Difference between revisions of "Antoine Lavoisier"

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'''Antoine Laurent Lavoisier''' was one of the key founders of modern [[chemistry]].<ref name="a">{{Nuttall|Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent}}</ref> He was born in [[Paris]] in 1742.<ref name="a"/> To pursue his research he accepted the post of farmer-general in 1769, introduced in 1776 improvements in manufacturing gunpowder, discovered the composition of the air and the nature of [[oxygen]], applied the principles of chemistry to agriculture, and indicated the presence and action of these principles in various other domains of scientific inquiry; called to account for his actions as farmer-general, one in particular “putting water in the tobacco,” and condemned to the [[guillotine]]; he in vain begged for a fortnight's respite to finish some experiments, “the axe must do its work”<ref name="a"/> He died in 1794.<ref name="a"/>
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'''Antoine Laurent Lavoisier''' (1743-1794), French scientist and [[philosophe]] (intellectual) who was a key founder of modern [[chemistry]]. A theorist and systematizer, he discovered no new chemicals. His great achievement was to synthesized chemical knowledge and laboratory methods in his revolutionary textbook ''Elements of Chemistry'' (1789). It swept the scientific world by basing chemistry on the modern concept of chemical elements and made extensive use of the concept of the conservation of mass in chemical reactions.  Formerly, chemistry was poorly understood, focused on three or four elements, and utilized false ideas such as negative mass.
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==Career==
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He was born in Paris in 1742. To pursue his research he accepted the post of farmer-general in 1769, introduced in 1776 improvements in manufacturing gunpowder, discovered the composition of the air and the nature of [[oxygen]], applied the principles of chemistry to agriculture, and indicated the presence and action of these principles in various other domains of scientific inquiry.
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Lavoisier demonstrated experimentally that oxygen is involved in combustion, rusting, and respiration, thereby disproving the "phlogiston theory." He invented the basic notation like H<sub>2</sub>O that have been used ever since.
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==Executed==
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Long interested in public affairs, during the  [[French Revolution]] he  studied French finances and agriculture; drafted a scheme for reforming the educational system; and helped establish the metric system. 
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Lavoisier was a moderate constitutionalist who came under heavy attack from the far left, such as Jean Paul Marat. His work with the unpopular Ferme Generale led to his trial during the [[Reign of Terror]]. Called to account for his actions as farmer-general, one in particular “putting water in the tobacco,” and condemned to the [[guillotine]]; he in vain begged for a fortnight's respite to finish some experiments.
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==Further reading==
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* Donovan, Arthur. ''Antoine Lavoisier: science, administration, and revolution‎'' (1996) 351 pages
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* French, Sidney J. ''Torch & Crucible: The Life and Death of Antoine Lavoisier'' (1941) [http://www.questia.com/read/1104528?title=Torch%20%26%20Crucible%3a%20The%20Life%20and%20Death%20of%20Antoine%20Lavoisier online edition].
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==References==
 
==References==
{{Reflist}}
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<references/>
 
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Lavoisier, Antoine}}
  
[[Category:French People]]
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[[Category:French Revolution]]
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[[Category:Enlightenment]]
 
[[Category:Chemists]]
 
[[Category:Chemists]]

Revision as of 20:46, 15 January 2010

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French scientist and philosophe (intellectual) who was a key founder of modern chemistry. A theorist and systematizer, he discovered no new chemicals. His great achievement was to synthesized chemical knowledge and laboratory methods in his revolutionary textbook Elements of Chemistry (1789). It swept the scientific world by basing chemistry on the modern concept of chemical elements and made extensive use of the concept of the conservation of mass in chemical reactions. Formerly, chemistry was poorly understood, focused on three or four elements, and utilized false ideas such as negative mass.

Career

He was born in Paris in 1742. To pursue his research he accepted the post of farmer-general in 1769, introduced in 1776 improvements in manufacturing gunpowder, discovered the composition of the air and the nature of oxygen, applied the principles of chemistry to agriculture, and indicated the presence and action of these principles in various other domains of scientific inquiry.

Lavoisier demonstrated experimentally that oxygen is involved in combustion, rusting, and respiration, thereby disproving the "phlogiston theory." He invented the basic notation like H2O that have been used ever since.

Executed

Long interested in public affairs, during the French Revolution he studied French finances and agriculture; drafted a scheme for reforming the educational system; and helped establish the metric system.

Lavoisier was a moderate constitutionalist who came under heavy attack from the far left, such as Jean Paul Marat. His work with the unpopular Ferme Generale led to his trial during the Reign of Terror. Called to account for his actions as farmer-general, one in particular “putting water in the tobacco,” and condemned to the guillotine; he in vain begged for a fortnight's respite to finish some experiments.

Further reading

  • Donovan, Arthur. Antoine Lavoisier: science, administration, and revolution‎ (1996) 351 pages
  • French, Sidney J. Torch & Crucible: The Life and Death of Antoine Lavoisier (1941) online edition.


References