Forward]], an economic plan intended{{fact}} to rapidly industrialize China's then largely rural economy. In the end it proved a ruinous failure, preventing the peasants from producing needed food and causing massive famines; up This led to 38 million starved to death or were killed for opposing against the economic planan unprecedented famine. In 1966One cause was his 'Four Pests' campaign, Mao instigated the which listed [[Cultural Revolutionrats]], in which those disloyal to the Chairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control. [[Richard Nixonflies]], [[mosquitoes]] was the first United States president to meet with Mao, and thus [[sparrows]]. Because killing the first sparrows encouraged insects to acknowledge the existence of the People's Republic of Chinatake out more crops, as opposed ornithologist Tso-hsin Cheng asked him to [[Taiwan]]'s Republic of Chinastop.
Overall, historians believe that around 43 million people died under ==Cultural Revolution=={{language box|c=毛泽东|p=Máo Zédōng|w=Mao's ruleTse-tung}}[[Image:Little red book.jpg|left|thumb|During the so-called [[Cultural Revolution|"Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution"]], due mostly it was required for every Chinese citizen to starvation own, read, and carry at all times ''Quotations from disastrous socialist economic policies such Chairman Mao'', also known as "the little red book".]]In 1966, Mao instigated the [[Great Leap ForwardCultural Revolution]]. This is 7 times the common figure given for , in which those disloyal to the Holocaust but it is much less knownChairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control.
Name: ==Mass Murder==According to the ''Washington Post'' (7/14/94):<blockquote>While most scholars are reluctant to estimate a total number of "unnatural deaths" in China under Mao, evidence shows he was in some way responsible for at least 40 million deaths and perhaps 80 million or more. This includes deaths he was directly responsible for and deaths resulting from disastrous policies he refused to change. </blockquote><blockquote>One government document that has been internally circulated and seen by a former Communist Party official now at Princeton University says that 80 million died unnatural deaths – most of them in the famine following the Great Leap Forward. This figure comes from the Tigaisuo, or the System Reform Institute, which was led by Zhao Ziyang, the deposed Communist Party chief, in the 1980s to study how to reform Chinese society. </blockquote><blockquote>In comparison, Hitler is blamed for 12 million concentration camp deaths and at least 30 million other deaths associated with World War II, while Stalin is believed responsible for between 30 million and 40 million “unnatural deaths,” including millions from a famine he created. </blockquote> The article also added:<blockquote>Sources of new information on the famine indicate it was more widespread than long believed and could have been avoided. </blockquote><blockquote>— An article appearing last year in the Shanghai University journal Society stated that at least 40 million died from 1959 to 1961. Previous estimates have ranged from 10 million to 30 million. The article noted a mistake in government population statistics for 1960 that led to an underestimation of "unnatural deaths." Authorities later banned this issue of the journal and withdrew it from circulation. </blockquote><blockquote>— In another study, National Defense University professor Cong Jin estimated that 40 million died between 1959 and 1961. </blockquote><blockquote>— Chen Yizi of Princeton University’s Center for Modern China did research for years in China, first as a student and then as a government official, and determined that 43 million had died in the famine, a figure recently matched by a report from a think tank in Shanghai. According to Chen, this made the total number of Chinese who died as a result of Mao’s policies 80 million.<ref>[[Traditional "Uncounted Millions"]. ''''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref> </blockquote> This confirms the accuracy of democide analyst R.J. Rummel's research on China. Taking every available estimate of Chinesedemocide by category and time period; averaging them out and adding them together; repeating the process several times; doing the same with other Communist states and comparing the results; Rummel estimated 77,000,000 Chinese were killed by Mao Tse-Tung, assuming 38 million famine-dead from 1959-61.<ref>[ "20th Century Democide"]. ''''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref> Mao was responsible for more deaths than [[Joseph Stalin|Stalin]: 毛澤東; ], [[Simplified ChineseAdolf Hitler|Hitler]]: 毛泽东; , [[Hanyu PinyinPol Pot]]: Máo Zédōng; , [[WadeNicolae Ceausescu|Ceausescu]], and [[Tito]] ''combined''. Despite this massive body count, Mao remains an icon for certain segments of the far-Gilesleft. For example, his likeness and books are often seen at [[Occupy Wall Street]]events. [[Deng Xiaoping]] claimed the death toll of the famine to be 16 million, while the lowest estimate is less than 10 million <ref>Mao: The Real Story by Alexander P. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine, pg. 472</ref> ==Little Red Book==Mao Tse-tung)is the author of ''[[Quotations from Chairman Mao]],'' published in 1966, informally known as "the little red book." During his lifetime, almost everyone in the [[People's Republic of China]] was expected to have a copy. One of his most well known statements was that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".
In their book ''Mao: The Unknown Story'', authors Jung Chang and Jon Halliday state that in his first five years of power, 700,000 were claimed by Mao to be dead, but another 700,000 died in local excesses and 700,000 committed suicide out of fear of Mao. During the Great Leap Forward, Mao deliberately killed peasants by shipping food to the USSR and Eastern Europe in exchange for aid in building arms plants. As well, Mao's plans for peasants to make steel and build canals meant that in 1959-60 nobody grew any food. Thus, the worst famine in history occurred. Huge numbers were killed by puppets of Mao in the Cultural Revolution, which actually was launched to get rid of Mao's rivals in the Chinese Communist Party. Despite killing far more people than Stalin and Hitler combined, Mao Zedong has often been held in high-regard by various leftists, with French Existential philosopher [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] claiming his revolution was "profoundly moral", and French feminist [[Simone de Beauvoir]] claiming that his actions were little different from [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt]]'s policies in an approving tone.<ref></ref> Infamously, his image has even been used, similar to another leftist icon [[Che Guevara]], in various merchandising, including a restaurant in Hollywood called "Mao's Kitchen." Kai Chen, a Chinese basketball player who fled China, has stated that the promotion of Mao was tasteless, stating it's like someone deciding to open a restaurant called [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler's Kitchen]].<ref></ref> == Mao Zedong and Traditional Chinese medicine == ''See also:'' [[Atheism and medicine]] and [[Atheism and health]] The efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is poorly researched and supported.<ref>Shang, A.; Huwiler, K.; Nartey, L.; Jüni, P.; Egger, M. (2007). "Placebo-controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine and conventional medicine comparative study". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (5): 1086–92. doi:10.1093/ije/dym119. PMID 17602184.</ref> Mao Zedong revived and heavily promoted [[Traditional Chinese medicine]] (TCM) in China. He didn't believe in it himself, but pushed it as a cheap alternative to real medicine.<ref>[ WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise] by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine</ref> China has been aggressively promoting TCM on the international stage both for expanding its global influence and for profit.<ref>[ WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise] by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine</ref> ==See also==* [[Darwin-Stalin connection]]* [[List of dictators]]* [[Friendly dictator]]* [[Dictatorship of the proletariat]]* [[List of Communist States]]* [[List of Socialist States]]* [[Death toll of communism]]* [[Far Left]]* [[Cult of personality]]*[[Long march through the institutions]]* [[Mobocracy]], [[Social Effects of the Theory of Evolution]] ==References=={{reflist|2}} 
==Further reading==
* Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. ''Mao: The Unknown Story,'' (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
* Clark, Paul. ''The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History'' (2008), a favorable look at artistic production [http excerpt and text search]* Dietrich, Craig. ''People's China: A Brief History,'' 3d ed. (1997), 398pp [http excerpt and text search]* Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. ''The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History.'' (2006). 382 pp. [http excerpt and text search]* Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. ''China: A New History.'' (2nd ed. 2006). 640 pp. [http excerpt and text search]* Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. ''The Rise of Modern China,'' 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. [http excerpt and text search]
* Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. ''Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.'' (2006). 433 pp.
* MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. ''The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982.'' (1992). 1108 pp.
* MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. ''Mao's Last Revolution.'' (2006).
* MacFarquhar, Roderick. ''The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961-1966.'' (1998). 733 pp.
* Meisner, Maurice. ''Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic,'' 3rd ed. (1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. [http excerpt and text search]
* Schoppa, R. Keith. ''The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History.'' Columbia U. Press, 2000. 356 pp. [ online edition from [[Questia]]]
* Spence, Jonathan D. ''The Search for Modern China'' (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s [http excerpt and text search]; [ complete edition online at [[Questia]]]* Spence, Jonatham. ''Mao Zedong'' (1999) [http excerpt and text search]
* Shuyun, Sun. ''The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth'' (2007)
* Taylor, Jay. ''The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China'' (2009), 722 pp. highly favorable scholarly biography of Mao's great enemy
* Wang, Ke-wen, ed. ''Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism.'' (1998). 442 pp.
* Xia, Yafeng. "The Study of Cold War International History in China: A Review of the Last Twenty Years," ''Journal of Cold War Studies''10#1 Winter 2008, pp. 81-115 &nbsp;81–115 in [[Project Muse]]
* Yan, Jiaqi and Gao, Gao. ''Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution.'' (1996). 736 pp.
* [ Studies of Modern Chinese History: Reviews and Historiographical Essays]
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[[Category:ChinaAtheists]][[Category:Heads of State]][[Category:World War IIChinese History]]
[[Category:Mass Murderers]]
[[Category:People's Republic of China]]
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