|Flag||Coat of Arms|
|Monarch||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Prime minister||Dean Oliver Barrow|
|Area||8,867 sq mi|
|GDP per capita||$8,400 (2006)|
Belize is a Central American country. Its official language is English. The capital is Belmopan; the largest city, main seaport and former capital is Belize City (1993 pop 46,342). The name Belize is believed to derive from a Spanish adaptation of the name Wallace, after the Scottish traveller Peter Wallace who settled in 1640 at the mouth of what was to become the Belize River.
Belize is the most sparsely populated nation in Central America. It is larger than El Salvador and compares in size to the State of Massachusetts. Slightly more than half of the population lives in rural areas. About one-fourth live in Belize City, the principal port, commercial center, and former capital.
Most Belizeans are of multiracial descent. About 48.7% of the population is of mixed Mayan and European descent (Mestizo); 24.9% are of African and Afro-European (Creole) ancestry; about 10.6% are Mayan; and about 6.1% are Afro-Amerindian (Garifuna). The remainder, about 9.7%, includes European, East Indian, Chinese, Middle Eastern, and North American groups.
English, the official language, is spoken by virtually all except the refugees who arrived during the past decade. Spanish is the native tongue of about 50% of the people and is spoken as a second language by another 20%. The various Mayan groups still speak their indigenous languages, and an English Creole dialect similar to the Creole dialects of the English-speaking Caribbean Islands is spoken by most. The rate of functional literacy is 76%. About 50% of the population is Roman Catholic; the Anglican Church and other Protestant Christian groups account for most of the remaining 50%. Mennonite settlers number about 8,500.
- Population (2006 est.): 299,766.
- Annual growth rate (2006): 3.4%.
- Ethnic groups: Creole, Garifuna, Mestizo, Mayan.
- Religions: Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, other Protestant, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist.
- Languages: English (official), Creole, Spanish, Garifuna, Mayan.
- Education: Years compulsory—9. (2005 est.): Attendance—60%. Literacy—76.5%.
- Health: (2003): Infant mortality rate—14.8/1,000. Life expectancy—67.4 years.
- Work force (April 2006, 112,806): Services—60%. Agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing—22%. Industry and commerce—16%.
Belize is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model and is a member of the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state and is represented in the country by Governor General Dr. Colville N. Young, Sr., a Belizean and Belize's second governor general. The primary executive organ of government is the cabinet, led by a prime minister (head of government). Cabinet ministers are members of the majority political party in parliament and usually hold elected seats in the National Assembly concurrently with their cabinet positions.
The National Assembly consists of a House of Representatives and a Senate. The 29 members of the House are popularly elected to a maximum 5-year term. The governor general appoints the Senate’s 12 members. Six are appointed in accordance with the advice of the prime minister, 3 with the advice of the leader of the opposition. The Belize Council of Churches and the Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee each advise the Governor General on the appointment of one senator each. The Senate is headed by a president, who is a nonvoting member appointed by the governing party.
Members of the independent judiciary are appointed. The judicial system includes local magistrates, the Supreme Court, and the Court of Appeal. Cases may, under certain circumstances, be appealed to the Privy Council in London. However, in 2001 Belize joined with most members of the Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM) to establish a "Caribbean Court of Justice," which was inaugurated on April 16, 2005. The country is divided into six districts: Corozal, Orange Walk, Belize, Cayo, Stann Creek, and Toledo.
Currently, the Belize Government is controlled by the People's United Party (PUP), which was elected to a second consecutive term in office on March 5, 2003. The PUP won 22 of the 29 seats in the House of Representatives, while the United Democratic Party (UDP) won the other seven seats. However, the PUP lost one seat in Parliament during a by-election held after the death of a minister in October 2003, but still maintains a comfortable majority. Dean Barrow is the leader of the opposition. The PUP has governed Belize from 1998 to the present; the UDP from 1993–98; the PUP from 1989-1993; and the UDP from 1984-89. Before 1984, the PUP had dominated the electoral scene for more than 30 years and was the party in power when Belize became independent in 1981.
The government continues to implement an economic adjustment program, with the aim of (1) increasing revenues, (2) decreasing public sector expenditures, (3) narrowing the fiscal deficit to 1% of GDP, (4) improving the balance of payments, and (5) increasing the country’s foreign reserves. Belize’s outstanding public debt at the end of 2006 was U.S. $1.10 billion, an amount that is equivalent to approximately 100% of GDP. However, on January 31, 2007 the Government of Belize officially announced that the holders of Belize’s public external commercial indebtedness have agreed to exchange their existing claims against the country for new bonds to be issued by Belize maturing in 2029. Belize traditionally maintains a deep interest in the environment and sustainable development. A lack of government resources seriously hampers these goals. On other fronts, the government is working to improve its law enforcement capabilities. A longstanding territorial dispute with Guatemala continues, although cooperation between the two countries has increased in recent years across a wide spectrum of common interests, including trade and environment. Seeing itself as a bridge, Belize is actively involved with the Caribbean nations of CARICOM, and also has taken steps to work more closely with its Central American neighbors as a member of SICA (Central American Integration System).
Principal Government Officials
- Head of State—Queen Elizabeth II
- Governor General—Sir Colville N. Young, Sr.
- Prime Minister—Dean Oliver Barrow
- Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries—Vildo Marin
- Minister of Home Affairs, Public Utilities and Housing—Ralph Fonseca
- Attorney General and Minister of Labor, Education and Culture—Francis Fonseca
- Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade—Lisa Shoman
- Ambassador to the United States—Nestor Mendez, Chargé d'Affaires, a.i.
- Ambassador to the OAS—Lisa Shoman
- Ambassador to the United Nations—Janine Coye Felson
Belize's principal external concern has been the dispute involving the Guatemalan claim to Belizean territory. This dispute originated in Imperial Spain's claim to all "New World" territories west of the line established in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Nineteenth-century efforts to resolve the problems led to later differences over interpretation and implementation of an 1859 treaty intended to establish the boundaries between Guatemala and Belize, then named British Honduras. Guatemala contends that the 1859 treaty is void because the British failed to comply with all its economic assistance clauses. Neither Spain nor Guatemala ever exercised effective sovereignty over the area.
Negotiations have been underway for many years, including one period in the 1960s in which the U.S. Government sought unsuccessfully to mediate. A 1981 trilateral (Belize, Guatemala, and the United Kingdom) "Heads of Agreement" was not implemented due to continued contentions. Belize became independent on September 21, 1981, with the territorial dispute unresolved. Significant negotiations between Belize and Guatemala, with the United Kingdom as an observer, resumed in 1988. Guatemala recognized Belize's independence in 1991, and diplomatic relations were established.
Eventually, on November 8, 2000, the two parties agreed to respect an "adjacency zone" extending one kilometer east and west from the border. Around this time, the Government of Guatemala insisted that the territorial claim was a legal one and that the only possibility for a resolution was to submit the case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ). However, the Government of Belize felt that taking the case to the ICJ or to arbitration represented an unnecessary expense of time and money. So the Belizean Government proposed an alternate process, one under the auspices of the OAS.
Since then, despite efforts by the OAS to jumpstart the process, movement has been limited to confidence-building measures between the parties. Both countries now seem receptive to referring the dispute to the International Court of Justice for a binding decision.
In order to strengthen its potential for economic and political development, Belize has sought to build closer ties with the Spanish-speaking countries of Central America to complement its historical ties to the English-speaking Caribbean states. For instance, Belize has joined the other Central American countries in signing the Conjunta Centroamerica-USA (CONCAUSA) agreement on regional sustainable development, and on January 1, 2007 assumed the presidency of SICA (Central American Integration System) for a 6-month period. Belize is a member of CARICOM, which was founded in 1973. It became a member of the OAS in 1990.
The Belize Defense Force (BDF), established in January 1973, is comprised of a light infantry force of regulars and reservists along with small air and maritime wings. The BDF, currently under the command of Brigadier General Lloyd Gillett, assumed total defense responsibility from British Forces Belize (BFB) on January 1, 1994. The United Kingdom continues to maintain the British Army Training Support Unit Belize (BATSUB) to assist in the administration of the Belize Jungle School. The BDF receives military assistance from the United States and the United Kingdom.
Forestry was the only economic activity of any consequence in Belize until well into the 20th century when the supply of accessible timber began to dwindle. Cane sugar then became the principal export. Exports have recently been augmented by expanded production of citrus, bananas, seafood, and apparel. The country has about 809,000 hectares of arable land, only a small fraction of which is under cultivation. To curb land speculation, the government enacted legislation in 1973 that requires non-Belizeans to complete a development plan on land they purchase before obtaining title to plots of more than 10 acres of rural land or more than one-half acre of urban land.
Domestic industry is limited, constrained by relatively high-cost labor and energy and a small domestic market. Some 185 U.S. companies have operations in Belize, including Archer Daniels Midland, Texaco, and Esso. Tourism attracts the most foreign direct investment, although significant U.S. investment also is found in the telecommunications and agriculture sectors.
A combination of natural factors—climate, the longest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere, numerous islands, excellent fishing, safe waters for boating, jungle wildlife, and Mayan ruins—support the thriving tourist industry. Development costs are high, but the Government of Belize has designated tourism as one of its major development priorities. In 2006, tourist arrivals totaled 900,000 (more than 90% from the United States).
Belize's investment policy is codified in the Belize Investment Guide, which sets out the development priorities for the country.
- GDP (2005): $1.79 billion.
- Annual growth rate (2005): 5.1%; (2004): 9.2%.
- Per capita income (2005): $3,650.
- Avg. inflation rate (2006): 4.3%.
- Natural resources: Arable land, timber, seafood, minerals.
- Primary sectors (13.1% of GDP, 2005): Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining.
- Secondary sectors (14.7% of GDP, 2005): Manufacturing, electricity and water supply, and construction.
- Tertiary sectors (63.2% of GDP, 2005): Hotels and restaurants, financial intermediation, and transport and communication.
- Trade: Exports (2005)--$212.83 million: cane sugar, clothing, citrus concentrate, lobster, fish, banana, and farmed shrimp. *Major markets—U.S. (52.2%), U.K., CARICOM. Imports (2005)--$518.83 million: food, consumer goods, machinery, mineral fuels and lubricants. Major suppliers—U.S. (39%), Mexico, U.K.
- Official exchange rate: Since 1976 Belizean banks have bought U.S. dollars at the rate of 2.0175 and sold them at 1.9825, making for an effective fixed rate of Belize $2=U.S. $1.
A major constraint on the economic development of Belize continues to be the scarcity of infrastructure investments. As part of its financial austerity measures started in late 2004, the government froze expenditures on several capital projects. Although electricity, telephone, and water utilities are all relatively good, Belize has the most expensive electricity in the region. Large tracts of land, which would be suitable for development, are inaccessible due to lack of roads. Some roads, including sections of major highways, are subject to damage or closure during the rainy season. Ports in Belize City, Dangriga, and Big Creek handle regularly scheduled shipping from the United States and the United Kingdom, although draft is limited to a maximum of 10 feet in Belize City and 15 feet in southern ports. American Airlines, Continental Airlines, U.S. Air, Delta Airlines, and TACA provide international air service to gateways in Dallas, Houston, Miami, Charlotte, Atlanta, and San Salvador.
Belize's economic performance is highly susceptible to external market changes. Although the economy recorded a growth rate of 4.0% in 2006, this achievement is vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and continuation of preferential trading agreements, especially with the United States and the European Union (cane sugar) and the United Kingdom (bananas).
Belize continues to rely heavily on foreign trade, with the United States as its number-one trading partner. Imports in 2005 totaled $518.83 million, while total exports were only $212.83 million. In 2005, the United States provided 39% of all Belizean imports and accounted for 52.2% of Belize's total exports. Other major trading partners include the United Kingdom, European Union, Canada, Mexico, and Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM) member states.
Belize aims to stimulate the growth of commercial agriculture through CARICOM. However, Belizean trade with the rest of the Caribbean is small compared to that with the United States and Europe. The country is a beneficiary of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) program, which forms part of the U.S.-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act—signed into law by President Clinton on May 8, 2000—a comprehensive U.S. Government program designed to stimulate investment in Caribbean nations by providing duty-free access to the U.S. market for most Caribbean products. Significant U.S. private investments in citrus and shrimp farms have been made in Belize under CBI. U.S. trade preferences allowing for duty-free re-import of finished apparel cut from U.S. textiles have significantly expanded the apparel industry. European Union (EU) and U.K. preferences also have been vital for the expansion and prosperity of the sugar and banana industries. However, these two markets face considerable World Trade Organization (WTO) challenges.
The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 BC and AD 300 and flourished until about AD 1200. Several major archeological sites—notably Caracol, Lamanai, Lubaantun, Altun Ha, and Xunantunich—reflect the advanced civilization and much denser population of that period. European contact began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the coast. The first recorded European settlement was established by shipwrecked English seamen in 1638. Over the next 150 years, more English settlements were established. This period also was marked by piracy, indiscriminate logging, and sporadic attacks by Indians and neighboring Spanish settlements.
Great Britain first sent an official representative to the area in the late 18th century, but Belize was not formally termed the "Colony of British Honduras" until 1840. It became a crown colony in 1862. Subsequently, several constitutional changes were enacted to expand representative government. Full internal self-government under a ministerial system was granted in January 1964. The official name of the territory was changed from British Honduras to Belize in June 1973, and full independence was granted on September 21, 1981.