Last modified on November 2, 2021, at 17:45

Bariatric science

Most individuals are overweight due to their dietary and exercise habits.[1]

Bariatric science is the branch of medical science that deals with the causes, prevention, treatment/control of obesity and its allied diseases.[2]

Causes of obesity

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[3]

See also: Causes of obesity

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[4] Most individuals are overweight due to their dietary and exercise habits.[5]

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[6] In addition, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[7][8][9]

Although obesity is usually the result of overeating and lack of exercise, in a small percentage of cases excess weight gain is a symptom of a disease such as hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome.[10]

Genetics of an individual generally plays a small role

Although many people attempt to excuse away their overweight condition on their genetic makeup rather than exercise self-discipline when it comes to their diet and exercise habits, according to the Harvard University School of Public Health, most people can maintain a healthy weight through the establishment of healthy habits and maintaining an environment conducive to good health (emptying their refrigerator and cupboards of junk foods, etc.).[11]

The Harvard University School of Public Health declares in their article Genes are not destiny:’s important to remember that overall, the contribution of genes to obesity risk is small, while the contribution of our toxic food and activity environment is huge. As one scientist wrote, “Genes may co-determine who becomes obese, but our environment determines how many become obese.” That’s why obesity prevention efforts must focus on changing our environment to make healthy choices easier choices, for all.[12]

Internet and computer usage

In 2009, an Australian university study was done concerning the association between leisure time internet and computer use with being overweight/obese and also sedentary.[13] The study concluded: "These findings suggest that, apart from nutritional and physical activity interventions, it may also be necessary to decrease time spent in sedentary behaviors, such as leisure-time Internet and computer use, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity."[14]


See also: Atheism and obesity and Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

Secular Europe and communist China have significant problems with obesity (see: Secular Europe and obesity and China and obesity). In addition, Australia has a significant problem with obesity (see: Australia, irreligion and obesity). In the United States at the present time, the greater the degree of irreligiosity in a generation, the higher their obesity rate is. According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[15] For more information, please see Atheism and obesity.

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[16][17] Furthermore, a 2012 Queen's University study published in Psychological Science found that religion replenishes self-control.[18][19] Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.[20][21]

For more information, please see: Atheism and obesity

Weight loss methods

The 20% of overweight people who are able to achieve permanent weight loss typically report doing it through engaging in high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends.[22] Overweight individuals may need to decrease their computer and internet usage.[23]

Below are some resources related to weight loss:

General weight loss tips:

Weight loss resources and tips:

Strength training and cardio exercise:

Other resources on how much exercise is needed to lose weight and importance of one day of rest per week:

Documentary on weight loss:


Irvingia gabonensis:

Spiritual support:

Bariatric surgery:

Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity

See also: Health risks linked to obesity

Some of the medical conditions associated with obesity include: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and triglycerides, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, arthritis, cancer, sleep apnea, reproductive problems in women and varicose veins.[24] According to the National Cancer Institute, "obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of the esophagus, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium (the lining of the uterus), colon and rectum, kidney, pancreas, thyroid, gallbladder, and possibly other cancer types."[25] In addition, medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[26]

Medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[27]

According to the Mayo Clinic some of the symptoms associated with obesity can include:

  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Snoring
  • Sleep apnea
  • Pain in your back or joints
  • Excessive sweating
  • Always feeling hot
  • Rashes or infection in folds of your skin
  • Feeling out of breath with minor exertion
  • Daytime sleepiness or fatigue

Other problems associated with obesity include:

  • Negative effects on lung function/respiratory disease: According to Harvard University's School of Public Health: "Excess weight impairs respiratory function via mechanical and metabolic pathways. The accumulation of abdominal fat, for example, may limit the descent of the diaphragm, and in turn, lung expansion, while the accumulation of visceral fat can reduce the flexibility of the chest wall, sap respiratory muscle strength, and narrow airways in the lungs. Cytokines generated by the low-grade inflammatory state that accompanies obesity may also impede lung function."[29]
  • Feet/ankles problems: According to Stuart D. Miller, M.D.: "It is important for the public to know that obesity isn't just an aesthetic issue, but a contributing cause of musculoskeletal health problems, specifically with the feet and ankles."[33]
  • Lower levels of balance recovery and increased risk of falls: In her thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, entitled A modeling investigation of obesity and balance recovery, Sara Louise Matrangola writes in the abstract: "Obesity is associated with an increased risk of falls and subsequent injury. Previous studies have shown weight loss and strength training to be beneficial to balance, but knowing which is more beneficial will allow researchers to design interventions to maximize the benefits in terms of balance and reducing risk of falls."[34]
  • Increased morbidity risk.[35]

Obesity and increases in cancer risk

The South China Morning Post reported that according the British medical journal Lancet:

Each five kg/m {+2} increase in BMI was clearly linked with higher risk of cancers of the uterus (62 per cent increase), gallbladder (31 per cent), kidney (25 per cent), cervix (10 per cent), thyroid (9 per cent), and leukemia (9 per cent)," said the statement. Higher BMI also increased the risk of cancer of the liver (19 per cent), colon (10 per cent), ovaries (9 per cent) and breast (5 per cent), although the effect on these types was influenced by other factors."[36]

According to Cancer Risk UK, "More than one in three people in the UK will be diagnosed with some form of cancer during their lifetime".[37]

Increased morbidity risk

On September 2, 2014, the New York Times wrote concerning Britain:

In high-income countries, excess weight is the third-leading risk factor in death. The importance of addressing this was brought home again last month with the publication of a new study and editorial, also in The Lancet. The work looked at 22 different cancers in Britain and their association with body mass index (B.M.I.), a simple but more effective measure of obesity than weight alone. The conclusions of the study, which involved a whopping 5.24 million people, were both notable and not entirely unexpected: When adjusted for factors like age and smoking, a higher B.M.I. was associated with a large increase in risk of cancers of the uterus, kidney, gallbladder, and liver, and smaller risk increases for at least six other types of cancer.[38]

See also



  1. Definition of the bariatric
  6. Medical causes of obesity
  7. Obesity - Genes are not destiny
  8. Obesity - Genes are not destiny
  11. Very Religious Americans Lead Healthier Lives, Gallup Poll, 2010
  12. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  14. Religion Replenishes Self-Control, Psychological Science, June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University
  15. Study finds religion helps us gain self-control
  16. Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C., Health Psychol. 2000 May;19(3):211-22.
  17. The role of spirituality in health care, roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 October; 14(4): 352–357.
  18. Long-term weight loss maintenance, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2005 July; 82(1 Suppl):222S-225S.
  20. National Cancer Institute - Obesity and Cancer risk
  22. Harvard University - School of Public Health, Health risks of obesity
  23. How obesity is linked to infertility
  24. Why are the years 2012 and 2020 key years for Christian creationists and pro-lifers?
  25. Globally the worldviews of atheism and non-religious (agnostic) are declining while global Christianity is exploding in adherents
  26. Survey Suggests Obesity May Cause Foot Problems
  27. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, entitled A modeling investigation of obesity and balance recoveryby Sara Louise Matrangola
  28. Will China Defeat Obesity? By MARK BITTMANSEPT. 2, 2014
  29. Obesity increases risk of having 10 common cancers, study shows, South China Morning Post, Thursday, 14 August 2014, 9:42pm
  30. Cancer Risk UK - Lifetime risk of cancer
  31. Will China Defeat Obesity? By MARK BITTMANSEPT. 2, 2014