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Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.

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/* Postwar */Spelling, grammar, and general cleanup, typos fixed: nation’s → nation's
'''Joe Kennedy''' (Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., 1888 – 1969) was an American a wealthy businessman, powerful politician and leader energetic founder of the most famous family in American politics, the [[Kennedy Family]]. He sponsored Joe, the leader of the conservative Irish wing of the Democratic Party, built a national network of Irish Catholics, which became the base for the political aspirations of his sons [[John F. Kennedy]] and [[Robert F. Kennedy]] and [[Ted Kennedy]]; —they all became Senators senators and ran for president; John became presidentin 1960 thanks to Joe's funding and organizational prowess. Joe was a dominated the family until his stroke in 1961, masterminding and funding the 1960 presidential campaign. After breaking with [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] in 1940 he became the leader of the pro-business, anti-communist wing of the [[Democratic Party]], and was a major supporter of [[Joe McCarthy]] through thick and thin. Joe was noted for his fierce devotion to promoting his children, his notorious love affairs, his ruthless business dealings, and his major roles in the [[New Deal]].
==Career==
Joe was the Harvard-educated son of wealthy Boston liquor dealer. Joe was a hale-fellow-well-met who the life of the party, but he always resented snobbish Yankees when he could not get into some elite Harvard clubs. In 1914 he married Rose Kennedy (1890-1995), daughter of a prominent Boston banker. Joe built the [[Kennedy Family]] fortune with brilliant forays into banking, shipbuilding, motion pictures, Wall Street, real estate and (just before as prohibition endedin 1933), a heavy investment in upscale imported liquor. Rumors about bootlegging were false, but his scandalous social behavior in Hollywood made him a pariah in both Yankee and Irish society in Boston. He therefore relocated the family base from Boston to New York in 1927, where it remained until his son [[John F. Kennedy]] (1917-631917–63) returned to Boston in 1946. Joe then relocated to Palm Beach, Florida, with a summer place at Hyannic Hyannis Port, on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.==New Deal==He was a strong supporter of President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], who named him in 1934 to head the new [[Securities and Exchange Commission]] (SEC), and turn it into a powerful watchdog of Wall Street.
Joe was noted for Conservatives applauded his fierce devotion to promoting his children, his notorious love affairs, his ruthless business dealings, work and his major roles in supported the [[New Deal]]. He was a strong supporter of President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] he named him in 1934 to head the new [[Securities and Exchange Commission]], and turn SEC because it into a powerful watchdog of Wall Street. Joe reached the pinnacle of esteem as Ambassador to the Court of St. James (ambassador to Britain) in 1938-40increased transparency, cruising elegantly in the highest circles of London societyfought securities fraud, in contrast and gave confidence to his maligned reputation in American high society. Daughter Kathleen Kennedy (1920-48), became Marchioness of Hartington when she married the heir investors to a dukedom; she died put their money in a plane crash. Recalled as ambassador because of his isolationism and support for Prime Minister [[Joseph Chamberlain]]’s [[appeasement]] of Germany, Joe nevertheless endorsed FDR in the critical 1940 election. Unlike [[Al Smith]] and other prominent Catholics, Joe he refused to attack Roosevelt and thereby preserved presidential options for his sons. Joe was increasingly isolated after 1941, keeping his distance from the clubhouse politicians who clustered around Honey Fitz, as well as Yankee businessmen he thought had denied him entry into the most elite Harvard circlesWall Street.
Joe's business enterprises flourishedLiberals always distrusted Kennedy, and he established daughter Eunice Kennedy Schriver (1921- ) in Chicago, where her husband fought against their proposals to raise taxes or punish business. [[Sargent Shriver]] (1915- ) operated the family’s giant office buildingPresident Roosevelt, although a liberal, needed the Merchandise Mart. The Chicago ties paid off handsomely when Mayor [[Richard J. Daley]], boss support of the city’s powerful Democratic machinecity machines, enthusiastically supported the Kennedys’ national political campaigns, especially the presidential campaign of mostly controlled by [[John F. KennedyCatholic Irish]] with large Catholic voting blocs, so he wanted a few high visibility Catholics in 1960his administration. Realizing his leadership status as one of the half dozen most powerful Irishmen in America, Joe played up his ties with Francis Cardinal Spellman of New York, and with the nation’s most prominent Irish Republican, Senator (The only other Catholic was [[Joe McCarthyJim Farley]], even encouraging the bachelor senator to date his daughtersPostmaster General. )
==Ambassador==Kennedy reached the pinnacle of esteem as Ambassador to the Court of St. James (ambassador to Britain) in 1938-40, cruising elegantly in the highest circles of London society, in contrast to his maligned reputation in American high society. Daughter Kathleen Kennedy (1920–48), became Marchioness of Hartington when she married the heir to a dukedom; she died in a plane crash.  Kennedy came under heavy attack from the left, and especially from [[Jew]]s, because of his pro-business views and especially his isolationism and support for Prime Minister [[Neville Chamberlain]]’s [[appeasement]] of Germany. Roosevelt removed him in late 1940, but Kennedy nevertheless endorsed FDR in the critical 1940 election, helping to swing the powerful Catholic vote. Unlike [[Al Smith]] and other prominent Catholics, Joe refused to attack Roosevelt and thereby preserved presidential options for his sons. Joe was increasingly isolated after 1941, keeping his distance from the clubhouse Irish politicians who clustered around ex-mayor Honey Fitz, as well as the Yankee businessmen he thought had denied him entry into the most elite Harvard circles. ==Postwar==Joe's business enterprises flourished, and he established daughter Eunice Kennedy Schriver (1921-2009) in Chicago, where her husband [[Sargent Shriver]] (1915- ) operated the family’s giant office building, the Merchandise Mart. The Chicago ties paid off handsomely when Mayor [[Richard J. Daley]], boss of the city’s powerful Democratic machine, enthusiastically supported the Kennedys’ national political campaigns, especially the presidential campaign of [[John F. Kennedy]] in 1960. Realizing his leadership status as one of the half dozen most powerful Irishmen in America, Joe played up his ties with [[Francis Cardinal Spellman]] of New York, and with the nation's most prominent Irish Republican, Senator [[Joe McCarthy]], even encouraging the bachelor senator to date his daughters.  Joe supervised and funded JFK's campaign for Congress (1946-48-50), the Senate (1952-58), and the White House (1960). He suffered an incapacitating stroke in 1961 and could no longer speak; by the late 1960s his surviving sons Robert and [[Edward Kennedy]] (1932-2009) Ted were moving to the left.
==Bibliography==
* Michael R. Beschloss. ''Kennedy and Roosevelt: The Uneasy Alliance'' (1980)
* Thomas Maier, ''The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings'' (2003)
* Michael O’Brien. ''John F. Kennedy: A Biography'' (2005)
* Doris Kearns Goodwin. ''The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American Saga'' (1987)
 
===Primary sources===
* Amanda Smith, ed. ''Hostage of Fortune: The Letters of Joseph P. Kennedy'' (2001), the major primary source ====notesNotes====
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[[Category:New Deal]]
[[Category:Broke with FDR]]
[[Category:LiberalsKennedy Family]][[Category:Conservative Democrats]][[Category:Anti-Communism]]
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