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Mao Zedong

2,304 bytes added, 05:57, 3 October 2019
| rank =Grand Marshal
| polbeliefs =Communism<br/>Maoism
| party =[[Communist Party of China]]
| dictatordate =October 1, 1949
| war =[[Chinese Civil War]]<br/>[[Great Leap Forward]]<br/>[[Cultural Revolution]]
| deathnumber =40,000,000 to 80,000,000 est. Rummel: 77,000,000
}}
'''Mao Zedong''', (December 26, 1893-September 9, 1976) , also known as '''Mao Tse-tung''', was the leader of Chinese Communism and a ruthless [[Atheism|atheist]] dictator after he came to power in 1949. While not the founder, he was an early member of the [[Chinese Communist Party]] in 1921. In 1935, Mao was elected to the Executive Committee of the [[Comintern]] in Moscow and remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. Mao is regarded as perhaps the most prolific [[mass murder]]er in human history, not even counting the inummerable unborn female fetuses whom he [[abortion|callously slaughtered]].<ref>[http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/20TH.HTM"20th Century Democide"] . ''hawaii.edu''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref>
==Soviet national liberation movement==
[[Edgar Snow]], an admirer of the Chinese communists, introduced Mao and [[Zhou Enlai]] to American readers in 1937 in his book, ''Red Star Over China'', shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]'s rout by [[Chiang Kai-shek]] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[Yenan]] known as the [[Long March]]. Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the [[Communist International]], which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of [[Soviet Russia]], under the leadership of [[Stalin]]."<ref>''Red Star Over China'' by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.</ref> In 1957, in ominous foreshadowing of his true callous nature, Mao Zedong boasted in his "American Imperialism is a Paper Tiger" speech regarding the prospect of China entering [[nuclear war]] that:
[[Edgar Snow]] introduced Mao and [[Zhou Enlai]] to American readers {{Quote|I’m not afraid of nuclear war. There are 2.7 billion people in 1937 in his book, ''Red Star Over China'', shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]’s rout by [[Chiang Kai-shek]] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[Yenan]] known as the [[Long March]]world; it doesn’t matter if some are killed. Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership China has a population of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, 600 million; even if not positive detailed direction, half of the [[Communist International]]them are killed, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Partythere are still 300 million people left." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements I’m not afraid of [[Soviet Russia]], under the leadership of [[Stalin]]anyone."<ref>Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937|Mao Zedong|https://www.<theepochtimes.com/ref>maos-nuclear-mass-extinction-speech-aired-on-chinese-tv_4758.html}}
==Subversion== Mao defeated [[Chiang Kai-shek]]'s Nationalists, taking control of the Chinese mainland and establishing the so-called People's Republic of China.
==Three Years of Disasters==
 As the leader of China, Mao initiated the [[Great Leap Forward]], an economic plan intended to rapidly industrialize China's then largely rural economy.  Floods and drought brought about the "three bitter years" of 1959-62. In 1963 the Chinese press declared the famine of 1961-1962 the most sever since 1879. As a result the Chinese government imported over 25 million tons of grain from Canada and Australia This led to help relieve the suffering caused by the an unprecedented famine. The amount of grain imported, however, One cause was limited by the U.S. embargo.  A Leading scholar in post-World War II Chinese scholarshiphis 'Four Pests' campaign, Maurice Meisnerwhich listed [[rats]], has noted that the alleged 20 to 30 million deaths attributed to the Great Famine that occurred in the late 1950s a gross miscalculation. Wim F Werthheim[[flies]], emeritus professor from the University of Amsterdam states,  "But the figure amounting to tens of millions ... [lacks[mosquitoes]] any historical basis. Often it is argued that at the censuses of the 1960s "between 17 and 29 millions of Chinese" appeared to be missing, in comparison with the official census figures from the 1950s. But these calculations are lacking any semblance of reliability. At my first visit to China, in August 1957, I had asked to get the opportunity to meet two outstanding Chinese social scientists: Fei Xiao-tung, the sociologist, and Chen Ta, the demographer[[sparrows]]. I could not meet either of them, because they were both seriously criticized at that time as rightists; but I was allowed a visit by Pang Zenian, a Marxist philosopher who knew about Because killing the problems of both scholars. Chen Ta was criticized because he had attacked the pretended 1953 census. In the past he had organized censuses, and he could not believe that suddenly, within a rather short period, the total population of China had risen from 450 [million] sparrows encouraged insects to 600 milliontake out more crops, as had been officially claimed by the Chinese authorities after the 1953 census. He would have [liked] to organize a scientifically wellornithologist Tso-founded census himself, instead of an assessment largely based on regional random samples as had happened in 1953. According hsin Cheng asked him to him, the method followed in that year was unscientificstop."
==Cultural Revolution==
{{language box|c=毛泽东|p=Máo Zédōng|w=Mao Tse-tung}}[[Image:Little red book.jpg|left|200px|thumb|During the so-called [[Cultural Revolution|"Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution"]], it was required for every Chinese citizen to own, read, and carry at all times ''Quotations from Chairman Mao'', also known as "the little red book".]]
In 1966, Mao instigated the [[Cultural Revolution]], in which those disloyal to the Chairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control.
==Mass Murder==
According to the ''Washington Post '' (7/14/94):
<blockquote>
While most scholars are reluctant to estimate a total number of “unnatural deaths” "unnatural deaths" in China under Mao, evidence shows he was in some way responsible for at least 40 million deaths and perhaps 80 million or more. This includes deaths he was directly responsible for and deaths resulting from disastrous policies he refused to change.
</blockquote>
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— An article appearing last year in the Shanghai University journal Society stated that at least 40 million died from 1959 to 1961. Previous estimates have ranged from 10 million to 30 million. The article noted a mistake in government population statistics for 1960 that led to an underestimation of “unnatural "unnatural deaths." Authorities later banned this issue of the journal and withdrew it from circulation.
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<blockquote>
— Chen Yizi of Princeton University’s Center for Modern China did research for years in China, first as a student and then as a government official, and determined that 43 million had died in the famine, a figure recently matched by a report from a think tank in Shanghai. According to Chen, this made the total number of Chinese who died as a result of Mao’s policies 80 million.<ref>[http://www.paulbogdanor.com/left/china/deaths1.html"Uncounted Millions"]. ''paulbogdanor.com''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref>
</blockquote>
This confirms the accuracy of democide analyst R.J. Rummel's research on China. Taking every available estimate of Chinese democide by category and time period; averaging them out and adding them together; repeating the process several times; doing the same with other Communist states and comparing the results; Rummel estimated 77,000,000 Chinese were killed by Mao Tse-Tung, assuming 38 million famine-dead from 1959-61.<ref>[http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/20TH.HTM"20th Century Democide"]. ''hawaii.edu''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref>Mao was responsible for more deaths than [[Joseph Stalin|Stalin]], [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler]], [[Pol Pot]], [[Nicolae Ceausescu|Ceausescu]], and [[Tito]] ''combined''. Despite this massive body count, Mao remains an icon for certain segments of the far-left. For example, his likeness and books are often seen at [[Occupy Wall Street]] events.
==Little Red Book==[[Deng Xiaoping]] claimed the death toll of the famine to be 16 million, while the lowest estimate is less than 10 million <ref>Mao: The Real Story by Alexander P. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine, pg. 472</ref>
==Little Red Book==
Mao is the author of ''[[Quotations from Chairman Mao]],'' published in 1966, informally known as "the little red book." During his lifetime, almost everyone in the [[People's Republic of China]] was expected to have a copy. One of his most well known statements was that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".
In their book ''Mao: The Unknown Story'', authors Jung Chang and Jon Halliday state that in his first five years of power, 700,000 were claimed by Mao to be dead, but another 700,000 died in local excesses and 700,000 committed suicide out of fear of Mao. During the Great Leap Forward, Mao deliberately killed peasants by shipping food to the USSR and Eastern Europe in exchange for aid in building arms plants. As well, Mao's plans for peasants to make steel and build canals meant that in 1959-60 nobody grew any food. Thus, the worst famine in history occurred. Huge numbers were killed by puppets of Mao in the Cultural Revolution, which actually was launched to get rid of Mao's rivals in the Chinese Communist Party.
Name: (Despite killing far more people than Stalin and Hitler combined, Mao Zedong has often been held in high-regard by various leftists, with French Existential philosopher [[Traditional ChineseJean-Paul Sartre]]claiming his revolution was "profoundly moral", and French feminist [[Simone de Beauvoir]] claiming that his actions were little different from [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt]]'s policies in an approving tone.<ref>https: 毛澤東; //www.christianpost.com/news/chairman-mao-s-reign-of-terror-151-finally-the-truth-comes-out-6475/</ref> Infamously, his image has even been used, similar to another leftist icon [[Simplified Che Guevara]], in various merchandising, including a restaurant in Hollywood called "Mao's Kitchen." Kai Chen, a Chinesebasketball player who fled China, has stated that the promotion of Mao was tasteless, stating it's like someone deciding to open a restaurant called [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler's Kitchen]].<ref>https: 毛泽东; //www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPl9Go3hHDI</ref> == Mao Zedong and Traditional Chinese medicine == ''See also:'' [[Hanyu PinyinAtheism and medicine]]: Máo Zédōng; and [[Wade-GilesAtheism and health]] The efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is poorly researched and supported.<ref>Shang, A.; Huwiler, K.; Nartey, L.; Jüni, P.; Egger, M. (2007). "Placebo-controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine and conventional medicine comparative study". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (5): 1086–92. doi:10.1093/ije/dym119. PMID 17602184.</ref> Mao Tse-tungZedong revived and heavily promoted [[Traditional Chinese medicine]] (TCM)in China. He didn't believe in it himself, but pushed it as a cheap alternative to real medicine.<ref>[https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2018/10/01/who-endorses-tcm-expect-deaths-to-rise/#1f0c61f16418 WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise] by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine</ref> China has been aggressively promoting TCM on the international stage both for expanding its global influence and for profit.<ref>[https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2018/10/01/who-endorses-tcm-expect-deaths-to-rise/#1f0c61f16418 WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise] by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine</ref> ==See also==* [[Darwin-Stalin connection]]* [[List of dictators]]* [[Friendly dictator]]* [[Dictatorship of the proletariat]]* [[List of Communist States]]* [[List of Socialist States]]* [[Death toll of communism]]* [[Far Left]]* [[Cult of personality]]*[[Long march through the institutions]]* [[Mobocracy]], [[Social Effects of the Theory of Evolution]] ==References=={{reflist|2}}
==Further reading==
* Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. ''Mao: The Unknown Story,'' (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
* Clark, Paul. ''The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History'' (2008), a favorable look at artistic production [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Chinese-Cultural-Revolution-History/dp/0521875153/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1214281188&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]* Dietrich, Craig. ''People's China: A Brief History,'' 3d ed. (1997), 398pp [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Peoples-China-History-Craig-Dietrich/dp/0195106288/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197238522&sr=8-2 excerpt and text search]* Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. ''The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History.'' (2006). 382 pp. [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Cultural-Revolution-Shorenstein-Asia-Pacific-Research/dp/0804753504/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197221379&sr=1-1 excerpt and text search]* Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. ''China: A New History.'' (2nd ed. 2006). 640 pp. [httphttps://www.amazon.com/China-New-History-Second-Enlarged/dp/0674018281/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197346975&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]* Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. ''The Rise of Modern China,'' 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Rise-Modern-China-Immanuel-Hsu/dp/0195125045/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197238178&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]
* Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. ''Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.'' (2006). 433 pp.
* MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. ''The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982.'' (1992). 1108 pp.
* MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. ''Mao's Last Revolution.'' (2006).
* MacFarquhar, Roderick. ''The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961-1966.'' (1998). 733 pp.
* Meisner, Maurice. ''Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic,'' 3rd ed. (1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Maos-China-After-History-Republic/dp/0684856352/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197238473&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]
* Schoppa, R. Keith. ''The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History.'' Columbia U. Press, 2000. 356 pp. [http://www.questia.com/library/book/the-columbia-guide-to-modern-chinese-history-by-r-keith-schoppa.jsp online edition from [[Questia]]]
* Spence, Jonathan D. ''The Search for Modern China'' (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Search-Modern-China-Jonathan-Spence/dp/0393307808/ref=pd_sim_b_title_2 excerpt and text search]; [http://www.questia.com/read/98946348 complete edition online at [[Questia]]]* Spence, Jonatham. ''Mao Zedong'' (1999) [httphttps://www.amazon.com/Mao-Zedong-Penguin-Life-Lives/dp/0670886696/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1200477500&sr=1-1 excerpt and text search]
* Shuyun, Sun. ''The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth'' (2007)
* Taylor, Jay. ''The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China'' (2009), 722 pp. highly favorable scholarly biography of Mao's great enemy
* Wang, Ke-wen, ed. ''Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism.'' (1998). 442 pp.
* Xia, Yafeng. "The Study of Cold War International History in China: A Review of the Last Twenty Years," ''Journal of Cold War Studies''10#1 Winter 2008, pp. 81-115 &nbsp;81–115 in [[Project Muse]]
* Yan, Jiaqi and Gao, Gao. ''Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution.'' (1996). 736 pp.
* [http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/chinesehistory/pgp/index.html Studies of Modern Chinese History: Reviews and Historiographical Essays]
 
 
==References==
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Mao Zedong}}
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