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Portrait of Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an early advocate of atheism in Europe.

Atheism, as defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and other philosophy reference works, is the denial of the existence of God.[1] Paul Edwards, who was a prominent atheist and editor of the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, defined an atheist as "a person who maintains that there is no God."[2]

Beginning in the latter portion of the 20th century and continuing beyond, many agnostics/atheists have argued that the definition of atheism should be defined as a lack of belief in God or gods.[2][3][4][5]

Atheism has been examined by many disciplines in terms of its effects on individuals and on societies and these effects will be covered shortly.

As far as individuals adopting an atheistic worldview, atheism has a number of causal factors and these will be elaborated on below.


Types of atheism

See also: Schools of atheist thought and Atheist factions

Diagoras of Melos was an ancient Greek atheist, poet and Sophist of the 5th century BC. See: History of atheism

The history of atheism can be dated to as early as the 5th century B.C. Diagoras of Melos was a 5th century B.C. Greek atheist, poet and Sophist. Since this time, there have been many schools of atheist thought that have developed.

Atheism and why do atheists state they disbelieve?

See also: Weak atheism and Strong atheism

Atheists claim there are two main reasons for their denial of the existence of God and/or disbelief in God: the conviction that there is positive evidence or argument that God does not exist (strong atheism, which is also sometimes called positive atheism), and their claim that theists bear the burden of proof to show that God exists, that they have failed to do so, and that belief is therefore unwarranted (weak atheism).

As alluded to above, theists and others have posited a number of causes of atheism and this matter will be further addressed in this article.

Attempts to broaden the definition of atheism

In 1876, Charles Bradlaugh proposed that atheism does not assert "there is no God," and by doing so he endeavored to dilute the traditional definition of atheism.[3][6] As noted above, in the latter portion of the 20th century, the proposition that the definition of atheism be defined as a mere lack of belief in God or gods began to be commonly advanced by agnostics/atheists.[3][7] It is now common for atheists/agnostics and theists to debate the meaning of the word atheism.[3][8]

Critics of a broader definition of atheism to be a mere lack of belief often point out that such a definition is contrary to the traditional/historical meaning of the word and that such a definition makes atheism indistinguishable from agnosticism.[2][3][9]

For more information, please see:

Some common types of atheism

Below are a few common ways that atheism manifests itself:

1. Militant atheism, which continues to suppress and oppress religious believers today.

Topics related to militant atheism:

2. Philosophical atheism - Atheist philosophers assert that God does not exist. (See also: Naturalism and Materialism)

Secular humanism is a philosophy which holds that human beings are the most important figures, and that social problems are best solved without the involvement of religious doctrine.

The philosophy of postmodernism is atheistic (see: Atheism and postmodernism).

3. Atheistic Buddhism (some schools of Buddhism are theistic)

4. Practical atheism: atheism of the life - that is, living as though God does not exist.[10]

5. Other schools of atheist thought: Schools of atheist thought

Atheist factions

See also: Atheist factions and Atheist organizations

Richard Dawkins
Richard Dawkins was a central figure in the Elevatorgate controversy.

In 2015, Dr. J. Gordon Melton said about the atheist movement (organized atheism) that atheism is not a movement which tends to create community, but in the last few years there has been some growth of organized atheism.[11] See also: Atheist factions and Atheist organizations

Jacques Rousseau wrote in the Daily Maverick: "Elevatorgate..has resulted in three weeks of infighting in the secular community. Some might observe that we indulge in these squabbles fairly frequently."[12] An ex-atheist wrote: "As an Atheist for 40 years, I noticed that there is not just a wide variety of Atheist positions, but there exists an actual battle between certain Atheist factions."[13]

Atheist infighting

See also: Atheist movement and Atheism and anger

Blair Scott served on the American Atheists board of directors.[14] Mr. Scott formerly served as a State Director for the American Atheists organization in the state of Alabama. On December 1, 2012, he quit his post as a director of outreach for the American Atheists due to infighting within the American atheist movement.[15]

Mr. Blair wrote:

I have spent the last week mulling over what I want to do at this point in the movement. I’m tired of the in-fighting: at every level. I am especially tired of allowing myself to get sucked into it and engaging in the very behavior that is[15]

The atheist Neil Carter wrote:

Friends of mine have noted lately how biting and critical the atheist community can be, not only toward outsiders, but even toward its own members. Has there ever been a subculture more prone to eating its own than this one? I really don’t know.[16]
See also: Antitheism and antisocial behavior

Eddie Tabash on atheist argumentativeness

See also: Atheism and social intelligence and Atheism and emotional intelligence

The American atheist activist Eddie Tabash said in a speech to the Michigan Atheists State Convention, "Since we are a bit of a cantankerous, opinionated lot...".[17]

Angry and bitter demeanor of militant atheists

See also: Atheism and anger and Atheism and unforgiveness

An angry atheist speaking to a woman with a Bible in her hand.

The Christian philosopher James S. Spiegel says that the path from Christianity to atheism among several of his friends involved moral slippage such as resentment or unforgiveness.[18] See: Atheism and unforgiveness

On January 1, 2011, CNN reported:

People unaffiliated with organized religion, atheists and agnostics also report anger toward God either in the past, or anger focused on a hypothetical image - that is, what they imagined God might be like - said lead study author Julie Exline, Case Western Reserve University psychologist.

In studies on college students, atheists and agnostics reported more anger at God during their lifetimes than believers.[19]

Various studies found that traumatic events in people's lives has a positive correlation with "emotional atheism".[20]

The atheist and lesbian Greta Christina told the journalist Chris Mooney on the Point of Inquiry podcast, "there isn't one emotion" that affects atheists "but anger is one of the emotions that many of us have ...[it] drives others to participate in the movement."[21]

Social science research indicates that anti-theists score the highest among atheists when it comes to personality traits such as narcissism, dogmatism, and anger.[22] Furthermore, they scored lowest when it comes to agreeableness and positive relations with others.[23]

For additional information, please see: Atheism and social intelligence and Atheism and emotional intelligence and Atheism and unforgiveness and Atheism and bitterness

Atheism and its retention rate in individuals

See also: Atheism and its retention rate in individuals and Desecularization and Atheism and apathy

In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household in the United States remain atheists as adults.[24] See: Atheism and its retention rate in individuals

In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.[24]

A 2012 study by the General Social Survey of the social science research organization NORC at the University of Chicago found that belief in God rises with age, even in atheistic nations.[25] The Pew Forum reports about American atheists: "Among self-identified atheists and agnostics, the median age is 34, and roughly four-in-ten adults in these categories are between the ages of 18 and 29."[26] See also: Atheism and immaturity.

In addition, in atheistic Communist China, Christianity is experiencing rapid growth (see: Growth of Christianity in China). Also, there was a collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union (see: Collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union).

See also:

Difficulty in participating in atheist community

See also: Atheism and loneliness and Atheism and apathy and Internet atheism and American atheists and church attendance

In comparison to many religious groups, which have many meetings in numerous places in a given day or week which are convenient to attend, atheist meetings are sparse. One of the causes of this situation is the apathy of many atheists (see: Atheism and apathy).

Jerry Coyne speaking at a 2013 atheist meeting entitled The Amazing Meeting (TAM). TAM is an annual meeting.

Atheist Francois Tremblay wrote about the difficulty of motivating atheists to engage in activities related to atheism: "One last problem that undermines any propagation of atheism is inspiration. Let's be honest here, "there is no god!" is not a very motivating call for most people." (see also: Atheism and inspiration).[27] The atheist Jerry Coyne said about atheist meetings/conferences, "But to me the speakers and talks have often seemed repetitive: the same crew of jet-set skeptics giving the same talks."[28]

In an essay entitled How the Atheist Movement Failed Me, an atheist woman noted that participation in the atheist community is often expensive due to the cost of attending atheist conferences and even local atheist meetings in restaurants and bars challenged her modest budget.[29] As a result of the challenges that atheists commonly have in terms of socializing in person, many atheists turn to the internet in terms of communicating with other atheists.[30] Often internet communication between atheists turns turns contentious (see: Atheist factions).

For more information, please see: Atheism and loneliness

Abandonment of atheism and communist regimes

Atheism and death

According to a study performed in the United States by researchers Wink and Scott, very religious people fear death the least.[31] See: Atheism and death

See also: Atheism and death and Atheist funerals and Atheism and Hell

Science Daily reported that Death anxiety increases atheists' unconscious belief in God.[32] In a Psychology Today article, Dr. Nathan A. Heflick reported similar results in other studies.[33] Under stress, the brain's processing works in a way that prefers unconscious thinking.[34]

A United States study and a Taiwanese study indicated that the irreligious fear death more than the very religious.[35]

Atheists and belief in life after death

See also: Atheism and life after death and Atheists and supernatural beliefs

A significant percentage of atheists believe in life after death (see: Atheism and life after death).[36]

For additional information, please see:

Atheism and Hell

See also: Atheism and Hell

The journalist and ex-atheist Peter Hitchens, who is the brother of the late atheist Christopher Hitchens, said upon seeing an art exhibit of Michelangelo's painting The Last Judgment he came to the realization that he might be judged which startled him.[37] This started a train of thought within Peter Hitchens that eventually led him to become a Christian.[37]

Claims about the conditionality and existence of atheism

See also: Atheists doubting the validity of atheism and There are no atheists in foxholes

Hannah More wrote: "[T]he mind, which knows not where to fly, flies to God. In agony, nature is no Atheist. The soul is drawn to God by a sort of natural impulse; not always, perhaps by an emotion of piety; but from a feeling conviction, that every other refuge is 'a refuge of lies'."[38]

There are no atheists in foxholes

See also: There are no atheists in foxholes and Atheists doubting the validity of atheism

Reverend William T. Cummings is famous for declaring There are no atheists in foxholes.[39]

Reverend William T. Cummings is famous for declaring "There are no atheists in foxholes."[40] Chaplain F. W. Lawson of the 302d Machine Gun Battalion, who was wounded twice in wartime, stated "I doubt if there is such a thing as an atheist. At least there isn't in a front line trench."[41]On the other hand, the news organization NBC featured a story in which atheist veterans claimed that there are atheists in foxholes.[42]

Research indicates that heavy combat has a positive correlation to the strength of the religious faith in soldiers during the battles and subsequent to the war if they indicated their experience was a negative experience (for more information please see: There are no atheists in foxholes).

Also, due to research showing that death anxiety increases atheists' unconscious belief in God, Dr. Nathan Heflick declared in a Psychology Today article, "But, at a less conscious (or pre-conscious) level, this research suggests that there might be less atheism in foxholes than atheists in foxholes report."[33] Please see: Atheism and death

Denials that atheists exist

Atheism and communism

see also: Atheism and communism and Militant atheism and Atheism and economics and Atheism and mass murder and Atheist cults and Atheism and Karl Marx

Atheists Karl Marx, Vladmir Lenin and Zhou Enlai

Karl Marx said "[Religion] is the opium of the people." Marx also stated: "Communism begins from the outset (Owen) with atheism; but atheism is at first far from being communism; indeed, that atheism is still mostly an abstraction."[43]

Vladimir Lenin similarly wrote regarding atheism and communism: "A Marxist must be a materialist, i.e., an enemy of religion, but a dialectical materialist, i.e., one who treats the struggle against religion not in an abstract way, not on the basis of remote, purely theoretical, never varying preaching, but in a concrete way, on the basis of the class struggle which is going on in practice and is educating the masses more and better than anything else could."[44]

In 1955, the Chinese communist leader Zhou Enlai declared, "We Communists are atheists".[45]

In 2014, the Communist Party of China reaffirmed that members of their party must be atheists.[46]

In 2016, the International Business Times reported:

A senior Chinese advisor on religious affairs has said the country should promote atheism throughout society, in remarks that appear to reflect a deepening campaign to reinforce traditional Marxist values in China — and could add to concern about official attitudes among believers in the country’s five officially recognized religions.[47]

Russian revolution caused the most notable spread of atheism

According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[48]

Vitalij Lazarʹevič Ginzburg, a Soviet physicist, wrote that the "Bolshevik communists were not merely atheists but, according to Lenin's terminology, militant atheists."[49] However, prior to this, the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution established a state which was anti-Roman Catholicism/Christian in nature [50] (anti-clerical deism and anti-religious atheism and played a significant role in the French Revolution[51]), with the official ideology being the Cult of Reason; during this time thousands of believers were suppressed and executed by the guillotine.[52]

Atheistic communism and mass murder

See also: Atheism and mass murder and Atheist atrocities

The militant atheistic regime of Joseph Stalin killed tens of millions of people.

Joseph Stalin is the figure on the right and Vladimir Lenin is the figure on the left,

See: Atheism and mass murder

It has been estimated that in less than the past 100 years, governments under the banner of communism have caused the death of somewhere between 40,472,000 and 259,432,000 human lives.[53] Dr. R. J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, is the scholar who first coined the term democide (death by government). Dr. R. J. Rummel's mid estimate regarding the loss of life due to communism is that communism caused the death of approximately 110,286,000 people between 1917 and 1987.[54] Richard Dawkins has attempted to engage in historical revisionism concerning atheist atrocities and Dawkins was shown to be in gross error. See also: Atheism and historical revisionism

Christian apologist Gregory Koukl wrote relative to atheism and mass murder that "the assertion is that religion has caused most of the killing and bloodshed in the world. There are people who make accusations and assertions that are empirically false. This is one of them."[55] Koukl details the number of people killed in various events involving theism and compares them to the much higher tens of millions of people killed under regimes which advocated atheism.[55] As noted earlier, Richard Dawkins has attempted to engage in historical revisionism concerning atheist atrocities and Dawkins was shown to be in gross error.

Koukl summarized by stating:

It is true that it's possible that religion can produce evil, and generally when we look closer at the detail it produces evil because the individual people are actually living in a rejection of the tenets of Christianity and a rejection of the God that they are supposed to be following. So it can produce it, but the historical fact is that outright rejection of God and institutionalizing of atheism actually does produce evil on incredible levels. We're talking about tens of millions of people as a result of the rejection of God.[55]

The ex-atheist Theodore Beale notes concerning atheism and mass murder:

Apparently it was just an amazing coincidence that every Communist of historical note publicly declared his atheism … .there have been twenty-eight countries in world history that can be confirmed to have been ruled by regimes with avowed atheists at the helm … These twenty-eight historical regimes have been ruled by eighty-nine atheists, of whom more than half have engaged in democidal acts of the sort committed by Stalin and Mao

The total body count for the ninety years between 1917 and 2007 is approximately 148 million dead at the bloody hands of fifty-two atheists, three times more than all the human beings killed by war, civil war, and individual crime in the entire twentieth century combined.

The historical record of collective atheism is thus 182,716 times worse on an annual basis than Christianity’s worst and most infamous misdeed, the Spanish Inquisition. It is not only Stalin and Mao who were so murderously inclined, they were merely the worst of the whole Hell-bound lot. For every Pol Pot whose infamous name is still spoken with horror today, there was a Mengistu, a Bierut, and a Choibalsan, godless men whose names are now forgotten everywhere but in the lands they once ruled with a red hand.

Is a 58 percent chance that an atheist leader will murder a noticeable percentage of the population over which he rules sufficient evidence that atheism does, in fact, provide a systematic influence to do bad things? If that is not deemed to be conclusive, how about the fact that the average atheist crime against humanity is 18.3 million percent worse than the very worst depredation committed by Christians, even though atheists have had less than one-twentieth the number of opportunities with which to commit them. If one considers the statistically significant size of the historical atheist set and contrasts it with the fact that not one in a thousand religious leaders have committed similarly large-scale atrocities, it is impossible to conclude otherwise, even if we do not yet understand exactly why this should be the case. Once might be an accident, even twice could be coincidence, but fifty-two incidents in ninety years reeks of causation![56]

See also:

Communism and religious oppression

See also: Communism and religious persecution and Atheistic communism and torture and Atheism and forced labor and China and involuntary organ harvesting

The atheism in communist regimes has been and continues to be militant atheism and various acts of repression including the razing of thousands of religious buildings and the killing, imprisoning, and oppression of religious leaders and believers.[57]

Religious persecution in the Soviet Union

See also: Soviet atheism

The persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union was the result of the violently atheist Soviet government. In the first five years after the October Revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were murdered, many on the orders of Leon Trotsky. When Joseph Stalin came to power in 1927, he ordered his secret police, under Genrikh Yagoda to intensify persecution of Christians. In the next few years, 50,000 clergy were murdered, many were tortured, including crucifixion. "Russia turned red with the blood of martyrs", said Father Gleb Yakunin of the Russian Orthodox Church.[58] According to Orthodox Church sources, as many as fifty million Orthodox believers may have died in the twentieth century, mainly from persecution by Communists.[59]

With its large population, China has the largest population of atheists.[60]

The religious landscape of China is quickly changing, however, due to the rapid growth of Christianity. See also: China and atheism and Global atheism

In addition, in the atheistic and communist Soviet Union, 44 anti-religious museums were opened and the largest was the 'The Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism' in Leningrad’s Kazan cathedral.[61] Despite intense effort by the atheistic leaders of the Soviet Union, their efforts were not effective in converting the masses to atheism.[62]

Religious persecution in Communist China

See also: China and atheism

China has the world's largest atheist population (see: China and atheism).[63][64] China is a communist country. In 1999, the publication Christian Century reported that "China has persecuted religious believers by means of harassment, prolonged detention, and incarceration in prison or 'reform-through-labor' camps and police closure of places of worship." In 2003, owners of Bibles in China were sent to prison camps and 125 Chinese churches were closed.[65] China continues to practice religious oppression today.[66]

The efforts of China's atheist leaders in promoting atheism, however, is increasingly losing its effectiveness and the number of Christians in China is rapidly growing (see: Growth of Christianity in China). China's state sponsored atheism and atheistic indoctrination has been a failure and a 2007 religious survey in China indicated that only 15% of Chinese identified themselves as atheists.[67]

Researchers estimate that tens of thousands of Falun Gong prisoners in communist China have been killed to supply a financially lucrative trade in human organs and cadavers, and that these human rights abuses may be ongoing concern.[68]

Religious persecution in North Korea

The above photograph shows the Russian Nikolai Khmara, a new Baptist convert in the Soviet Union, after his arrest by the KGB. He was tortured to death and his tongue cut out.[69][70]

North Korea is a repressive communist state and is officially atheistic.[71] The North Korean government practices brutal repression and atrocities against North Korean Christians.[72] Open Doors, an organization based in the United States, has put North Korea at the very top of its list of countries where Christians face significant persecution - for 12 years in a row.[73]

Atheistic communism and torture

See: Atheistic communism and torture

Atheistic communist regimes and forced labor

See also: Atheism and forced labor and Atheism and slavery

In atheistic communist regimes forced labor has often played a significant role in their economies and this practice continues to this day (see: Atheism and forced labor).[74]

Atheism and politics

Xi Jinping is the President of the People's Republic of China, current General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.

The Communist Party of China requires that all their members be atheists and this is strictly enforced.[75]

Historically, atheists have favored the left side of the political aisle (see: Atheism and politics).

According to the Pew Forum, in the United States: "About two-thirds of atheists (69%) identify as Democrats (or lean in that direction), and a majority (56%) call themselves political liberals (compared with just one-in-ten who say they are conservatives)."[76]

In some regions where the secular left has considerable influence, they are losing an increasing amount of their power. For example, in secular Europe right-wing, nationalist parties are growing and in China conservative Protestantism is growing rapidly (see: Growth of Christianity in China).[77]

For more information please see:

Atheism and history

Voroshilov, Molotov, Stalin, with Nikolai Yezhov.jpg
Nikolai Yezhov walking with Joseph Stalin in the top photo taken in the mid 1930s. Subsequent to his execution in 1940, Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet Union censors.[78] See: Atheism and historical revisionism

See also: Atheists and historical illiteracy and History of atheism and Atheist indoctrination and Atheism and historical revisionism

The history of atheism: History of atheism

Atheists and historical illiteracy

A common complaint concerning many atheists is their lack of depth when it comes to knowledge of history and historiography - particularly in areas such as historicity of Jesus Christ and atheist mass murders in history.[79]

For more information, please see:

Atheists and historical revisionism

Atheists commonly engage in historical revisionism in order to illegitimately distort the historical record (see: Atheism and historical revisionism).

Religion/irreligion and war

See also: Irreligion/religion and war and Atheism and world peace

Louise Ridley (assistant news editor at the Huffington Post UK), Vox Day and others point out that academic studies and other research consistently challenge the link between religion and war.[80]

Darwinism and war

There is historical evidence indicating that Darwinism was a causal factor for WWI and WWII (see: Irreligion/religion and war and World War I and Darwinism).

Atheism and economics

Analysis of atheism and common objections to atheism

Commonly Cited Arguments Against Atheism and For Theism

See: Arguments for theism and against atheism

Anselm of Canterbury's version of the ontological argument appeared in his work Proslogium.

The majority of philosophers of religion, or those who have extensively studied the issue of the existence of God, are theists (72 percent).[81]

In relation to the debate between theism and atheism, theists often criticize atheism as being contrary to persuasive argument and have a number of arguments against atheism (See: Arguments for theism and against atheism).

Within Christendom, the discipline of Christian apologetics has been developed. Christian apologetics is the defense of the Christian faith through logic/evidence based arguments. The word apologetics comes from the Greek word apologia (from Greek ἀπολογία), which means "speaking in defense".

Arguments for the existence of God include:

  • Evidential apologetics is an approach in Christian apologetics which emphasizes the use of evidence to demonstrate that God exists and that there is compelling evidence to support Christianity and the Bible. In addition, there are various arguments that atheists or other unbelievers weigh evidence improperly (see: Atheism and evidence).
  • Cosmological argument: Every event in our universe necessarily has a cause. However, it is impossible that there should be an unending chain of causes going back. Therefore, there necessarily must be a cause distinct from the universe as we know it which is capable of causing all things and is itself uncaused. Atheism denies that that first cause is God. Christians point out that the question "Who created God" is an illogical question.[83] See also: Atheism and the origin of the universe
The argument from beauty is a commonly used argument for the existence of God.
  • Historical arguments for the existence of God (subset of evidential apologetics). For example, arguments stemming from historical accounts such as Christian historical apologetics, Christian legal apologetics and archaeological evidence such as Bible archaeology

See also:

Biblical statements concerning atheism

See also: Bible verses relating to atheism

The writers of the Bible considered the existence of God to be self-evident and Moses simply wrote: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." (Genesis 1:1).[84]

Accordingly, the psalmist David declared:

"The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good." — Psalms 14:1 (KJV)

Atheism and debate

See also: Atheism debates

Dr. Greg Bahnsen became known as "the man atheists fear most" due to Michael Martin's cancellation of their scheduled debate.[85][86]

As far as atheism debates, the majority of the public debates are Atheism vs. Christianity debates (although there have been a few Atheism vs. Islam debates).

Beginning in the latter part of the 20th century, there were a number of notable instances of prominent atheists being reluctant to debate (see: Notable cases of prominent atheists being reluctant to debate).

On May 14, 2011, the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph published a news story entitled Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God.[87] In The Daily Telegraph article Dr. Daniel Came, a member of the Faculty of Philosophy at Oxford University was quoted as writing to fellow atheist Richard Dawkins concerning his refusal to debate Dr. William Lane Craig, "The absence of a debate with the foremost apologist for Christian theism is a glaring omission on your CV and is of course apt to be interpreted as cowardice on your part."[87]

Greg Bahnsen became known as the "man atheists fear most".[88] This is because Harvard-educated Michael Martin was scheduled to debate Bahnsen but pulled out of the debate at the "eleventh hour". A press release at the time said that Dr. Martin offered ruses on why he pulled out and didn't want the scheduled debate recorded but the real reason was that "...Michael Martin is afraid that he will be publicly humiliated just as his friend and fellow atheist, Dr. Gordon Stein, was...".

In 1990, Michael Martin indicated there was a general absence of an atheistic response to contemporary work in the philosophy of religion and in jest he indicated that it was his "cross to bear" to respond to theistic arguments.[89] See also: Stagnation of atheist apologetics

A majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the naturalistic evolutionary position since World War II have been atheists.[90] After doing poorly in a series of debates in the the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, evolutionists are generally reluctant to debate (see: Creation vs. evolution debates).

Atheism and intelligence

Brain researchers have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheists and the religious. See: Atheism and the brain

See also: Atheism and intelligence and Atheism and Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and Causes of atheism

Within various countries, standardized intelligence test (IQ) scores related to the issue of atheists/agnostics vs. theists intelligence scores yield conflicting results.[91] Part of the problem is that social scientists use variant definitions of atheism.[92] See also: Atheism, intelligence and the General Social Survey

However, within individuals, families and societies irreligion/religion can have an effect on intelligence - especially over time (See: Atheism and intelligence).

For more information, please see:

Study on emotional intelligence and religiosity

See also: Atheism and emotional intelligence and Atheism and social intelligence

A 2004 study by Ellen Paek examined the extent to which religious orientation/behavior and found significant positive correlations were found between level of religious commitment and an individual's perceived emotional intelligence.[93] See also: Atheism and emotional intelligence

According to the prominent brain researcher Antonio Damasio and other brain researchers, emotions play a critical role in high-level cognition and allow individuals to make better decisions.[94]

Brain studies of atheists

See also: Atheism and the brain and Religiosity and larger frontal lobes

Brain researchers have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheists and the religious (see: Atheism and the brain and Religiosity and larger frontal lobes).

Atheism and education

Atheism and morality/ethics

See also: Atheism and morality and Atheist population and immorality and Atheist hypocrisy and Religion and morality

Objective morality incompatible with atheism

Dr. Paul Copan wrote: "...the existence of a personal God is crucial for a coherent understanding of objective morality."[95]

Under an atheist worldview, there is no logical basis for objective morality or ultimate meaning and purpose.[96] See also: Atheism and morality and Atheism and meaninglessness

Atheism and moral relativism

See also: Moral relativism and Atheism and morality

Dr. Phil Fernandes states the following regarding atheism and moral relativism:

Nietzsche preached that a group of "supermen" must arise with the courage to create their own values through their "will to power." Nietzsche rejected the "soft" values of Christianity (brotherly love, turning the other cheek, charity, compassion, etc.); he felt they hindered man's creativity and potential....

Many other atheists agree with Nietzsche concerning moral relativism. British philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) once wrote, "Outside human desires there is no moral standard." A. J. Ayer believed that moral commands did not result from any objective standard above man. Instead, Ayer stated that moral commands merely express one's subjective feelings. When one says that murder is wrong, one is merely saying that he or she feels that murder is wrong. Jean-Paul Sartre, a French existentialist, believed that there is no objective meaning to life. Therefore, according to Sartre, man must create his own values.

There are many different ways that moral relativists attempt to determine what action should be taken. Hedonism is probably the most extreme. It declares that whatever brings the most pleasure is right. In other words, if it feels good, do it. If this position is true, then there is no basis from which to judge the actions of Adolph Hitler as being evil.[97]

Atheism and various types of immorality

Barna Group studies: Atheism and morality

Barna Group study on behavior of atheists vs. evangelical Christians:

Richard Deem wrote:

A random sample of 1003 adults were surveyed in May, 2008 by The Barna Group for their participation in a number of negative behaviors within the previous week. The results showed that there were vast differences in the behaviors of evangelicals compared to agnostics/atheists.

These results show that atheists/agnostics participate in morally questionable behaviors to a much greater degree than evangelical Christians - an average of nearly five times the frequency![98]

Barna Group study related to atheist beliefs about behaviors:

The Barna Group found that atheists and agnostics in America were more likely, than theists in America, to look upon the following behaviors as morally acceptable: illegal drug use; excessive drinking; sexual relationships outside of marriage; abortion; cohabitating with someone of opposite sex outside of marriage; obscene language; gambling; pornography and obscene sexual behavior; and engaging in homosexuality/bisexuality.[99]

Given the many diseases associated with homosexuality, the biblical prohibition against homosexuality is quite arguably one of the many example where the Bible exhibited knowledge that was ahead of its time. See also: Atheism and sexual immorality

Study: U.S. public perception of atheist morality

In 2014, a University of Kentucky study was published by Will M. Gervais, which was entitled "Everything is permitted? People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists", and the study indicated that "even atheist participants viewed immorality as significantly more representative of atheists than of other people."[100]

Atheism and uncharitableness

See also: Atheism and charity and Atheist nonprofit scandals and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression
A child in Thailand where the nontheistic form of Buddhism called the Theravada school of Buddhism is prevalent. In 2010, the Pew Research Forum indicated that 93.2% of the people of Thailand were Buddhists.[101]

A comprehensive study by Harvard University professor Robert Putnam found that religious people are more charitable than their irreligious counterparts.[102] See: Atheism and uncharitableness

Concerning the issue of atheism and uncharitableness, the evidence indicates that per capita charitable giving by atheists and agnostics in America is significantly less than by theists, according to a study by the Barna Group:

The typical no-faith American donated just $200 in 2006, which is more than seven times less than the amount contributed by the prototypical active-faith adult ($1500). Even when church-based giving is subtracted from the equation, active-faith adults donated twice as many dollars last year as did atheists and agnostics. In fact, while just 7% of active-faith adults failed to contribute any personal funds in 2006, that compares with 22% among the no-faith adults.[103]

A comprehensive study by Harvard University professor Robert Putnam found that religious people are more charitable than their irreligious counterparts.[102]

See also: Atheism, social justice and hypocrisy

Church-state issues emphasis. Charity low priority

See also: Atheism and uncharitableness and Western atheism and race and Atheism and love

In June of 2014, the African-American atheist woman Sikivu Hutchinson wrote in the Washington Post that atheist organizations generally focus on church-state separation and creationism issues and not the concerns the less affluent African American population faces.[104] Hutchinson also mentioned that church organizations do focus on helping poor African Americans.[104]

Atheist nonprofit scandals

See also: Atheist nonprofit scandals and Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science - Embezzlement allegation

Two atheist nonprofit scandals which recently received some publicity were the organizations Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science and the We Are Atheism organization.[105]

In addition, David Gorski at Scienceblogs indicated that many atheist/skeptic organizations are poorly run from a financial standpoint.[106]

For more information, please see: Atheist nonprofit scandals

Irreligion and domestic violence

See also: Irreligion and domestic violence and Atheism and women and Atheism and rape

Research suggests that irreligiousity is a causal factor for domestic violence.[107]

The abstract for the 2007 article in the journal Violence Against Women entitled Race/Ethnicity, Religious Involvement, and Domestic Violence indicated:

The authors explored the relationship between religious involvement and intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. They found that: (a) religious involvement is correlated with reduced levels of domestic violence; (b) levels of domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; (c) the effects of religious involvement on domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; and (d) religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence.[107]
Secular Europe and domestic violence

See also: Secular Europe and domestic violence

Atheism and pornography

See also: Atheism and pornography

One of the causes of atheism is a hedonistic lifestyle. See: Atheism and hedonism.

The infamous pornographers Hugh Hefner and Larry Flynt are both atheists.[109]

In 2003, Arena magazine magazine listed Flynt as #1 on the "50 Powerful People in Porn" list.[110] Flynt is paralyzed from the waist down due to injuries sustained from a 1978 assassination attempt by the serial killer Joseph Paul Franklin.[111]

Atheism and child pornography

See also: Atheism and child pornography

In 2005 Denmark was ranked the third most atheistic country in the world and the website reported that in 2005 43 - 80% of Danes are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[112]

The 2003 book entitled Overcoming Violence Against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem written by authors Rahel Nardos; Mary K. Radpour; William S. Hatcher and Michael L. Penn, declared:

The largest source of commercial child pornography is Denmark. Denmark became the world's leading producer of child pornography when, in 1969, it removed all restrictions on the production and sale of any type of pornographic material. "The result," notes Tim Tate, "was a short-lived explosion in adult pornography, and the birth of commercial child pornography. 1979 when Denmark finally banned the production and sale of child pornography it had already become such a financial success on the international market that it has proven to be nearly impossible to bring its spread under control.[113]

Suzanne Ost, in her 2009 book Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming: Legal and Societal Responses published by Cambridge University Press, wrote about the child pornography created by Denmark/Holland during this period: "Taylor and Quayle note that the material produced during this period still constitutes the largest part of child pornography that is currently available, having been transferred into digital format and uploaded onto the internet."[114]

Atheism, pedophilia/pederasty and NAMBLA

Many consider atheist Harry Hay to be the founder of the American homosexual movement.

see also: Atheism, pederasty and NAMBLA and Teenage homosexuality

The North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) was founded in December 1978 and is an activist homosexuality and pedophilia/pederasty coalition group.

Some of the well known atheist advocates of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) are:

1. The atheist and homosexual David Thorstad was a founding member of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA).[115]

2. Harry Hay (1912 - 2002) was an liberal advocate of statutory rape and the widely acknowledged founder and progenitor of the activist homosexual agenda in the United States. Hay joined the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) in 1934. [116] Harry Hay was an atheist.[117] He was a vociferous advocate of man/boy love. [118] In 1986, Hay marched in a gay parade wearing a shirt emblazoned with the words "NAMBLA walks with me."[119]

3. The writer Samuel R. Delany is an atheist and a homosexual.[120] Delaney said he was a supporter of NAMBLA.[121]

See also: Richard Dawkins on child molestation and so called "gentle pedophiles" and John Maynard Keynes and pederasty

Atheism and slavery/forced labor

Immorality of prominent atheists

See also: Atheism, polyamory and other immoral relationships

James Randi is a leader within the atheist community. Brian Thompson, former James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) Outreach Coordinator, wrote:

But I no longer identify with this community of benevolent know-it-alls, because not all of them are the best folks in the world. In fact, a good percentage of the top ten worst humans I’ve ever met are prominent members of the skeptics’ club. They’re dishonest, mean-spirited, narcissistic, misogynistic. Pick a personality flaw, and I can probably point you to someone who epitomizes it. And that person has probably had a speaking slot at a major skeptical conference.

I grew particularly disgusted with the boys’ club attitude I saw among skeptical leaders and luminaries. The kind of attitude that’s dismissive of women, sexually predatory, and downright gross. When I first started going to skeptical conferences as a fresh-faced know-it-all, I started hearing things about people I once admired. Then I started seeing things myself. Then I got a job with the JREF, and the pattern continued.[122]

See also:

Atheism and rape

The perverse and cruel atheist Marquis de Sade in prison, 18th century line engraving.

Atheism and abortion

The Journal of Medical Ethics wrote this about the atheist and sadist Marquis de Sade:

In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophie dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society.[123]

Population control is based on pseudoscience and ill founded economic assumptions.[124] CBS News reported: "According to a mail-in survey of nearly 4,000 British doctors, those who were atheist or agnostic were almost twice as willing to take actions designed to hasten the end of life."[125]

Atheism and profanity

See also: Atheism and profanity and Atheism and culture

Studies indicate that atheists engage in more profanity than Christians/theists and are more likely to believe that obscene language is acceptable to engage in.[126] Use of profanity by individuals is negatively correlated with conscientiousness and agreeableness.[127]

For more information, please see: Atheism and profanity

Irreligion and crime/prison population

Atheism and bestiality

See also: Atheism and bestiality

Atheism and other moral issues

For more information please see: Atheism and morality and Atheism and hedonism

Atheism and hypocrisy

See also: Atheist hypocrisy

In order to attempt to justify their atheism, atheists often engage in hypocritical argumentation. In addition, atheists often engage in hypocritical behavior. Please see: Atheist hypocrisy

Atheism and social justice

See: Atheism and social justice

Earlier definitions of atheism

Dictionaries point out that previous/archaic meanings of the word atheism are: ungodliness. wickedness, immorality[128][129]

Atheism and meaning

Why atheism is irrational

See also: Atheism and irrationality and Irreligion and superstition

A common and legitimate criticism of the atheist worldview is that atheism is irrational.[130] In short, atheism is a fundamentally incoherent worldview with a number of inconsistencies.[131] For example, the atheistic worldview cannot account for the laws of logic.[132] See also: Atheism and critical thinking

The atheist worldview cannot explain the existence of consciousness either and the theistic worldview can offer a reasonable explanation.[133]

A common and legitimate criticism of the atheist worldview is that atheism is irrational.[130] In short, atheism is a fundamentally incoherent worldview with a number of inconsistencies.[131]

For more information, please see:

Atheism and reason

See also: Atheism and reason

If naturalism is true, then we ought not to trust our capacity for reason for the human brain would be a byproduct of blind/unintelligent natural forces. [134] Therefore, believing in naturalism is self-defeating.

In short, atheism/naturalism and reason are incompatible.[134]

Logical fallacies that atheists commonly commit

List of logical fallacies that atheists commonly commit: Atheism and logical fallacies

Atheism and meaninglessness

See also: Atheism and meaninglessness and Nihilism and Absurdism and Existentialism

Under an atheistic worldview, there is no objective meaning or purpose in life.[135] Through Jesus Christ, Christianity offers objective meaning and purpose to life.[136]

For more information, please see: Atheism and meaninglessness

Arrogance of atheism/atheists

See also: Atheism and arrogance and Atheism and narcissism and Atheism and deception

One of the common and well-founded charges against atheists is their arrogance and presumptuousness.[137]

Why atheism is an arrogant ideology

See also: Arguments against atheism and Atheism and arrogance

Friedrich Nietzsche wrote: "But now God is dead. You superior men, this God was your greatest danger. Only since he is in the grave, have you risen again. Only now comes the great noontide; only now the superior man will be – Lord!".[138]

The picture of Nietzsche above was taken in 1899. Nietzsche died in 1900. See: Atheism and arrogance

Atheists lack proof and evidence that God does not exist and ignore the clear and abundant proof and evidence that He does exist. The philosopher Mortimer Adler pointed out that atheism asserts an unreasonable universal negative that is self-defeating.[139]

Contrary to the mistaken notion of individuals who are inexperienced in logic/philosophy, there are plenty of cases where universal negatives can be proven.[140] However, atheists' universal negative claim that God does not exist is not a reasonable universal negative claim.[139]

Atheists have also given themselves pretentious monikers such as freethinker, rationalist and "bright". See also: Brights Movement and Atheism and intelligence

In addition, historically militant atheists have commonly endeavored to limit the religious freedom of others while imposing their errant, atheistic ideology on others. See also: Atheism and intolerance

Study: Arrogance of New Atheists

See: Study relating the arrogance of New Atheists

Atheists/agnostics and ultimate purpose

See also: Atheism and purpose and Atheism, agnosticism and pessimism and Atheism and beliefs

One of the most popular arguments for God's existence is the teleological argument. Derived from the Greek word telos, which refers to purpose or end, this argument hinges on the idea that the world gives evidence of being designed, and concludes that a divine designer must be posited to account for the orderly world we encounter.

Academic research and historical data indicate that a significant portion of atheists/agnostics often see their lives and the world as being the product of purposeful design (see: Atheism and purpose).[141]

See also:

Atheism and religion and philosophy topics

Atheism is a religion

See also: Atheism is a religion and Atheist cults and Atheist hypocrisy

The British atheist Sanderson Jones is a founder of the Sunday Assembly atheist church movement.[142] See: Atheism is a religion

Atheism is a religion.[143] And many of the leaders of the atheist movement, such as the evolutionist and new atheist/agnostic Richard Dawkins, argue for agnosticism/atheism with a religious fervor.

In addition, although many atheists deny that atheism is a worldview, atheists commonly share a number of beliefs such as naturalism, belief in evolution and abiogenesis.[144]

Roderick Ninian Smart, a Scottish writer and professor, defined a seven-part scheme of understanding both religious and secular worldviews[145] These can be understood as narrative, experiential, social, ethical, doctrinal, ritual and material.

English Pastor Daniel Smartt defines atheism as a religion, using Ninian Smart's seven dimensions of worldview as a list of criteria. It is not necessary in Smartt's model for every one of these to be present in order for something to be a religion.[146] However, it can be argued that all seven are present in the case of atheism.[143] [147]

In 2013, a trend of atheist services began and atheist services were reported in the New York Times, The Blaze and other major news outlets.[148]

See also:

Atheist cults

See: Atheist cults

The Wall Street Journal reported: "A comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows ...that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians."[149]

Atheism and spirituality

Atheism and evidence

See: Atheism and evidence

Irreligion and superstition

See also: Irreligion and superstition

In September 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported:

The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging religion, won't create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass superstition. And that's not a conclusion to take on faith—it's what the empirical data tell us.

"What Americans Really Believe," a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that traditional Christian religion greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of astrology. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians...."[150]

According to Pew Forum, evangelical Protestant churches in America grew by 2 million from 2007 to 2014.[151] See: Atheism vs. Christianity

Atheism vs. Abrahamic religions and religion

Atheism and miracles

See main article: Atheism and Miracles

In relation to atheism and miracles, modern scholars are divided on the issue of whether or not David Hume was an atheist.[152] With that caveat in mind, Hume is well known for arguing that it is always more probable that the testimony of a miracle is false than that the miracle occurred.[153] Christian apologists William Lane Craig, Norman Geisler, C.S. Lewis, JP Holding, and others have shown the inadequacy and unreasonableness of Hume's position regarding miracles.[154]

The Christian Post reporter Stoyan Zaimov wrote: "Double-blind prayer experiments: where people pray for others with terminal illness. Habermas admitted that most such experiments have not worked, but the three that he knows of that have indeed worked were cases of orthodox-Christians praying for the sick."[155]

Atheists who believe in life after death

See also: Atheism and the supernatural

A survey involving 15,738 individuals found that 32 percent of Americans who identified themselves as agnostics and atheists believe in an afterlife of some kind.[156][157]

Atheism and science

atheism quotes
Isaac Newton wrote: "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God, written by men who were inspired. I study the Bible daily. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had many professors." See also: Atheism quotes

See also: Atheism and science

Atheism and the suppression of science

See: Atheism and the suppression of science

Atheism and the social sciences

See: Atheism and the social sciences

Atheism and the foundation of modern science

See also: Christianity and science

The birth of modern science occurred in Christianized Europe.[158]

Sociologist Rodney Stark investigated the individuals who made the most significant scientific contributions between 1543 and 1680 A.D., the time of the Scientific Revolution. In Stark's list of 52 top scientific contributors,[159] only one (Edmund Halley) was a skeptic and another (Paracelsus) was a pantheist. The other 50 were Christians, 30 of whom could be characterized as being devout Christians.[159]

Sir Francis Bacon, sometimes referred to as "the Father of Modern Science", wrote in his essay entitled Of Atheism: "I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind."[160]

Atheism and questions of origins

See articles: Atheism and Evolution and Evolution as a secular origins myth

Creationist scientists state that the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics argue against an eternal universe or a universe created by natural processes and argue for a universe created by God.[161] See also: Atheism and the origin of the universe

A majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism since World War II have had the worldview of atheism/agnosticism.[162] Creation scientists assert that the theory of evolution is an inadequate explanation for the variety of life forms on earth.[163] The theory of evolution has had a number of negative social effects.

In addition, the current naturalistic explanations for the origin of life are inadequate.[164]

Atheism and scientific community

Atheism and scientific fraud and speculation

Atheism and mental and physical health

See also: Atheism and health and Atheism and alcoholism and Atheism and negative emotions/thoughts

The is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism and some of the more significant findings are given below [165] For more information please see: Atheism and health

Mayo Clinic and other studies

The prestigious Mayo Clinic found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health and mental health outcomes.[166] See: Atheism and health

The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[166]

The Iona Institute reported:

A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.[167]

Atheism and suicide

See also: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression and Hopelessness of atheism and Atheism, agnosticism and pessimism

Although there are recent studies relating to atheism being a causal factor for suicide for some individuals, an early proponent of atheism being a causal factor for suicide was the Reverend Dr. Robert Stuart MacArthur.[168] In 1894, the New York Times stated the following in relation to atheism and suicide:

Dr. Martin urged that a great cause of suicide was atheism. It was, he said, a remarkable fact that where atheism prevailed most, there suicides were most numerous. In Paris, a recent census showed one suicide to every 2,700 of the population. After the publication of Paine's "Age of Reason" suicides increased.[169]
Atheists have higher suicide rates. See: Atheism and suicide

The website reported the following in respect to atheism and suicide:

Pitzer College sociologist Phil Zuckerman compiled country-by-country survey, polling and census numbers relating to atheism, agnosticism, disbelief in God and people who state they are non-religious or have no religious preference...In examining various indicators of societal health, Zuckerman concludes about suicide:

"...According to the 2003 World Health Organization's report on international male suicides rates (which compared 100 countries), of the top ten nations with the highest male suicide rates, all but one (Sri Lanka) are strongly irreligious nations with high levels of atheism."[170]

For more information please see:

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[171]

Atheism and alcoholism

See also: Atheism and alcoholism

At least 100 studies suggests religion has a positive effect on preventing alcohol-related problems, researchers Christopher Ellison, Jennifer Barrett and Benjamin Moulton noted in an article in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion on “Gender, Marital Status, and Alcohol Behavior: The Neglected Role of Religion.”[172]

Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).

For example, as far as secular Europe, according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[171]

Atheism and illegal drug use and drug addition

See also: Atheism and drug addiction

Studies indicate that religious individuals are less likely to engage in illegal drug use than atheists/nonreligious.[173][174][175]

According to Science Daily: "Young Swiss men who say that they believe in God are less likely to smoke cigarettes or pot or take ecstasy pills than Swiss men of the same age group who describe themselves as atheists. Belief is a protective factor against addictive behaviour. This is the conclusion reached by a study funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.[176]

Atheism and loneliness

Secular societies commonly have significant levels of loneliness. See: Atheism and loneliness

See also: Atheism and loneliness

Loneliness has been linked to many physical and mental health problems.[177]

Compared to deeply religious cultures where an extended family and a sense of community often exists, secular countries are often lonelier societies. In addition, numerous studies and other data indicate that atheists often have lower emotional intelligence and lower social skills (see: Atheism and emotional intelligence and Atheism and social skills).

For more information, please see:

Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

See also: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism and Irreligion and unsportsmanlike conduct and Atheism and obesity

Numerous studies report that athletes to be more religious than non-athletes.[178]

The Sports Journal is a monthly refereed journal published by the United States Sports Academy. A journal article appeared in the Sports Journal entitled Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions. The article was submitted by Nathan T. Bell, Scott R. Johnson, and Jeffrey C. Petersen from Ball State University.[179] An excerpt from the abstract of the journal article Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions declares:

Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes (Fischer, 1997; Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, & Storch, 2001; Storch et al., 2004). According to Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, and Storch (2001), four reasons may explain why religion interacts with athletic performance.[179]
See also: Atheism and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

Atheism and women

see also: Atheism and women and Atheism and rape and Elevatorgate and Prominent atheists whose wives believe in the existence of God

File:2404429188 ea8f1fc48b.jpg
Studies indicate that women tend to be more religious than men (See: Atheism and women).

Recent studies

Atheist Alliance International analysis

In 2016, Atheist Alliance International (AAI) conducted an annually recurring atheist census project and found: "At the time of writing, the Atheist Census Project recorded that on average worldwide 73.2% of respondents were male. The result is consistent with other research... As such, the focus of many scholarly papers has been on seeking to explain this persistent observation."[180]

Surveys by country

In November 2010, Discover magazine published survey results published by the World Values Survey which showed significant differences between the percentage of men and women who are atheists for various countries with men outnumbering women within the atheist population.[181]

United States surveys

In 2015, BloombergView reported concerning the United States: "According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, ...women are 52 percent of the U.S. population but only 36 percent of atheists and agnostics.[182]

A 2009 article in entitled Women More Religious Than Men reported: "A new analysis of survey data finds women pray more often then men, are more likely to believe in God, and are more religious than men in a variety of other ways...The latest findings, released Friday, are no surprise, only confirming what other studies have found for decades.[183] In 2007, the Pew Research Center found that American women were more religious than American men.[183]

Atheism and sexism

See also: Atheism and sexism

Most atheists are politically on the left (see: Atheism and politics and Secular left). Part of leftist ideology is feminism. However, there is a significant amount of misogyny among atheists (see: Atheism and women).

For more information please see:

Atheist feminism

See: Atheist feminism

Atheism and marriage/relationships

See also: Atheism and marriage and Atheism and illegitimate births

Atheism and rates of marriage in the United States

See also: Atheism and marriageability and Atheism and women

The Christian apologist Michael Caputo wrote: "Recently the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life has published its mammoth study on Religion in America based on 35,000 interviews... According to the Pew Forum a whopping 37% of atheists never marry as opposed to 19% of the American population, 17% of Protestants and 17% of Catholics."[56]

Vox Day declared that according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) "more than half of all atheists and agnostics don’t get married."[56]

For more information please see: Atheism and marriageability

Atheist marriages

See: Atheist marriages

Atheism and polyamory

Atheism and divorce

See: Atheism and divorce

Atheism and interfaith marriages

Atheism and its inability to explain love

See also: Atheism and love and Atheism and forgiveness

From a metaphysical, moral and spiritual perspective, atheists have an inability to satisfactorily explain the existence of love.[184][185]]] From a moral, metaphysical and spiritual perspective, atheists have an inability to satisfactorily explain the existence of love.[186][187]

Atheism and sexuality

See also: Atheism and sexuality and Atheism and romance and Atheism and fertility rates

Research shows that religious women (especially evangelical/low-church Protestant women) are more sexually satisfied than irreligious women.[188][189][190]

A social science study also reports that Hispanic men are more sexually satisfied than other ethnic groups in the United States.[191] Hispanics are known for their religiosity (See also: Western atheism and race).

In addition, the atheist and agnostic populations have sub-replacement levels of fertility (see: Atheism and sexuality and Atheism and romance).

Atheism and race

See also: Atheism, race and gender

Asian atheism

See also: Asian atheism

East Asia, in particular what are often termed “Confucian societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian."[192]

The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia among whites.[193] See: Atheism and China

As noted above, China is experiencing an explosive growth of Christianity (see: Growth of Christianity in China and East Asia and global desecularization).

Western atheism and race

Atheist Sikivu Hutchinson says that white atheists organizations generally focus on church/state separation and creationism issues and not on the concerns the less affluent African-American population faces.[194] Hutchinson also mentioned that church organizations significantly help poor African-Americans.[194] See also: Atheism and uncharitableness

See also: Western atheism and race and Black atheism and Atheism and diversity

Atheism and race: United States and Europe

In 2015, BloombergView reported:

According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, only 3 percent of U.S. atheists and agnostics are black, 6 percent are Hispanic, and 4 percent are Asian. Some 82 percent are white. (The relevant figures for the population at large at the time of the survey were 66 percent white, 11 percent black, 15 percent Hispanic, 5 percent Asian.)

...Craig Keener, in his huge review of claims of miracles in a wide variety of cultures, concludes that routine rejection of the possibility of the supernatural represents an impulse that is deeply Eurocentric.[182]

In the United States, blacks have the highest rate of religiosity.[195] Among Hispanics, religion has traditionally played a significant role in daily activity.[196]

In 2011, Beliefnetnews reported concerning the race and gender of American atheists:

From the smallest local meetings to the largest conferences, the vast majority of speakers and attendees are almost always white men. Leading figures of the atheist movement — Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens and Daniel Dennett — are all white men.

But making atheism more diverse is proving to be no easy task.

Surveys suggest most atheists are white men. A recent survey of 4,000 members of the Freedom from Religion Foundation found that 95 percent were white, and men comprised a majority.[197]

Global atheism in the 21st century

Global decline of atheism

See also: Atheism and diversity and Atheism and culture

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[198]

Atheists as a percentage of the world's population have declined since 1970 and global atheism is expected to face long term decline.[199]

On July 24, 2013, CNS News reported:

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020, according to a new report by the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Mass."[200]

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, 2% of the world's population self-identifies as atheist and the average annual global change for atheism from 2000 to 2010 was −0.17%.[201] See: Global atheism statistics

Demoographics of atheism

Demography is the study of human populations, and is a major specialty in the disciplines of sociology, economics, history, geography, statistics and epidemiology.

Atheism and specific countries

Atheism statistics

Atheist movement and leadership

Desecularization and its causes

See also: Desecularization

Desecularization is the process by which religion reasserts its societal influence though religious values, institutions, sectors of society and symbols in reaction to previous and/or co-occurring secularization processes.[202]

Atheism and sub-replacement levels of fertility

See also: Atheism and fertility rates

In 2011, atheist Jacques Berlinerblau declared: "The Golden Age of Secularism has passed."[203]

Michael Blume, a researcher at the University of Jena in Germany, wrote about the sub-replacement level of fertility among atheistic populations: "Most societies or communities that have espoused atheistic beliefs have not survived more than a century."[204] Blume also indicated concerning concerning his research on this matter: "What I found was the complete lack of a single case of a secular population, community or movement that would just manage to retain replacement level."[205] See also: Atheism and sexuality

On December 23, 2012, Professor Eric Kaufmann who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London wrote:

I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.

On the other hand, the secular West and East Asia has very low fertility and a rapidly aging population... In the coming decades, the developed world's demand for workers to pay its pensions and work in its service sector will soar alongside the booming supply of young people in the third world. Ergo, we can expect significant immigration to the secular West which will import religious revival on the back of ethnic change. In addition, those with religious beliefs tend to have higher birth rates than the secular population, with fundamentalists having far larger families. The epicentre of these trends will be in immigration gateway cities like New York (a third white), Amsterdam (half Dutch), Los Angeles (28% white), and London, 45% white British. [206]

At a conference Kaufmann said of religious demographic projections concerning the 21st century:

Part of the reason I think demography is very important, at least if we are going to speak about the future, is that it is the most predictable of the social sciences.

...if you look at a population and its age structure now. You can tell a lot about the future. ...So by looking at the relative age structure of different populations you can already say a lot about the future...

...Religious fundamentalism is going to be on the increase in the future and not just out there in the developing world..., but in the developed world as well.[207]

Secularism is exhausted and unconfident

See also: Atheist pessimism about the atheist movement

Eric Kaufmann, an agnostic professor whose academic research specialty is how demographic changes affect religion/irreligion and politics, wrote in 2010:

Worldwide, the march of religion can probably only be reversed by a renewed, self-aware secularism. Today, it appears exhausted and lacking in confidence... Secularism's greatest triumphs owe less to science than to popular social movements like nationalism, socialism and 1960s anarchist-liberalism. Ironically, secularism's demographic deficit means that it will probably only succeed in the twenty-first century if it can create a secular form of 'religious' enthusiasm.[208]

The American atheist activist Eddie Tabash said at the 2010 Michigan Atheists State Convention:

In every generation there has been a promising beginning of a true vanguard movement that will finally achieve widespread public acceptance for nonbelief. Yet, in each generation there has been an ultimately disappointing failure to actually register the naturalistic alternative to supernatural claims in the public consciousness...[209]

In recent years, a number of notable atheists have expressed pessimism about the future of the atheist movement (see: Atheist pessimism about the atheist movement).

Causes of desecularization

Zero secularization rates in France and Protestant Europe

See also: British atheism

In April 2010, Eric Kaufmann declared "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of Protestant Europe and France."[210]

The Guardian published an article in 2017 entitled Nearly 50% are of no religion – but has UK hit ‘peak secular’? which declared:

But, Bullivant told the Observer that the “growth of no religion may have stalled”. After consistent decline, in the past few years the proportion of nones appears to have stabilised. “Younger people tend to be more non-religious, so you’d expect it to keep going – but it hasn’t. The steady growth of non-Christian religions is a contributing factor, but I wonder if everyone who is going to give up their Anglican affiliation has done so by now? We’ve seen a vast shedding of nominal Christianity, and perhaps it’s now down to its hardcore.[211]

Growth of evangelical Christianity in secular regions

Future of desecularization via the continued global resurgence of religion

See also: Growth of global desecularization and Atheism vs. Christianity

Eric Kaufmann using a wealth of demographic studies, argues that there will be a significant decline of global atheism in the 21st century which will impact the Western World.[212]

Eric Kaufmann using a wealth of demographic studies, argues that there will be a significant decline of global atheism in the 21st century which will impact the Western World.[213][214] In addition, Kaufmann argues that religious conservatism has a long term trend of rising and that their influence in the world will significantly increase.[215] Kaufmann is author of the book Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?.[216][217] In the Western World due to immigration and the higher birth rates of religious people, Kaufman writes: "Committed religious populations are growing in the West, and will reverse the march of secularism before 2050."[218]

Kaufmann told a secular audience in Australia: "The trends that are happening worldwide inevitably in an age of globalization are going to affect us."[219] Furthermore, Kaufmann also argues that secularization may reverse itself significantly earlier than 2050 in the West due to religious immigration and a religious population which is increasingly resistant to secularization in Europe.[220]

In addition, in the latter portion of the 20th century and continuing into the 21st century, the atheist movement has had lower confidence/morale due to various historical events/trends (see: Atheists and the endurance of religion).

Growth of desecularization in the 21st century

See: Growth of global desecularization

Christian websites and other resources with a large focus on the topic of atheism

True Freethinker is a Christian apologetics website run by Ken Ammi which offers many refutations of atheism.

See also: Atheism vs. Christianity and Internet atheism

Five of the more notable Christian apologetics websites/blogs which have a large focus on the topic of atheism are: the Shadow To Light blog, the True Freethinker website, the Creation Ministries International resources on atheism and the Fixed Point Foundation website.

Freedom from Atheism Foundation

In 2012, the Freedom From Atheism Foundation (FFAF) was formed as an online interfaith civil rights group to provide support for victims of militant atheism, protect the rights of religious believers, and address the increasing amount of atheist intolerance around the world. The groups many admins are all anonymous due to the large amount of hate mail, threats, and stalking the site receives from militant atheists.

As of July 2014 the group has over 220,000 followers and makes an average of 80 posts a week. Along with tens of thousands of religious supporters, the group also found support from atheist author and biologist PZ Myers.[221] A May 2014 article in the Christian Post titled "Freedom From Religion? How About Freedom From Atheism?" profiled the Freedom From Atheism Foundation in greater detail.[222]

Online videos related to atheism

The Militant atheism YouTube channel has a collection of videos on militant atheism.

Atheism and the media

See also: Atheism and the media and Atheism and public relations and Atheism news

The Media Research Center released a study in 2008 reporting pro-atheism bias by major press outlets in the United States.[223] The study found that 80% of mainstream media coverage of atheism was positive and that 71% of Christian-themed stories had an atheist counterpoint or were written from an atheist perspective.[223] The study is not surprising given the liberal bias that commonly exists in the major media outlets.

See also:

Causes of atheism

See main article: Causes of atheism and Atheism and hedonism and Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

There are a number of psychological, societal, familial, economic and spiritual factors which cause atheism which have been proposed over the centuries. Please see: Causes of atheism and Atheism and hedonism.

Notable atheists who became ex-atheists

See: Ex-atheists

Views on atheists

See also: Views on atheists and Distrust of atheists and Atheism and social outcasts and Atheism and public relations and Atheophobia

Sociological research indicates that atheists are widely distrusted in both religious cultures and nonreligious cultures.[224][225][226][227]

According to a study published in the International Journal for The Psychology of Religion: "anti-atheist prejudice is not confined either to dominantly religious countries or to religious individuals, but rather appears to be a robust judgment about atheists."[226] The study found that many atheists do not trust other atheists as well.[226]

Other topics related to views on atheists

  • Atheophobia is a fear and/or hatred of atheism/atheists.

Atheism and culture: Art, architecture, music, poetry, dance and humor

See also: Atheism and culture

Atheism has not produced any outstanding cultural achievements and it has had a negative effect on cultures (see: Atheism and culture).

For additional information, please see:

Atheism and homosexuality


Other well-known proponents of atheism

See: Famous atheists and Famous agnostics

Well-known proponents of skepticism/atheism/agnosticism

Atheist organizations

See: Atheist organizations

Atheism quotes

See articles: Atheism Quotes

Atheism news

See: Atheism news

Recommended reading

Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

See also

External links

see also: Atheism website resources

General articles on atheism:

Prominent atheists:

Other articles on atheism:


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  5. Britain is a less religious country than the United States and the online Oxford Dictionaries offers both the narrow/broad definitions of atheism (As noted in a previous footnote the Merriam-Webster dictionary, which is a traditional American dictionary, offers a more narrow definition of atheism similar to the definition that major encyclopedias of philosophy use). Oxford Dictionaries: Disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods.[2]
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    "It is wonderful that, amid the horrors of this dismal period, while 'the death dance of democratic revolution' was still in rapid movement, among the tears of affliction, and the cries of despair, 'the masque, the song, the theatric scene, the buffoon laughter, went on as regularly as in the gay hour of festive peace.'”
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    "It's this second Enlightenment tradition that Cardinal Ratzinger referred to when he wrote, 'The radical detachment of the Enlightenment philosophy from its roots ultimately leads it to dispense with man.' Actually this transition happened not 'ultimately' but almost immediately. The first instance occurred when Enlightenment worship of abstract 'reason' and 'liberty' degenerated quickly into the mass murders committed during the antireligious Reign of Terror in France. 'Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name', said Madam Rolande as she faced the statue of Liberty in the Place de la Revolution movements before her death at the guillotine. She was one of the early victims of a succession of secular systems based on rootless notions of 'liberty', 'equality', and 'reason'.
    "As many historians have pointed out, the atheist regimes of modern times are guilty of far more crimes than any committed in the name of religion. Communist governments alone were guilty of more than one hundred million murders, most of them committed against their own people.”
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