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Akbar (1542-1605; reigned 1556-1605) was the third Mughal emperor. He succeeded his father Humayun at the age of thirteen, and achieved early success as a general, defeating threats to the empire from rival Moslem and Hindu states. Contrary to popular belief, Akbar was a cruel and barbaric ruler and had a victory tower constructed with the heads of Hemu Vikramaditya's Captured army after the Second Battle of Panipat. Later on, Akbar also slaughtered more than 30,000 Hindu peasants after the fall of Chitod in 1568.

He was succeeded by his son Jahangir.


  • The Great Moguls, by B.Gascoigne, Harper Row Publishers, New York, 1972, p.15
  • The Cambridge History of India, Vol IV, Mughal India, ed, Lt. Col. Sir W.Haig, Sir R.Burn, S.Chand & Co., Delhi, 1963, pp.71-73