Difference between revisions of "American Indian"

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'''American Indians''' are the descendants of the inhabitants of [[North America|North]] and [[South America]] before the coming of [[Europe]]ans in 1492.  
 
'''American Indians''' are the descendants of the inhabitants of [[North America|North]] and [[South America]] before the coming of [[Europe]]ans in 1492.  
 
They are believed to have descended from [[Asia|Asians]] who crossed the [[Bering Strait|Bering Straitland bridge]] during the last [[Ice Age]].  According to archaeologists, this took place as early as 20,000 years ago.<ref name="who">TIME - Who Were The First Americans?, By MICHAEL D. LEMONICK, ANDREA DORFMAN, Sunday, Mar. 05, 2006  [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1169905,00.html]</ref>
 
 
Those who are only partly descended from those early inhabitants are still considered American Indians if they maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. However, each Indian tribe or band has its own definitions regarding membership, some based on historical tradition, others based on rules (like blood quanta) imposed by the US Government.
 
  
 
A few American Indians prefer to be called [[Native American]]s in order to distinguish themselves from the people of [[India]], and to emphasize their North America ancestry.
 
A few American Indians prefer to be called [[Native American]]s in order to distinguish themselves from the people of [[India]], and to emphasize their North America ancestry.
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== Origins ==
 
== Origins ==
  
The much-taught theory that American Indians are descendants of migrants from Asia is almost certainly false.  Their blood types and other characteristics are very different.
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The widely taught theory that American Indians are descendants of migrants from [[Asia]], who crossed the [[Bering Strait|Bering Straitland bridge]] during an [[Ice Age]], is almost certainly false.  [[Liberal]] archaeologists long insisted that this took place as early as 20,000 years ago.<ref name="who">TIME - Who Were The First Americans?, By MICHAEL D. LEMONICK, ANDREA DORFMAN, Sunday, Mar. 05, 2006  [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1169905,00.html]</ref>  But the facts are that American Indians have very different characteristics from Asians, ranging from blood types to DNA, making claims of such ancestry virtually absurd.
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People today who are only partly descended from those early American Indians are still considered to be American Indians if they maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. However, each Indian tribe or band has its own definitions regarding membership, some based on historical tradition, others based on rules (like blood quanta) imposed by the US Government.
  
 
In 1996 there was a discovery of fragments of a skeleton called the [[Kennewick Man]].  But serious doubts about the authenticity of these remains have resulted in litigation and criticism.  Some claimed that [[radiocarbon dating]] supported an age of more than 9000 years.<ref>http://www.infoplease.com/biography/var/kennewickman.html</ref>  The morphology of the Kennewick Man remains is said to differ from that of present day Native Americans, suggesting a different ancestry<ref>http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/kennewick.html</ref> but there remains significant controversy about that.<ref name="who" />
 
In 1996 there was a discovery of fragments of a skeleton called the [[Kennewick Man]].  But serious doubts about the authenticity of these remains have resulted in litigation and criticism.  Some claimed that [[radiocarbon dating]] supported an age of more than 9000 years.<ref>http://www.infoplease.com/biography/var/kennewickman.html</ref>  The morphology of the Kennewick Man remains is said to differ from that of present day Native Americans, suggesting a different ancestry<ref>http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/kennewick.html</ref> but there remains significant controversy about that.<ref name="who" />

Revision as of 09:14, 16 January 2009

American Indians are the descendants of the inhabitants of North and South America before the coming of Europeans in 1492.

A few American Indians prefer to be called Native Americans in order to distinguish themselves from the people of India, and to emphasize their North America ancestry.

During the American Civil War, many Indian tribes supported the Confederacy, on the grounds that they were against the U.S. government and due to the fact that many among the so called "civilized tribes" such as the Cherokee also owned African slaves.[1]

Sovereignties

In the United States there are 562 Native American tribes that retain their independent sovereignties.

Origins

The widely taught theory that American Indians are descendants of migrants from Asia, who crossed the Bering Straitland bridge during an Ice Age, is almost certainly false. Liberal archaeologists long insisted that this took place as early as 20,000 years ago.[2] But the facts are that American Indians have very different characteristics from Asians, ranging from blood types to DNA, making claims of such ancestry virtually absurd.

People today who are only partly descended from those early American Indians are still considered to be American Indians if they maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. However, each Indian tribe or band has its own definitions regarding membership, some based on historical tradition, others based on rules (like blood quanta) imposed by the US Government.

In 1996 there was a discovery of fragments of a skeleton called the Kennewick Man. But serious doubts about the authenticity of these remains have resulted in litigation and criticism. Some claimed that radiocarbon dating supported an age of more than 9000 years.[3] The morphology of the Kennewick Man remains is said to differ from that of present day Native Americans, suggesting a different ancestry[4] but there remains significant controversy about that.[2]

References

  1. Descendants Of Freedmen Of The Five Civilized Tribes - History[1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 TIME - Who Were The First Americans?, By MICHAEL D. LEMONICK, ANDREA DORFMAN, Sunday, Mar. 05, 2006 [2]
  3. http://www.infoplease.com/biography/var/kennewickman.html
  4. http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/kennewick.html

See Also