Difference between revisions of "Atlanta"

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===1860-1920===
 
===1860-1920===
 
The Civil War saw Atlanta as the main object of General [[William T. Sherman]]'s attacks in 1864. Confederates burned the downtown as Sherman approached, but it was quickly rebuilt.  
 
The Civil War saw Atlanta as the main object of General [[William T. Sherman]]'s attacks in 1864. Confederates burned the downtown as Sherman approached, but it was quickly rebuilt.  
 +
 +
With its central location and excellent railroad connections, Atlanta became a major commercial center. Local entrepreneurs then 9and now) heavily ptomoted tourism and conventions. Atlanta hospitality businesses, especially hotels, saloons, and theaters, grew rapidly from 1880 to 1900. Three major expositions and a convention attracted tens of thousands of visitors: the International Cotton Exposition (1881), the National Commercial Convention (1885), the Piedmont Exposition (1887), and the Cotton States and International Exposition (1895).<ref> Harvey K. Newman, "Atlanta's Hospitality Businesses in the New South Era, 1880-1900." ''Georgia Historical Quarterly'' 1996 80(1): 53-76. 0016-8297 </Ref>
 
====Progressive Era====
 
====Progressive Era====
 +
Philip Weltner (1887-1981) was a major civic leader from the [[Progressive Movement|Progressive era of the early 20th century]] to the 1960s. A lawyer who was both a reformer of social ills and a shaper of welfare, higher education, and philanthropic programs in Georgia, Weltner preferred to remain anonymous, letting others take credit for efforts in which he played a significant role. Obtaining support from wealthy and influential men such as John Eagan, Joseph Logan, Marion Jackson, and Robert W. Woodruff, Weltner helped people better themselves in the areas of housing, health, labor conditions, prison life, and small farm enterprises. He helped establish and served on Georgia University System's Board of Regents and served as regional director of the Resettlement Administration. He also restored fiscal soundness to and gained accreditation for Oglethorpe University, where he was president for ten years.<ref> Noell Wannamaker, "'Mr. Anonymous, Jr.': Philip Weltner and Uplift from Progressivism to the Great Society." ''Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians'' 1995 16: 16-51. 0275-3867 </Ref>
 +
 
In early-20th-century Atlanta, police often arrested or detained young working-class women who frequented cheap theaters and other places of amusement. The stated object was to protect women from becoming victims of prostitution and other vices, but it seems to have been more a Progressive Era technique to control male vice. It was easier and less controversial to control women's activities than to attempt to control the entertainment businesses. The coming of World War I in 1917 and the presence of a large Army facility at nearby Camp Gordon intensified the enforcement efforts and prompted the hiring of full-fledged policewomen, an Atlanta "first," to more effectively patrol the streets and inspect commercial establishments where prostitution was suspected.<ref>Georgina  Hickey, "Waging War on 'Loose Living Hotels' and 'Cheap Soda Water Joints': The Criminalization of Working-Class Women in Atlanta's Public Space." ''Georgia Historical Quarterly'' 1998 82(4): 775-800. 0016-8297 </Ref>  
 
In early-20th-century Atlanta, police often arrested or detained young working-class women who frequented cheap theaters and other places of amusement. The stated object was to protect women from becoming victims of prostitution and other vices, but it seems to have been more a Progressive Era technique to control male vice. It was easier and less controversial to control women's activities than to attempt to control the entertainment businesses. The coming of World War I in 1917 and the presence of a large Army facility at nearby Camp Gordon intensified the enforcement efforts and prompted the hiring of full-fledged policewomen, an Atlanta "first," to more effectively patrol the streets and inspect commercial establishments where prostitution was suspected.<ref>Georgina  Hickey, "Waging War on 'Loose Living Hotels' and 'Cheap Soda Water Joints': The Criminalization of Working-Class Women in Atlanta's Public Space." ''Georgia Historical Quarterly'' 1998 82(4): 775-800. 0016-8297 </Ref>  
  
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The segregation did not prevent racial violence, most notably the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906. Racial tensions were intensified by a long and bitter campaign for governor in which both white candidates called for the complete exclusion of blacks from the political process. Following a series of wild rumoors of wanton black attacks on white women, a race riot erupted in the city in which whites attacked blacks on the street. Spurred on by lurid newspaper accounts of black rapists and rumors of black insurrection, roving gangs of white males attacked African Americans wherever they could find them in the downtown area and in nearby black neighborhoods. After the riot geographical segregation intensified.<ref> See Mark Bauerlein, ''Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906.'' (2001) [http://www.questia.com/library/book/negrophobia-a-race-riot-in-atlanta-1906-by-mark-bauerlein.jsp online]. </ref>
 
The segregation did not prevent racial violence, most notably the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906. Racial tensions were intensified by a long and bitter campaign for governor in which both white candidates called for the complete exclusion of blacks from the political process. Following a series of wild rumoors of wanton black attacks on white women, a race riot erupted in the city in which whites attacked blacks on the street. Spurred on by lurid newspaper accounts of black rapists and rumors of black insurrection, roving gangs of white males attacked African Americans wherever they could find them in the downtown area and in nearby black neighborhoods. After the riot geographical segregation intensified.<ref> See Mark Bauerlein, ''Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906.'' (2001) [http://www.questia.com/library/book/negrophobia-a-race-riot-in-atlanta-1906-by-mark-bauerlein.jsp online]. </ref>
  
By the 1920s, Auburn Avenue was already home to a wide range of black-owned and black-operated businesses, such as insurance companies, banks, a newspaper, barber and beauty shops, restaurants, grocery stores, photo studios, and funeral homes that provided African Americans the services denied them in the larger urban community. Freed from competition with white businessmen and assured the patronage of Atlanta's black community, many black entrepreneurs and their businesses prospered under Jim Crow.  
+
By the 1920s, Auburn Avenue was already home to a wide range of black-owned and black-operated businesses, such as insurance companies, banks, a newspaper, barber and beauty shops, restaurants, grocery stores, photo studios, and funeral homes that provided African Americans the services denied them in the larger urban community. Freed from competition with white businessmen and assured the patronage of Atlanta's black community, many black entrepreneurs and their businesses prospered under Jim Crow.
 +
 
 
===1920-1960===
 
===1920-1960===
  

Revision as of 18:26, May 3, 2009

Atlanta is a city and metropolitan area in Georgia; the city is the state capital of Georgia and has a population of 477,000 inside the city limits in 2008; adding in the suburbs, the Atlanta metropolitan area had a population of 5,376,000 in 2008, up from 2.9 million in 1990, making it the 9th largest in the United States. [1].

Atlanta has been growing rapidly, but has been hit hard by the national Recession of 2008, ranking behind only Phoenix in the number of job losses among the 13 largest metro areas in 2008.

Atlanta is home to the busiest airport in the world (both by number of people that fly though and by number of takeoffs and landings) the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport[2]

A large majority of Atlantans attend church regularly and the city is a major center in the Southern Baptist conventions.

History

Atlanta began as a railroad town in 1837, when the Western and Atlantic Railroad selected an uninhabited site for its western terminus. Here, a small settlement, aptly named Terminus, was built; its name was changed to Marthasville in 1843 and finally to Atlanta in 1845. With the arrival of two other railroads, Atlanta became a major crossroads and the center of a fast growing transportation network. Wholesalers and bankers located in Atlanta, making it pne of the the main inland commercial centers of the Southeast. An important founder was John James "Cousin John" Thrasher (1818-99), an entrepreneur who built railroads in Georgia. Thrasher represented Fulton County in the state legislature during 1859-63, and during the Civil War his Atlanta home was used as a headquarters by the Confederate Army. After the war, Thrasher helped the South rebuild by constructing civic buildings and railroads.

By the eve of the Civil War, Atlanta, with a population of more than 9,000, was the fourth largest city in Georgia.

1860-1920

The Civil War saw Atlanta as the main object of General William T. Sherman's attacks in 1864. Confederates burned the downtown as Sherman approached, but it was quickly rebuilt.

With its central location and excellent railroad connections, Atlanta became a major commercial center. Local entrepreneurs then 9and now) heavily ptomoted tourism and conventions. Atlanta hospitality businesses, especially hotels, saloons, and theaters, grew rapidly from 1880 to 1900. Three major expositions and a convention attracted tens of thousands of visitors: the International Cotton Exposition (1881), the National Commercial Convention (1885), the Piedmont Exposition (1887), and the Cotton States and International Exposition (1895).[3]

Progressive Era

Philip Weltner (1887-1981) was a major civic leader from the Progressive era of the early 20th century to the 1960s. A lawyer who was both a reformer of social ills and a shaper of welfare, higher education, and philanthropic programs in Georgia, Weltner preferred to remain anonymous, letting others take credit for efforts in which he played a significant role. Obtaining support from wealthy and influential men such as John Eagan, Joseph Logan, Marion Jackson, and Robert W. Woodruff, Weltner helped people better themselves in the areas of housing, health, labor conditions, prison life, and small farm enterprises. He helped establish and served on Georgia University System's Board of Regents and served as regional director of the Resettlement Administration. He also restored fiscal soundness to and gained accreditation for Oglethorpe University, where he was president for ten years.[4]

In early-20th-century Atlanta, police often arrested or detained young working-class women who frequented cheap theaters and other places of amusement. The stated object was to protect women from becoming victims of prostitution and other vices, but it seems to have been more a Progressive Era technique to control male vice. It was easier and less controversial to control women's activities than to attempt to control the entertainment businesses. The coming of World War I in 1917 and the presence of a large Army facility at nearby Camp Gordon intensified the enforcement efforts and prompted the hiring of full-fledged policewomen, an Atlanta "first," to more effectively patrol the streets and inspect commercial establishments where prostitution was suspected.[5]

Leo Frank, Jewish co-owner of an Atlanta pencil factory, was convicted in 1913 of murdering Mary Phagan, a 13-year-old white Catholic employee, but after his sentence was commuted by the governor of Georgia in 1915, he was taken by a mob from a Milledgeville, Georgia, prison and lynched. Many historians believe he was innocent in the first place and was the victim of anti-Semitism.

As a center for religion and publishing Atlanta could not rival Nashville, but it made its mark. John Melvin Henson (1887-1972) was an Atlanta-based composer and publisher of gospel music songbooks, and the proprietor of the J. M. Henson Music Company. Henson's company and the gospel songbooks he published were central to the gospel singing conventions that were popular in the South before World War II but declined thereafter.[6]

Black Atlanta

Few blacks had lived in Atlanta before the war but by 1867 almost 9,000 African Americans and 10,000 whites migrated to the city. By 1870 blacks numbered over 12,000 and made up almost one half of the city's population.

In the rapid growth of the 1870s race and class determined of residential location. Rich whites lived in mansions near the center of the city with the poor (both black and white) on the urban periphery. Emerging black settlements in Atlanta, as in many other southern cities, were further relegated to the most undesirable areas of the city: back alleys; low-lying, flood-prone ground; industrial sites; and tracts of land adjacent to railroads, cemeteries, city dumps, and slaughter houses. Most blacks lived imits in Jenningstown on the west side, Summer Hill to the south, Shermantown on the east side, and Mechanicsville in the southwestern. They worked as unskilled laborers and domestic servants. About 90% of the unskilled laborers in 1900 were black. Most blacks were poor but some prospered, including undertakers, barbers, insurance company entrepreneurs, hotel owners and grocers; they catered to black clients. The black leadership class also included politicians, preachers and teachers. With little aid from government before 1910, blacks created their own self-help welfare agencies that operated orphanages and insurance funds, health centers, youth clubs, and vocational education. The First Congregational Church of Atlanta, with financial support from new England, sponsored a home for black working women, business and cooking schools, a kindergarten, and an employment bureau. Similar community aervices and programs were provided by the city's other leading black churches such as Big Bethel A.M.E. Church and Wheat Street Baptist Church.

The blacks made Atlanta their national center for higher education. Atlanta University was founded by the American Missionary Association in 1865. Atlanta Baptist College for men (now Morehouse College) opened in 1867, and Clark University, supported by the Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was established in 1870. The final two schools of what would later become the Atlanta University Center -- Morris Brown College, affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.), and Spelman Seminary (Spelman College) for women, a Baptist school -- opened in 1881. At first these were advanced secondary schools, this nucleus of black higher provided important educational and training opportunities for Atlanta's black students and contributed to the growth of what by 1910 was a large and well-educated black middle class second in size only to Washington. By contrast the public school system lagged far behind, so that working class black Atlanta had low levels of schooling.

Not until the 1920s did Atlanta open its first black public high school. It came about because blacks worked through their churches to vote in city bond referendums and negotiated with the Commission on Interracial Cooperation to gain a commitment from the board of education to build a black high school. It was located on the west side of town, where pioneer black businessman, banker, realtor, and builder Heman Perry was already developing new homes for Atlanta's upscale blacks.

It was the era of Jim Crow and by 1880 all public spaces and transportation lines were racially segregated, with inferior facilities for blacks. As the population surged 1880-1910 blue collar workers moved to the city and entrepreneurs built rental housing for them. Real estate agents sold property for development of cheaply built rental homes. Unlike other cities, such houses were mixed in with more upscale middle-class homes, making neighbors of skilled and unskilled whites and African Americans. There was little neighborhood segregation by race or class, although the races did mingle socially. Industrial jobs within walking distance made the housing attractuive. By 1910 neighborhoods were becoming class and race conscious, and the people who had rented houses on their property to working-class whites and blacks were moving to segregated, middle-class suburbs.[7]

The segregation did not prevent racial violence, most notably the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906. Racial tensions were intensified by a long and bitter campaign for governor in which both white candidates called for the complete exclusion of blacks from the political process. Following a series of wild rumoors of wanton black attacks on white women, a race riot erupted in the city in which whites attacked blacks on the street. Spurred on by lurid newspaper accounts of black rapists and rumors of black insurrection, roving gangs of white males attacked African Americans wherever they could find them in the downtown area and in nearby black neighborhoods. After the riot geographical segregation intensified.[8]

By the 1920s, Auburn Avenue was already home to a wide range of black-owned and black-operated businesses, such as insurance companies, banks, a newspaper, barber and beauty shops, restaurants, grocery stores, photo studios, and funeral homes that provided African Americans the services denied them in the larger urban community. Freed from competition with white businessmen and assured the patronage of Atlanta's black community, many black entrepreneurs and their businesses prospered under Jim Crow.

1920-1960

The December 1939 premier of David O. Selznick's film version of Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone With The Wind was an unprecedented and unconventional success, marking both a new watermark in film promotion and a milestone in Atlanta's efforts to remake itself as the capital of the New South. It was a segregated event. The best-selling novel and the top-selling film ever gave Atlanta a heroic image worldwide.[9]

1960 to present

Maddox and die-hard segregationists

Atlanta adjusted smoothly to the end of segregation in 1965 with one major exception. Restaurant owner Lester Maddox and his wife Virginia worked tirelessly to galvanize Atlanta's white-supremacist population against integration in the early 1960s. Even though the city ultimately rejected segregation to foster rapid economic growth, Maddox gained statewide support and was eventually elected governor of Georgia.[10]

Emory

Emory University made the transition from a regional Methodist college to a major national research university after 1980 thanks to a combination of external trends and circumstances and internal decisions and strategies. The growth of Atlanta's population and wealth helped end a legacy of poverty and lack of research scientists that had hindered the development of research and graduate programs in Southern universities. The Atlanta-based Coca-Cola Corporation and its owners provided endowments throughout the 20th century that provided significant financial support to the university, although a $105 million Candler bequest in 1979 got the most attention. In addition to the advantage of a key benefactor, Emory had a succession of university presidents committed to making it one of the nation's leading research facilities. Finally, a policy of moderate expansion and careful fiscal management sustained it through an uneven course from the 1950s through the 1990s - although it did not achieve national research status until the late 1980s and 1990s.[11]

Upscaling housing

Gentrification transformed inner city neighborhoods after 1980 as upscale white and Asian families became attracted to the locational advantages of in-town living. Neighborhoods such as Inman Park, Virginia Highlands, East Lake, and Oakhurst witnessed dramatic increases in property values in a short period of time.[12]

Techwood Homes was a federally funded public housing project in Atlanta, originally conceived as a slum clearance project by private developers in 1932. It became a New Deal PWA (Public Works Administration) project that replaced impoverished slumdwellers with white working-class residents. In the 1980s the rehabilitation of the buildings became a political issue, accelerating in controversy as Atlanta was named the site for the 1996 Olympics. The Atlanta Housing Authority and private developers successfully circumvented Housing and Urban Development rules to displace Techwood residents. Despite the integrity of the building structures and estimates that they would last for another sixty years, the buildings were demolished in 1995. Techwood was replaced by upscale housing, and two thirds of the former residents were given replacement public housing. [13]

Air transport

The relationship between cities and their airports has increased in significance since the widespread introduction of commercial jet passenger aviation in the 1960s. Atlanta was a model for other cities such as Dallas and Denver because of the active roles of its major airline, Delta, and the close ties between airline, city, and airport authorities. Delta and therefore Atlanta came to dominate air travel in the entire Southeast. Delta's pioneering hub-and-spoke system formed a blueprint for other airlines in the United States following deregulation in 1978, while the contribution Atlanta's airport made to the local economy aroused the interest of other growth oriented cities. [14]

Sports in Atlanta

Atlanta hosted the 1996 Summer Olympic Games.[15] The Olympics stimulated the local economy in the years leading up to the games; they also were quite successful in promoting tourism and attracting business to the region. The city acquired a new stadium and other sports facilities. The games also were an incentive to make a number of improvements in urban design and infrastructure. However, inner-city neighborhoods were never redeveloped as originally anticipated. Reliance on private funding and a fragmented organizational structure were key factors that limited Atlanta's ability to use the Olympics as a vehicle for redevelopment.[16]

Further reading

  • Allen, Frederick. Atlanta Rising: The Invention of an International City, 1946-1996. Atlanta: Longstreet, 1996. 290 pp.
  • Barnard, Susan Kessler. Buckhead: A Place For All Time. Marietta, Ga.: Bemis, 1996. 270 pp.
  • Bauerlein, Mark. Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906. (2001). 337 pp. online edition
  • Bayor, Ronald H. Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta. (1996). 334 pp. by a leading scholar
  • Braden, Betsy and Hagan, Paul. A Dream Takes Flight: Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport and Aviation in Atlanta. (1989). 252 pp.
  • Daniel, Wayne W. Pickin' on Peachtree: A History of Country Music in Atlanta, Georgia. (1990). 295 pp.
  • Davis, Harold E. Henry Grady's New South: Atlanta, a Brave and Beautiful City. (1990). 254 pp.
  • Doyle, Don H. New Men, New Cities, New South: Atlanta, ashville, Charleston, Mobile, 1860-1910. (1990). 369 pp. by a leading scholar online edition
  • Ferguson, Karen. Black Politics in New Deal Atlanta. (2002). 336 pp. online edition
  • Garrison, Webb. Atlanta and the Civil War. Nashville: Rutledge Hill, 1995. 283 pp.
  • Greenhouse, Carol J. Praying for Justice: Faith, Order, and Community in an American Town. (1986). 222 pp. on Southern Baptists
  • Hunter, Floyd. Community Power Succession: Atlanta's Policy-Makers Revisited. (1980). 198 pp. political scientist examines the power elite
  • Keating, Larry. Atlanta: Race, Class, and Urban Expansion. (2000). 232 pp.
  • Martin, Harold H. Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events. Vol. 3: Years of Change and Challenge, 1940-1970. (1987). 620 pp.
  • Martin, Harold H. William Berry Hartsfield: Mayor of Atlanta. (1978). 230 pp.
  • Mason, Herman, Jr. Going against the Wind: A Pictorial History of African Americans in Atlanta. Atlanta: Longstreet, 1992. 254 pp.
  • Newman, Harvey K. Southern Hospitality: Tourism and the Growth of Atlanta. (1999). 374 pp.
  • Preston, Howard L. Automobile Age Atlanta: The Making of a Southern Metropolis, 1900-1935. (1979). 203 pp.
  • Rabinowitz, Howard N. Race Relations in the Urban South, 1865-1890. (1980).
  • Roth, Darlene R. and Ambrose, Andy. Metropolitan Frontiers: A Short History of Atlanta. Atlanta: Longstreet, 1996. 226 pp.
  • Russell, James Michael. Atlanta, 1847-1890: City Building in the Old South and the New. (1988). 314 pp.
  • Rutheiser, Charles. Imagineering Atlanta: The Politics of Place in the City of Dreams. (1996). 324 pp.
  • Shelley, Thomas J. Paul J. Hallinan: First Archbishop of Atlanta. (1989). 371 pp. Catholics
  • Sjoquist, David L., ed. The Atlanta Paradox. (2000). 300 pp., current politics
  • Smith, Douglas L. The New Deal in the Urban South. (1988). 287 pp. covers Atlanta, Memphis, New Orleans and Birmingham
  • Stone, Clarence N. Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, 1946-1988. (1989). 314 pp.
  • Watts, Eugene J. The Social Bases of City Politics: Atlanta, 1865-1903. (1978). 188 pp. quantitative history

Primary source

  • Kuhn, Clifford M.; Joye, Harlon E.; and West, E. Bernard, eds. Living Atlanta: An Oral History of the City, 1914-1948. (1990). 406 pp.


References

  1. see Census Press release March 19, 2009
  2. [1] Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport - About us
  3. Harvey K. Newman, "Atlanta's Hospitality Businesses in the New South Era, 1880-1900." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1996 80(1): 53-76. 0016-8297
  4. Noell Wannamaker, "'Mr. Anonymous, Jr.': Philip Weltner and Uplift from Progressivism to the Great Society." Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians 1995 16: 16-51. 0275-3867
  5. Georgina Hickey, "Waging War on 'Loose Living Hotels' and 'Cheap Soda Water Joints': The Criminalization of Working-Class Women in Atlanta's Public Space." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1998 82(4): 775-800. 0016-8297
  6. Wayne W. Daniel, "J. M. Henson, Gospel Music Entrepreneur." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 1996 57(4): 147-153. 0040-3253
  7. Leeann Bishop Lands, "Speculators Attention!" Workers and Rental Housing Development in Atlanta, 1880 To 1910. Journal of Urban History 2002 28(5): 546-572. 0096-1442
  8. See Mark Bauerlein, Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906. (2001) online.
  9. Matthew Bernstein, "Selznick's March: The Atlanta Premiere of Gone With The Wind." Atlanta History 1999 43(2): 7-33. 0896-3975
  10. Justin Nystrom, "Segregation's Last Stand: Lester Maddox and the Transformation of Atlanta" Atlanta History 2001 45(2): 34-51. 0896-3975
  11. Nancy Diamond, "Catching Up: The Advance of Emory University since World War II." History of Higher Education Annual (1999) 19: 149-183. 0737-2698
  12. Dona J. Stewart, "Hot 'Lanta's Urban Expansion and Cultural Landscape Change." Geographical Review 1999 89(1): 132-140. 0016-7428
  13. Keating, Larry and Carol A. Flores, "Sixty and out: Techwood Homes Transformed by Enemies and Friends" Journal of Urban History 2000 26(3): 275-311. 0096-1442
  14. Drew Whitelegg, Keeping Their Eyes on the Skies: Jet Aviation, Delta Air Lines and the Growth of Atlanta. Journal of Transport History 2000 21(1): 73-91. 0022-5266
  15. Gregory D. Andranovich et al. Olympic Dreams: The Impact of Mega-Events on Local Politics (2001), Chap. 5 "Atlanta and the 1996 Summer Games"; online
  16. Steven P. French, and Mike E. Disher, "Atlanta and the Olympics: A One-Year Retrospective." Journal of the American Planning Association 1997 63(3): 379-392. 0194-4363