|Nickname||The Grand Canyon State|
|Governor||Doug Ducey, R|
|Senator||Kyrsten Sinema, D |
|Senator||Martha McSally, R |
|Ratification of Constitution/or statehood||February 14, 1912|
|Motto: "Ditat Deus"(God Enriches)|
Arizona on February 14, 1912 became the forty-eighth state to enter the union, and the last of the "lower 48" (contiguous) states to enter. It is known as the Grand Canyon State. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix.
Arizona has always been politically conservative, but until 1952 the conservative Democrats were in control. Thanks to Barry Goldwater, Republicans built a strong base and controlled the electoral vote. In recent years, the state has gained population rapidly and the two parties are evenly matched.
The growth engine of large scale immigration from California and Mexico, and housing construction collapsed with the Recession of 2008, and the economy is struggling.
The state Constitution of Arizona, like all of the other 50 states, acknowledges God or our Creator or the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe. It says:
- We the people of the State of Arizona, grateful to Almighty God for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution.
Geography & Population
- The state is bordered by the following states: California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico (the latter three meet at a single point known as the "Four Corners", the only place where four states meet; the site is a popular tourist attraction which allows people to photograph themselves physically in four states), as well as Mexico.
- Total Land Area: 113,635 square miles
- Highest Elevation: 12,633 ft (Humphreys Peak)
- Population (in 2005): 5,939,292
- Most populated cities in Arizona:
- Phoenix, Population: 1,321,045
- Tucson, Population: 486,699
- Mesa, Population: 396,375
- Glendale, Population: 218,812
- Scottsdale, Population: 202,705 
In more recent years, the Republican Party has generally dominated Arizona politics and the state legislature. In 2004, President George W. Bush won the state's ten electoral votes by a margin of 10 percentage points with 55% of the vote, and in 2008 John McCain won the state with 54% of the vote. Republicans control both chambers of the state legislature. Their two United States Senators are Republican and no Democrat holds statewide office. This was until 2018 when the voters elected Democrat Kyrsten Sinema over Martha McSally. However, Arizona became the first U.S. state to vote against an anti-gay marriage amendment in the 2006 midterm elections. Although gay marriage is still illegal in Arizona, this amendment would have abolished civil unions and domestic partnerships for homosexual couples. Arizona has consistently been a red state in presidential elections since 1952, except in 1996 when Bill Clinton won the state. Excepting Clinton, the last Democrat to win Arizona in a presidential election was Harry Truman in 1948.
- Barry Goldwater (Conservative leader), GOP presidential nominee in 1964
- John McCain (Republican leader), GOP presidential nominee in 2008
- Frank Lloyd Wright (Architect)
- Stewart Udall (former Congressman and Secretary of the Interior)
- Erma Bombeck (Writer)
- William Rehnquist (Supreme Court chief justice)
- Sandra Day O'Connor (Supreme Court justice)
- James Rhodes (Republican leader in Congress)
- Senator Kyrsten Sinema (D)
- Senator Martha McSally (R)
- Rep. Tom O'Halleran [D, AZ-1]
- Rep. Ann Kirpatrick [D, AZ-2]
- Rep. Raul Grijalva [D, AZ-3]
- Rep. Paul Gosar [R, AZ-4]
- Rep. Andy Biggs [R, AZ-5]
- Rep. David Schweikert [R, AZ-6]
- Rep. Ruben Gallego [D, AZ-7]
- Rep. Debbie Lesko [R, AZ-8]
- Rep. Greg Stanton [D, AZ-9]
- Governor Doug Ducey (R)
- Attorney General Mark Brnovich (R)
- Secretary of State Katie Hobbs (D)
- State Treasurer Kimberly Yee (R)