Difference between revisions of "Alcoholic drink"

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[[Image:Margarita.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A margarita, a popular alcoholic drink]]
 
[[Image:Margarita.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A margarita, a popular alcoholic drink]]
An '''alcoholic drink''' is a beverage which contains [[ethanol]] (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH), which is an addictive [[psychoactive]] [[depressant]], although the initial effects may resemble that of a [[stimulant]]. Alcohol consumption tends to lower inhibition, slow reaction time and decrease [[dexterity]]. Over-consumption can result in loss of consciousness, coma, or even death. Alcohol has been found in society for thousands of years and in some cases was used in a medicinal capacity. Alcoholic drinks come in a multitude of varieties.
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An '''alcoholic drink''' is beer, wine or liquor, typically made from grain, potatoes or grapes. Forms of beer and wine have been fermented for thousands of years in many cultures; distillation to create a liquor was invented by Arabs around 800AD, and quickly spread to Europe and Asia.
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The drinking of alcoholic beverages is surrounded by many rituals--and since it produced fighting and violence, by criminal controls. Alcoholics become addicted and are useful targets for taxation.  The the 1840-1930 era, prohibition was a worldwide movement, especially led by evangelical Protestants, to stop the manufacture and sale of beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is highly illegal in most Islamic countries, and if considered a sin or forbidden in some Protestant denominations.
 +
 
 +
==Alcohol and its effects==
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Alcoholic beverages contains [[ethanol]] (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH), which is an addictive [[psychoactive]] [[depressant]], although the initial effects may resemble that of a [[stimulant]]. Alcohol consumption tends to lower inhibition, slow reaction time and decrease [[dexterity]]. Over-consumption can result in loss of consciousness, coma, or even death. Alcohol has been found in society for thousands of years and in some cases was used in a medicinal capacity. Alcoholic drinks come in a multitude of varieties.
  
 
== Beer ==
 
== Beer ==
 
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[[Beer]] is a drink produced through the fermentation of malted grains and the addition of hops.  Hops, which became popular in the 15th and 16th centuries, give beer its distinctive bitter taste and act as a natural preservative.  Preservation was essential before the invention of refrigeration in the late 19th century.  In most of the world, two large corporations--both based in Europe--dominate the market. Anheuser-Busch InBev (based in Belgium) has 25% of the global market. It bought out the American firm Anheuser-Busch in 2008. SABMiller, in London, bought out Miller's in 2002.  However there are several thousand locally owned "microbreweries" that serve local markets.
[[Beer]] is a drink produced through the fermentation of malted grains and the addition of hops.  Hops, which became popular in the 15th and 16th centuries, give beer its distinctive bitter taste and act as a natural preservative.  There are also many types of beers available, each with its own unique brewing method and history.  The most popular type of beer in America is the pilsner, noted for its light golden color due to the use of lightly roasted grains.  Gaining in popularity are other types of beer such as porters, lagers, wheat-beer, and ales.
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There are also many types of beers available, each with its own unique brewing method and history.  The most popular type of beer in America is the pilsner, noted for its light golden color due to the use of lightly roasted grains.  Gaining in popularity are other types of beer such as porters, lagers, wheat-beer, and ales.
  
 
Beer was discovered independently by many societies in the past<ref>[http://www.fosters.com.au/enjoy/beer/history_of_beer.htm History of Beer], ''Fosters Australia''</ref>.  In ancient [[Egypt]], beer was used to help provide the calories needed and keep the lower classes happy <ref>[http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/egypt_alcohol.html Ancient Egyptian Alcohol], ''thekeep.com''</ref>.  Within [[Christianity]], beer was often made by monks who used the heavy ales to ease hunger pains while fasting<ref>[http://www.eat-online.net/english/habits/beer_in_the_middle_ages.htm Beer in the Middle Ages], ''Eat Online''</ref>. In medieval Europe, beer was frequently the main drink taken by the people, as healthy and wholesome water supplies were not always easily available.
 
Beer was discovered independently by many societies in the past<ref>[http://www.fosters.com.au/enjoy/beer/history_of_beer.htm History of Beer], ''Fosters Australia''</ref>.  In ancient [[Egypt]], beer was used to help provide the calories needed and keep the lower classes happy <ref>[http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/egypt_alcohol.html Ancient Egyptian Alcohol], ''thekeep.com''</ref>.  Within [[Christianity]], beer was often made by monks who used the heavy ales to ease hunger pains while fasting<ref>[http://www.eat-online.net/english/habits/beer_in_the_middle_ages.htm Beer in the Middle Ages], ''Eat Online''</ref>. In medieval Europe, beer was frequently the main drink taken by the people, as healthy and wholesome water supplies were not always easily available.
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Wines, like beer, come in a variety of types with different bouquets and [[flavor]]s. In ancient times there were many gods of wine that were worshipped<ref>[http://www.wineintro.com/history/religion/index.html Wine, Religion, and Gods], ''Wineintro.com''</ref> (Bacchus, Dionysus, and Geshtin for example). As wine was part of the holy traditions in both Jewish and Christian customs it was important that this wine was not blessed for other gods (which would make it unclean). Kosher and sacramental wine was watched to be sure that it was properly handled and no idolatry was preformed with it<ref>[http://www.gemsinisrael.com/e_article000033155.htm What Makes a Wine Kosher?], ''Gems in Israel''</ref>. Some branches of Christianity believe that wine was transformed (and continues to be transformed) into the [[blood]] of [[Christ]] during [[communion]].
 
Wines, like beer, come in a variety of types with different bouquets and [[flavor]]s. In ancient times there were many gods of wine that were worshipped<ref>[http://www.wineintro.com/history/religion/index.html Wine, Religion, and Gods], ''Wineintro.com''</ref> (Bacchus, Dionysus, and Geshtin for example). As wine was part of the holy traditions in both Jewish and Christian customs it was important that this wine was not blessed for other gods (which would make it unclean). Kosher and sacramental wine was watched to be sure that it was properly handled and no idolatry was preformed with it<ref>[http://www.gemsinisrael.com/e_article000033155.htm What Makes a Wine Kosher?], ''Gems in Israel''</ref>. Some branches of Christianity believe that wine was transformed (and continues to be transformed) into the [[blood]] of [[Christ]] during [[communion]].
  
The [[Bible]] uses the Hebrew word "grape" to signify wine, making it unclear whether historical figures such as Jesus were drinking alcoholic wine or merely unfermented grape juice.  However, most Biblical scholars conclude the latter, as the idea that Jesus would provide alcoholic beverages to a wedding party is not consistent with his character and moral standpoint; that is to say, Jesus was not known to [[sin]].<ref>http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3469/is_22_53/ai_87211760/</ref>
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The [[Bible]] uses the Hebrew word "grape" to signify wine, making it unclear whether historical figures such as Jesus were drinking alcoholic wine or merely unfermented grape juice.  ==Liquor==
 
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==Liquor==
+
  
 
Liquor is derived from fermented grains or other plants with a high starch content, that are then [[distillation|distilled]] to increase the alcohol content.  Liquors such as [[rum]], [[tequila]] and [[vodka]] are derived from molasses, [[agave]] and grain or potatoes respectively.  Some liquors are aged for years to improve flavor.
 
Liquor is derived from fermented grains or other plants with a high starch content, that are then [[distillation|distilled]] to increase the alcohol content.  Liquors such as [[rum]], [[tequila]] and [[vodka]] are derived from molasses, [[agave]] and grain or potatoes respectively.  Some liquors are aged for years to improve flavor.
 
== Biblical References ==
 
 
The [[Bible]] speaks of consumption, or over-consumption, multiple times.
 
 
:According to Proverbs 31:6-7 the Bible recommends giving alcohol to those who are dying or [[Depression|depressed]], so that they can forget their misery, although in nearly all other places drinking is heavily discouraged.
 
 
It is written:
 
 
:''"Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God?  Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor [[Thievery|thieves]], nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of [[God]]"'' <ref>''1 Corinthians 6:9-10''</ref>
 
 
And similarly:
 
 
:''"Now the works of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, moral impurity, promiscuity, idolatry, sorcery, hatreds, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish ambitions, dissensions, factions, envy, drunkenness, carousing, and anything similar, about which I tell you in advance—as I told you before—that those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God"'' <ref>''Galatians 5:19-21''</ref>
 
 
The Bible is not clear in these point whether Heaven would be closed to all who became drunk, or only those who drank regularly. However, further Biblical evidence points to the sinful nature of the demon drink:
 
 
:''"The Lord instructed Moses: '…When a man or woman makes a special vow, a Nazirite vow, to consecrate himself to the Lord, he is to abstain from wine and beer… He is not to eat anything produced by the grapevine, from seeds to skin, during his vow'"'' <ref>''Numbers 6:1-4''</ref>
 
 
:''"Daniel determined that he would not defile himself with the king’s food or with the wine he drank. So he asked permission from the chief official not to defile himself"'' <ref>''Daniel 1:8''</ref>
 
 
:''"But the angel said to him: Do not be afraid, Zechariah, because your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will name him John. There will be joy and delight for you, and many will rejoice at his birth. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord and will never drink wine or beer. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit while still in his mother’s womb" <ref>''Luke 1:13-15''</ref>
 
 
Noah, singled out by God as a just man ("But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD. These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God." Genesis 6: 8-9) still indulged in strong drink.
 
 
:''"And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." <ref>''Genesis 9:20-21''</ref>
 
 
Most biblical scholars agree that occasional wine is not spiritually harmful, but drunkenness, and certainly regular drunkenness, constitutes [[sin]]; as it takes you out of your normal state of mind and alters your [[will]] and ability to make good decisions.  Not to mention the potentially serious physical ramifications of alcoholism which include liver disease as well as an increased risk of heart disease (but not when consumed in moderation).
 
 
Jesus himself was not opposed to the consumption of wine- one of the first miracles recorded in the [[Gospel of John]] has him turn water into wine at a wedding feast (John 2). It can be assumed that the guests had already been drinking immoderately, since they had consumed all the alcohol available to them. Matthew 11:19 also refers to Jesus being called a 'glutton and a drunkard', possibly unfairly. Some biblical scholars argue that the alcohol content of wine in that day was negligible compared to the wine of today.<ref>http://www.streetdirectory.com/restaurants/articles/67/wine/the_wine_of_israel_and_wine_in_biblical_times.html</ref>
 
 
  
 
In 1 Timothy 5:23 Paul counsels:
 
In 1 Timothy 5:23 Paul counsels:
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:''"Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities."
 
:''"Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities."
  
== Alcohol and Mormons ==
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== Dry churches==
Members of the [[Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]] (Mormons) follow a law of health known as the [[Word of Wisdom]] which includes abstaining from alcoholic drinks.
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In the 1840-1940 era, many Protestant evangelical churches crusaded against alcohol and supported [[Prohibition]]. A few denominations continue their 19th century prohibitions against drinking, such as the [[Seventh Day Adventist Church]]. Mormons follow a law of health known as the [[Word of Wisdom]] which includes abstaining from alcoholic drinks.
  
 
== Alcohol and Islam ==
 
== Alcohol and Islam ==
 
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Islam intolerant of alcohol, as evidenced by the following verse:
Islam is less ambiguous regarding its intolerance for alcohol, as evidenced by the following verse:
+
  
 
"O you who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed." (Koran 5(Al Ma'idah): 90).
 
"O you who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed." (Koran 5(Al Ma'idah): 90).
  
Consumption of alcohol is banned in several countries including Iran and Saudi Arabia, in similar fashion to [[dry county|"dry" counties]] in the United States. However, penalties for infractions are more stringent and in conformity with conservative moral standards in Islamic states. <ref>[http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/alcohol/alcohol_law.shtml Alcohol: Legal Status]</ref> <ref>[http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=32856 Alcohol consumption in Saudi Arabia]</ref>
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Consumption of alcohol is banned in several countries including Iran and Saudi Arabia. Penalties for infractions are stringent and in conformity with conservative moral standards in Islamic states. <ref>[http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/alcohol/alcohol_law.shtml Alcohol: Legal Status]</ref> <ref>[http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=32856 Alcohol consumption in Saudi Arabia]</ref>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 00:16, 14 January 2010

A margarita, a popular alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink is beer, wine or liquor, typically made from grain, potatoes or grapes. Forms of beer and wine have been fermented for thousands of years in many cultures; distillation to create a liquor was invented by Arabs around 800AD, and quickly spread to Europe and Asia.

The drinking of alcoholic beverages is surrounded by many rituals--and since it produced fighting and violence, by criminal controls. Alcoholics become addicted and are useful targets for taxation. The the 1840-1930 era, prohibition was a worldwide movement, especially led by evangelical Protestants, to stop the manufacture and sale of beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is highly illegal in most Islamic countries, and if considered a sin or forbidden in some Protestant denominations.

Alcohol and its effects

Alcoholic beverages contains ethanol (C2H5OH), which is an addictive psychoactive depressant, although the initial effects may resemble that of a stimulant. Alcohol consumption tends to lower inhibition, slow reaction time and decrease dexterity. Over-consumption can result in loss of consciousness, coma, or even death. Alcohol has been found in society for thousands of years and in some cases was used in a medicinal capacity. Alcoholic drinks come in a multitude of varieties.

Beer

Beer is a drink produced through the fermentation of malted grains and the addition of hops. Hops, which became popular in the 15th and 16th centuries, give beer its distinctive bitter taste and act as a natural preservative. Preservation was essential before the invention of refrigeration in the late 19th century. In most of the world, two large corporations--both based in Europe--dominate the market. Anheuser-Busch InBev (based in Belgium) has 25% of the global market. It bought out the American firm Anheuser-Busch in 2008. SABMiller, in London, bought out Miller's in 2002. However there are several thousand locally owned "microbreweries" that serve local markets. There are also many types of beers available, each with its own unique brewing method and history. The most popular type of beer in America is the pilsner, noted for its light golden color due to the use of lightly roasted grains. Gaining in popularity are other types of beer such as porters, lagers, wheat-beer, and ales.

Beer was discovered independently by many societies in the past[1]. In ancient Egypt, beer was used to help provide the calories needed and keep the lower classes happy [2]. Within Christianity, beer was often made by monks who used the heavy ales to ease hunger pains while fasting[3]. In medieval Europe, beer was frequently the main drink taken by the people, as healthy and wholesome water supplies were not always easily available.

Wine

Wine is usually made by the fermentation of grapes, but can be made using other fruits, or other parts of plants. Wines, like beer, come in a variety of types with different bouquets and flavors. In ancient times there were many gods of wine that were worshipped[4] (Bacchus, Dionysus, and Geshtin for example). As wine was part of the holy traditions in both Jewish and Christian customs it was important that this wine was not blessed for other gods (which would make it unclean). Kosher and sacramental wine was watched to be sure that it was properly handled and no idolatry was preformed with it[5]. Some branches of Christianity believe that wine was transformed (and continues to be transformed) into the blood of Christ during communion.

The Bible uses the Hebrew word "grape" to signify wine, making it unclear whether historical figures such as Jesus were drinking alcoholic wine or merely unfermented grape juice. ==Liquor==

Liquor is derived from fermented grains or other plants with a high starch content, that are then distilled to increase the alcohol content. Liquors such as rum, tequila and vodka are derived from molasses, agave and grain or potatoes respectively. Some liquors are aged for years to improve flavor.

In 1 Timothy 5:23 Paul counsels:

"Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities."

Dry churches

In the 1840-1940 era, many Protestant evangelical churches crusaded against alcohol and supported Prohibition. A few denominations continue their 19th century prohibitions against drinking, such as the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Mormons follow a law of health known as the Word of Wisdom which includes abstaining from alcoholic drinks.

Alcohol and Islam

Islam intolerant of alcohol, as evidenced by the following verse:

"O you who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed." (Koran 5(Al Ma'idah): 90).

Consumption of alcohol is banned in several countries including Iran and Saudi Arabia. Penalties for infractions are stringent and in conformity with conservative moral standards in Islamic states. [6] [7]

See also

Further reading

  • Downard, William L. Dictionary of the History of the American Brewing and Distilling Industries. (1980). 268 pp.
  • McGovern, Patrick E. Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer, and Other Alcoholic Beverages (2009)

References

  1. History of Beer, Fosters Australia
  2. Ancient Egyptian Alcohol, thekeep.com
  3. Beer in the Middle Ages, Eat Online
  4. Wine, Religion, and Gods, Wineintro.com
  5. What Makes a Wine Kosher?, Gems in Israel
  6. Alcohol: Legal Status
  7. Alcohol consumption in Saudi Arabia