Difference between revisions of "Atheism and food science"

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== Chinese cuisine ==
 
== Chinese cuisine ==
[[File:Peking duck (1).jpg|thumbnail|100px|center|A [[China|Chinese]] cook slicing Peking roast duck.]]
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[[File:Peking duck (1).jpg|thumbnail|100px|right|A [[China|Chinese]] cook slicing Peking roast duck.]]
 
[[China|Chinese]] food is popular in many countries and there are a lot of Chinese people who emmigrated to other countries and established Chinese restaurants (although the food found in many Chinese restaurants outside of China is altered in order to adopt to their local patrons palates).
 
[[China|Chinese]] food is popular in many countries and there are a lot of Chinese people who emmigrated to other countries and established Chinese restaurants (although the food found in many Chinese restaurants outside of China is altered in order to adopt to their local patrons palates).
  

Revision as of 14:24, 11 September 2019

A food science laboratory

The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public".[1]

According the Institute of Food Science & Technology:

The evolution of novel data processing technologies is fast paced and the volume of data being generated is growing by the second. The food industry stands to benefit from this and has been testing and adapting various routes for using data science techniques to enhance the production of safe and healthy foods.

Data science requires a multidisciplinary approach and a broad range of skill sets, from mathematics and statistics, computer science and machine learning to artificial intelligence (AI).[2]

As can be seen below, despite the efforts of food scientists in irreligious cultures to develop more flavorful food, there have been a significant amount of irreligious cultures with bland food that is not exciting from a culinary point of view (See also: Atheism and science).

Atheism, even by atheists, is often described with such terms as: bland, boring, stale, un-interesting, dull, unmotivating, soulless, shallow and other similar descriptions (see: Atheism and inspiration).

Soviet Union and bland food

Claude Lewis wrote in The Philadelphia Inquirer about the food is the former Soviet Union which had militant state atheism: "Many people in the Soviet Union have grown tired of institutionalized food in state-run cafeterias found at state-run cafeterias such as Stolovaya No. 22 and Stolovaya No. 23 where the menus seldom change and often lack variety. Most food in the Soviet Union is unimaginative, tasteless and bland."[3]

Irreligious Nordic countries and bland food

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world.[4]

Nordic food is often depicted as being bland.[5]

Nordic countries have high atheist/agnostic populations within them (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden).

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and in secular Europe. The website adherents.com reported that in 2005 46 - 85% of Swedes were agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[6] Sweden also has the 3rd highest rate of belief in evolution as far as Western World nations.[7] Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics.[8]

Denmark has the highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[9] In addition, in 2005 Denmark was ranked the third most atheistic country in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 43 - 80% of Danes are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[10]

Finland was ranked the 7th most atheistic country in the world in 2005.[11] Finland has the 17th highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[12]

Iceland is one of the most irreligious countries in the world according to Gallup International.[13] A Gallup International poll conducted in 2012 reported that 57% of Icelanders considered themselves "a religious person", 31% considered themselves "a non religious person", while 10% defined themselves as "a convinced atheist", which places Iceland in the top 10 atheist populations in the world.[14]

Nordic food is often depicted as being bland.[15]

Irreligious Britain and bland food

See also: British atheism

The Britain born new atheists Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins. The late Christopher Hitchens was known for his heavy drinking.[16] Please notice the utter lack of plates filled with tasty food on the table. See also: Britain and alcoholism

A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".[17] See also: British atheism

International food authority Andrew Zimmern said of Britain's food: “Twenty years ago the food of the British Isles was universally considered to be among the world’s worst—boring, bland and boiled.”[18]

(In the last 20 years, Britain has seen a large influx of immigrants many of whom eat spicier food. No doubt that is why Zimmern said "twenty years ago".)

See also: Why Does British Food Get Such A Bad Rap? We Examine

Irreligious Germany and bland food

Germany is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reported that 41-49% of Germans are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[19]

Germany is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reports that 41-49% of Germans are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[20]

Parlour Magazine reported about German food:

From a young age the German palate is adapted to enjoy the simple flavors of salt, wurst (sausage) and breadcrumbs, shunning anything too sweet, too spicy or too complex.

...I do occasionally enjoy a bit of spice and this is the dilemma. I grew up in a West Indian household led by my grandfather who was a chef, to say I was spoiled in terms of flavorful food would be an understatement. The pepper, the curry, the jerk – all flavors that fueled my youth and make me feel at home. How I survive in Germany, the land of bland, is a mystery to most who know me.[21]

Irreligion, Eastern Europe and flavorless food

Eastern Europe was under about 70 years of atheistic, Soviet communist rule (see also: Atheism and communism). For example, Albania was an atheist state from 1967 to 1991.

The Czech Republic, Estonia, and East Germany have some of the lowest levels of religious belief in secular Europe.

In 2005, the Czech Republic placed second in the world in alcohol consumption.[22] See also: Atheism and alcoholism

From a historical perspective, the Czechs have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[23] According to the 2011 census, 34.2% of the Czech population declared they had no religion, 10.3% was Roman Catholic and 10.2% followed other forms of religion both denominational and nondenominational. Furthermore, 45.2% of the population did not answer the question about religion.[24] From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Roman Catholicism decreased from 39.0% to 26.8% and then subsequently to 10.3%.[25]

Estonia is one of the least religious areas in the world. Merely 14% of the population declared religion an important part of their daily lives.[26]

The Guardian reported in 2012 about Eastern Germany:

A recent study called Beliefs About God Across Time and Countries found that 52.1% of people asked whether they believed in God identified themselves as atheists. This compared with only 10.3% in western Germany. Indeed, the survey was unable to find a single person under the age of 28 in eastern Germany who believed in God.[27]

The Maverick Traveler reports:

Eastern Europe isn’t known for its variety of exquisite dishes. Most of the dishes are a combination of three ingredients: bread, potatoes and meat. While it’s very hearty, it’s also very flavorless. If you’re there on a short trip or in the beginning of a more extended sojourn, you might find the food interesting and even exotic, but I can guarantee that you’ll quickly get tired of it.

Once you get tired of going out and eating bland local food, you’ll have two options: go to restaurants that serve international cuisine or cook your own food. The problem with the first option is that the international restaurant scene is rather limited in Eastern Europe.[28]

In recent years, Eastern/Central Europe have been experiencing desecularization (see: Central and Eastern Europe and desecularization).

Irreligion, smoking, altered taste buds and an impaired sense of taste

See also: Irreligion and smoking

The irreligious are more frequently smokers (see: Irreligion and smoking).

Irreligion and smoking

The irreligious are more frequently smokers (see: Irreligion and smoking).

The abstract of the 2012 International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine journal article entitled Religion and smoking: a review of recent literature indicates:

Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke are a major threat to human health worldwide. The effort to prevent tobacco use should be regarded as an important public health strategy. Given the significance of religion and spirituality in the daily life of more than 90% of the world's population, the relationship of religion and smoking should be seen as a critical research area. Religions are many and varied, but most value human well-being highly and so do not approve of tobacco use, even though they do not prohibit it entirely. In recent years, researchers have shown more interest in the subject of religion and health, including drug and tobacco use. Differences of focus and methodology notwithstanding, most studies have ascertained a deterrent role for religion as regards tobacco use, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the negative relationship between religion or spirituality and smoking.[29]

Smoking, altered taste buds and an impaired sense of taste

According to WebMD, cigarette smoking alters taste buds and impairs a person's sense of taste.[30]

So not only are the irreligious, smokers eating bland food in various irreligious cultures, but their food is even blander due to their taste buds being adversely affected by smoking. In addition, irreligious food scientists, chefs and cooks who are smokers are often impaired in terms of carrying out their jobs.

Atheism, culinary arts, inspiration, innovation and science

See also: Atheism, culinary arts, inspiration, innovation and food science and Atheism and culinary science

ECPI University on the culinary arts on inspiration, innovation, teamwork and science

John Updike wrote: "Among the repulsions of atheism for me has been its drastic un-interestingness as an intellectual position. Where was the ingenuity, the ambiguity, the humanity...of saying that the universe just happened to happen and that when we're dead we're dead?".[31] See: Atheism and inspiration

ECPI University in their article Inspiring Culinary Quotes for Future Chefs states: "When you’re studying the culinary arts there are going to be long hours and lots of time on your feet. If you need some inspiration while you work, here are some quotes from famous chefs about food, cooking, and the love of the kitchen." [32]

Below are some of the quotes from the ECPI University article[33]:

"This is my advice to people: Learn how to cook, try new recipes, learn from your mistakes, be fearless, and above all have fun." Julia Child, who hosted a well-known television cooking show[34]

"The kitchen's a laboratory, and everything that happens there has to do with science. It's biology, chemistry, physics. Yes, there's history. Yes, there's artistry. Yes, to all of that. But what happened there, what actually happens to the food is all science." - Alton Brown

"I think the most effective way to run a kitchen is to teach, not to just yell." - Tom Colicchio

"Cooking is like fashion. Always, I like to try to change. If I'm traveling in a different country - to Australia, the Bahamas, Budapest, Moscow - and I see a new ingredient, I like to try it in a new dish." - Nobu Matsuhisa

"My grandfather gave me inspiration to cook, and love food and flavors. My Aunt Raffie, gave me creativity and the inspiration to create new things. My mother inspires me to find simplicity in food." - Giada De Laurentiis

Atheism and inspiration/innovation/teamwork/science

Below are articles relation to atheism and the topics of: inspiration, innovation, the ability to get along with others and science:

Atheism and inspiration/innovation/ability to get along with others

Atheist Jerry Coyne said about atheist meetings: "But to me the speakers and talks have often seemed repetitive: the same crew of jet-set skeptics giving the same talks."[35] Coyne also said about the atheist meetings which he attended that quite a few of the talks were lame.[36]

Atheism and science

Atheism is often called bland, boring, unimaginative and uninspiring

See also: Atheism and inspiration and Atheism, culinary arts, inspiration, innovation and food science

Atheist Francois Tremblay wrote: "One last problem that undermines any propagation of atheism is inspiration. Let's be honest here, "there is no god!" is not a very motivating call for most people."[37]

The atheist blogger Martin Hughes wrote: "Atheism is boring."[38]

The ex-atheist Alister McGrath has repeatedly pointed out the uninspiring nature of atheism.[39][40] According to McGrath, atheism is "stale", "dull" and difficult to believe.[41]

John Updike wrote:

Among the repulsions of atheism for me has been its drastic un-interestingness as an intellectual position. Where was the ingenuity, the ambiguity, the humanity...of saying that the universe just happened to happen and that when we're dead we're dead?".[42]

The British columnist Giles Coren wrote in The Times:

But it’s not the nihilism, the soullessness, the lack of poetry, the moral and physical ugliness, the shallow iconoclasm or the vainglory of atheists that bother me most. It’s the boringness.

Is there anything more boring in the world than an atheist?[43]

In 1839, Isaac Taylor wrote in the novel Saturday Evening, by the Author of Natural History of Enthusiasm, "This at least may most confidently be prognosticated, that the atheism which now is bland, submissive, respectful, crafty will become a creature altogether of altogether another temper....".[44]

In The Guardian, the atheist Jim Al-Khalili wrote about the Christian holiday Christmas, "living in a secular state should never mean one that is bland and homogeneous. Certainly, it should be one in which those of us who wish to can still celebrate Christmas."[45]

In December 2003, the University of Warwick reported: "Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier."[46]

See also: Atheism and happiness

The atheist philosopher Alain de Botton wrote:

The museum shouldn’t be a neutral space for laying out the artworks of the past like a giant library or catalogue. It should be a place to convert you to something.

Try to imagine what would happen if modern secular museums took the example of churches more seriously. What if they too decided that art had a specific purpose — to make us good and wise and kind — and tried to use the art in their possession to prompt us to be so? What if they gave up on the neutral, bland captions they tend to use, and put beneath each picture a really directive set of commands, telling us, for example, ‘Look at this image and remember to be patient’ — or ‘Use this sculpture to meditate on what you too could do to bring about a fairer world?’”[47]

For more information, please see:

French cuisine

See also: French cuisine and French atheism

On July 14, 1789, the Bastille was stormed by a mob and its prisoners freed, which is regarded as the start of the French Revolution.

Due to its past, namely the anti-clerical French Revolution and its after effects, in 2005 France had the 8th highest rate of atheism in the world with 43–54% of the population being atheists/agnostics/non-believers in God.[48] In 2010, in a Eurobarometer poll,[49] 27% of French respondents answered "I believe there is a God", 27% answered "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 40% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".

The French are well-known for their culinary achievements.[50]

The website Cultural Front notes:

In chapter 6 of Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell highlights cultural legacies. He opens with disturbing descriptions of how longstanding cultural patterns and beliefs influenced violent conflicts among generations of families in Kentucky during the 19th century.

The compelling research findings concerning long-term and deeply held values led Gladwell to the conclusion that cultural legacies are powerful forces. They have deep roots and long lives. They persist, generation after generation, virtually intact, even as the economic and social demographic conditions that spawned them have vanished, and they play such a role in directing attitudes and behavior that we cannot make sense of our world without them. He goes on to note the possibilities of “taking cultural legacies seriously” in order to learn “why people succeed and how to make people better.”[51]

The French Revolution occurred in 1789.

A compelling argument can be made that France had a longstanding culinary tradition before it became significantly irreligious. And cultural changes happen slowly.

French cooking, religious immigrants and French cuisine

French scholars say, evangelicalism is likely the fastest-growing religion in France – defying all stereotypes about one of Europe's most secular nations. In 2011 alone, the number of evangelical churches increased from 769 to 2,068.[52]

See also: Desecularization and Growth of global desecularization

France has had a significant amount of Islamic and evangelical immigrants in recent years. Many of France's immigrants are from former French colonies in Africa and Asia. According the Seattle Times article French cuisine, shaped by the immigrant experience, immigration is having an influence on French cuisine.[53]

In April 2010, the British academic and agnostic Eric Kaufmann declared that "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of Protestant Europe and France."[54]

On July 12, 2012, the Christian Science Monitor reported:

French scholars say, evangelicalism is likely the fastest-growing religion in France – defying all stereotypes about Europe’s most secular nation...

Daniel Liechti, vice-president of the French National Evangelical Council, found that since 1970, a new evangelical church has opened in France every 10 days. The number of churches increased from 769 to 2,068 last year.[55]

Recent improvement in France's dining experiences

Paris street photo of a man smoking.

As noted above, the irreligious are more frequently smokers (see: Irreligion and smoking).

Many people feel that smoking in restaurents detracts from the dining experience.

Tourists visiting France often cite smoking as the first culture shock they experience.[56] A survey by travel website Tripadvisor reported that users found that France was by far the "smokiest" country in the world.[57] During the French Revolution, smoke filled Paris cafés turned into centers of lively political discussion and activity, often led by members of the Revolutionary clubs.[58][59]

In 2006, France banned smoking in public places.[60]

Chinese cuisine

A Chinese cook slicing Peking roast duck.

Chinese food is popular in many countries and there are a lot of Chinese people who emmigrated to other countries and established Chinese restaurants (although the food found in many Chinese restaurants outside of China is altered in order to adopt to their local patrons palates).

The Chinese civilization has existed for thousands of years and has both a history of religion/irreligion (see: Religion in China). State atheism did not occur in China until 1949. Much of what was written about French cuisine above in terms of cultural change could be applied to Chinese cuisine.

China has been experiencing an explosive growth of Christianity (see: Growth of Christianity in China).

Irreligious countries with bland food and a religious past

Mexican chefs preparing a meal

See also: Atheism and arrogance and Atheism and intelligence

Atheists have a reputation for arrogance (see: Atheism and arrogance). For example, many atheists have given themselves pretentious monikers such as freethinker, rationalist and "bright" (see: Atheists and pretentious monikers and Brights Movement). In addition, many atheists also engage in scientism and don't recognize the limitations of science.

Given how many atheists/"freethinkers" claim how "free" and how intelligent they are, the lack of more flavorful food in irreligious cultures certainly cannot be blamed on their religious ancestors - especially given all the progress made by food scientists and chefs in recent years when it comes to creating excellent culinary experiences. For example, while British atheists are settling for bland and unimaginative food, there are religious, Mexican chefs creating wonderful dining experiences.

Atheism, gender, chefs and irreligious countries with bland food

A majority atheists are men (see: Atheism and women). Most chefs in fine restaurants are men.[61] And yet, as can be seen above, there have been and are irreligious cultures with bland food.

Spices, health benefits and potential health benefits. Atheism and unscientific medical practices

Journal articles: Spices, health benefits and potential health benefits

Atheism and unscientific medical practices

See also: Atheism and unscientific medical practices

In the Traditional Chinese medicine practice of gua sha, the skin is abraded until red spots then bruising cover the area to which it is performed.

Razib Khanm wrote at Discover Magazine:

...the most secular nations in the world are those of East Asia, in particular what are often termed “Confucian societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian...

This is not to say that East Asia is necessarily a haven for a critical rationalist perspective, what with the prominence of Chinese medicine, geomancy, Korean shamanism...[62]

See also: Asian atheism and Atheist population

Razib Khan points out in Discover Magazine, "most secular nations in the world are those of East Asia, in particular what are often termed “Confucian societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian."[63] See: Asian atheism and Global atheism

East Asia contains about 25 percent of the world’s population. China’s population represents 20 percent of the people on earth.[64]

China has the world's largest atheist population (see: China and atheism).[65][66] China is a communist state which practices state atheism (see: Atheism and communism).

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a type of traditional medicine based on 2,500+ years of Chinese medical practices which includes various types of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage, exercise, and dietary therapy, but recently has also incorporated modern Western medicine. The efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is poorly researched and supported.[67]

The Chinese government's National People’s Congress Standing Committee regulates TCM.[68]

The atheist, communist dictator Mao Zedong revived and heavily promoted Traditional Chinese medicine in China. He didn't believe in it himself, but pushed it as a cheap alternative to real medicine.[69]

Steven Salzberg wrote in Forbes magazine concerning TCM:

The Nature writer, David Cyranoski, presents this news in a classic two-sides-of-the-story format, describing the "endless hours" that TCM proponents spent on such important topics as the "correct location of acupuncture points and less commonly known concepts such as ‘triple energizer meridian’ syndrome." Later in the article (but much later), he points out that scientists have argued that qi and meridians simply don't exist.

Were you thinking this was about health care? Afraid not. Cyranoski goes on to point out some serious problems with TCM, for example:

"Critics view TCM practices as unscientific, unsupported by clinical trials, and sometimes dangerous: China’s drug regulator gets more than 230,000 reports of adverse effects from TCM each year."

Actually, it's much worse than this. Here's what TCM really looks like: the horrific slaughter of the last remaining rhinoceroses in Africa in order to hack off their horns, which are sold to become part of elixirs that some people mistakenly think confer strength, virility, or other health benefits. Last year, National Geographic ran a heart-wrenching photo essay showing some of the awful results of rhinoceros poaching in Africa; take a look at these photos here.

TCM also looks like this: black bears kept in grotesquely cruel "farms" with a permanent tube inserted into their abdomens so that their bile can be harvested. Despite a growing movement to end this inhumane practice (see this NY Times story), it persists today, with thousands of bears kept in cages so small they can barely move. No one can view photos such as these and say that TCM is a good thing...

Well put. On the other hand, Cyranoski does point out that the major motivation for TCM is money:

"[China] has been aggressively promoting TCM on the international stage both for expanding its global influence and for a share of the estimated US$50-billion global market."...

As the Nature article points out, TCM has been a scam for decades: it was revived and heavily promoted in China by former dictator Mao Zedong, who didn't believe in it himself, but pushed it as a cheap alternative to real medicine.[70]

See also:

Jesus and the healthy Mediterranean diet. The Mosaic Law and health

Atheism, evolutionism, Britain and food science

See also: Atheism, evolutionism, Britain and food science and Evolution

evolution darwin theory
Late in Charles Darwin's life, Darwin told the Duke of Argyll that he frequently had overwhelming thoughts that the natural world was the result of design.[71] See also: 15 questions for evolutionists

As noted above, since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics.[72]

Charles Darwin (12 February 1809–19 April 1882) was a famous naturalist born in Britain. He is best known for popularizing the idea of evolution by natural selection presented in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (commonly referred to simply as The Origin of Species).

There is a cult of personality and type of religiosity currently surrounding Charles Darwin. Stephen Jay Gould wrote the following in 1978: ""... all theories [of natural selection] cite God in their support, and ... Darwin comes close to this status among evolutionary biologists ...".[73] In 2002, Michael White similarly wrote: "Of course today, for biologists, Darwin is second only to God, and for many he may rank still higher."[74]

As noted above, the Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public". (bolding in the quote added for emphasis)[75]

Britain, is the birthplace of Darwinism and the British naturalist Darwin made evolutionary ideas popular. Thus, Britain is arguably the fountainhead of evolutionary ideas.

Stephen Wolfram in his book A New Kind of Science has stated that the Darwinian theory of evolution has, in recent years, "increasingly been applied outside of biology."[76]

And yet, as noted above, International food authority Andrew Zimmern said of Britain's food: “Twenty years ago the food of the British Isles was universally considered to be among the world’s worst—boring, bland and boiled.”[77]

Britain's scientific community, despite having over 100 years post Charles Darwin, failed to substantially improve Britain's food science practices and biology is an integral part of food science.

In addition, Britain's evolutionists staunchly defend evolutionism despite its major and numerous flaws (See: 15 questions for evolutionists and Problems with evolutionary theory).

On the other hand, the United States which has the highest rate of creationism in the developed world and a long history of significant immigration, likely has a much greater plentitude of flavorful, ethnic restaurants such as Mexican, Italian, Japanese, French, Greek, Thai, Spanish, Indian and Mediterranean restaurants than Britain - despite Britain having a history of a lot of bland food.[78] For example, London, one of Britain's most ethnic cities has about 200 restaurants per capita while New York City has 300 restaurants per capita (Paris, France has about 365 restaurants per capita).[79] On top of this, a great many of the ethnic restaurants in London are run by religious immigrants from Africa, the Carribean, Turkey, Poland, and Latino countries and and are definitely not atheists.[80]

Notes and references

  1. Heldman, Dennis R. "IFT and the Food Science Profession." Food Technology. October 2006. p. 11.
  2. A big appetite for data, Institute of Food Science & Technology website
  3. Making A Beef About Soviet Food
  4. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  5. http://www.npr.org/2013/11/13/244600582/new-nordics-cool-but-old-scandinavian-food-holds-its-own
  6. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  7. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  8. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  9. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  10. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  11. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  12. "Iceland Ranks High on World Atheist List". Iceland Review. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
  13. "GLOBAL INDEX OF RELIGION AND ATHEISM" (PDF).
  14. http://www.npr.org/2013/11/13/244600582/new-nordics-cool-but-old-scandinavian-food-holds-its-own
  15. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  16. Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, p. 204". Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
  17. Five myths about British food
  18. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  19. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  20. Black in Berlin: Surviving Germany’s Food Culture, Parlour Magazine
  21. Czech alcohol consumption figures highlight rising number of problem drinkers, 23-02-2011 16:29 | Chris Johnstone
  22. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  23. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  24. Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses (Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 2010-03-09.
  25. Estonians least religious in the world. EU Observer (11 February 2009). Retrieved on 9 January 2014.
  26. Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth
  27. 13 Things They Don’t Tell You About Eastern Europe by James Maverick, Maverick Treveler
  28. [Religion and smoking: a review of recent literature.] by Garrusi B1, Nakhaee N., International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine , 2012;43(3):279-92.
  29. Cigarette Smoking Dulls Taste, WebMD
  30. Updike, John (1989). Self-Consciousness: Memoirs (New York, NY: Knopf), ch. 4.
  31. Inspiring Culinary Quotes for Future Chefs, ECPI University
  32. Inspiring Culinary Quotes for Future Chefs, ECPI University
  33. Inspiring Culinary Quotes for Future Chefs, ECPI University
  34. Are there too many atheist meetings? by Jerry Coyne
  35. Are there too many atheist meetings? by Jerry Coyne
  36. Herding Cats: Why Atheism Will Lose by Francois Tremblay
  37. Atheism Is Boring by Martin Hughes
  38. Clear Voices 2014 - Alister McGrath - C. S. Lewis’s Vision of the Christianity
  39. In the Aftermath: Provocations and Laments By David Bentley Hart, page 136
  40. Updike, John (1989). Self-Consciousness: Memoirs (New York, NY: Knopf), ch. 4.
  41. I don’t believe it – they’re doing atheism at GCSE by Niles Coren
  42. Saturday Evening, by the Author of Natural History of Enthusiasm by Isaac Taylor, 1839
  43. Why this atheist celebrates Christmas by Jim Al-Khalili, The Guardian
  44. Psychology researcher says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism
  45. Do atheists have anything to learn from religion? byBy Kimberly Winston| Religion News Service, March 26, 2012
  46. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  47. Eurobarometer report on Biotechnology (2010). Archived from the original on 15 December 2010.
  48. A Brief Introduction to French Food and Cooking BY Rebecca Franklin
  49. Outliers & Cultural Legacies
  50. In a France suspicious of religion, evangelicalism's message strikes a chord
  51. French cuisine, shaped by the immigrant experience, Seattle Times
  52. British academic Eric Kaufmann says "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of Protestant Europe and France". Also, Kaufmann writes that secularism "appears exhausted and lacking in confidence"
  53. In a France suspicious of religion, evangelicalism's message strikes a chord
  54. The French and smoking: Is France really 'Europe's chimney'
  55. The French and smoking: Is France really 'Europe's chimney'
  56. Fierro, Alfred (1996). Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris. Robert Laffont. p. 743. ISBN 2-221-07862-4.
  57. French revolution in cafe society
  58. What You Need to Know About Smoking in France
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