Difference between revisions of "Brexit"

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(Economic impact)
(Negotiations: update)
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The main concern of the British government is to ensure access to the single market for its banking and manufacturing sectors - both major income streams for the UK. Along with this the UK business sector are very concerned about the potential loss of EU (especially Eastern European) labour for many agricultural and low paid roles. Negotiations are proceeding very slowly because of the obstructive tactics of the EU negotiators.  They are insisting that Britain must agree to an "exit fee" of over £50 billion before they will start trade talks.<ref>https://www.express.co.uk/news/politics/797852/Brexit-news-EU-expand-Britain-exit-fee-bill-budget-black-hole</ref> They also wanted to discuss the "rights" of EU citizens before such talks.
 
The main concern of the British government is to ensure access to the single market for its banking and manufacturing sectors - both major income streams for the UK. Along with this the UK business sector are very concerned about the potential loss of EU (especially Eastern European) labour for many agricultural and low paid roles. Negotiations are proceeding very slowly because of the obstructive tactics of the EU negotiators.  They are insisting that Britain must agree to an "exit fee" of over £50 billion before they will start trade talks.<ref>https://www.express.co.uk/news/politics/797852/Brexit-news-EU-expand-Britain-exit-fee-bill-budget-black-hole</ref> They also wanted to discuss the "rights" of EU citizens before such talks.
  
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====Under Theresa May====
 
In July 2018, [[Theresa May]] and her cabinet agreed to a very weak negotiating position that would leave the country under the European Court of Justice, effectively in the single market, and under the jurisdiction of many of the EU's regulations.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (July 6, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/06/total-capitulation-theresa-may-proposes-sub-norway-brexit-deal/ TOTAL CAPITULATION: May Proposes Sub-Norway Brexit Deal – Concedes on Goods, Rules, EU Court, and More]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 7, 2018.</ref> Anti-Brexit [[Europhile]]s applauded the negotiating position.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (July 9, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/09/remainers-congratulate-may-brexit-betrayal/ Remainers Congratulate May’s Brexit Betrayal]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref> In opposition to such a weak agreement, several of her pro-[[sovereignty]] ministers resigned,<ref>Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacAskill, Andrew (July 8, 2018). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-davis/uk-brexit-secretary-david-davis-has-resigned-source-close-to-davis-idUSKBN1JY10K British eurosceptic ministers quit in blow to May's Brexit plan]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref><ref>Murphy, James (July 10, 2018). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/29501-uk-government-reels-in-the-wake-of-brexit-related-resignations U.K. Government Reels in the Wake of Brexit-related Resignations]. ''The New American''. Retrieved July 10, 2018.</ref> including Brexit Minister David Davis<ref>Multiple references:
 
In July 2018, [[Theresa May]] and her cabinet agreed to a very weak negotiating position that would leave the country under the European Court of Justice, effectively in the single market, and under the jurisdiction of many of the EU's regulations.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (July 6, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/06/total-capitulation-theresa-may-proposes-sub-norway-brexit-deal/ TOTAL CAPITULATION: May Proposes Sub-Norway Brexit Deal – Concedes on Goods, Rules, EU Court, and More]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 7, 2018.</ref> Anti-Brexit [[Europhile]]s applauded the negotiating position.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (July 9, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/09/remainers-congratulate-may-brexit-betrayal/ Remainers Congratulate May’s Brexit Betrayal]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref> In opposition to such a weak agreement, several of her pro-[[sovereignty]] ministers resigned,<ref>Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacAskill, Andrew (July 8, 2018). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-davis/uk-brexit-secretary-david-davis-has-resigned-source-close-to-davis-idUSKBN1JY10K British eurosceptic ministers quit in blow to May's Brexit plan]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref><ref>Murphy, James (July 10, 2018). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/29501-uk-government-reels-in-the-wake-of-brexit-related-resignations U.K. Government Reels in the Wake of Brexit-related Resignations]. ''The New American''. Retrieved July 10, 2018.</ref> including Brexit Minister David Davis<ref>Multiple references:
 
*Montgomery, Jack (July 8, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/08/rebellion-brexit-secretary-david-davis-resigns-over-mays-turd-deal-couldnt-sell-out-his-own-country/ REBELLION: Brexit Secretary David Davis Resigns Over May’s ‘Turd’ Deal, ‘Couldn’t Sell Out His Own Country’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
 
*Montgomery, Jack (July 8, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/08/rebellion-brexit-secretary-david-davis-resigns-over-mays-turd-deal-couldnt-sell-out-his-own-country/ REBELLION: Brexit Secretary David Davis Resigns Over May’s ‘Turd’ Deal, ‘Couldn’t Sell Out His Own Country’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
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*James, William; MacAskill, Andrew; Piper, Elizabeth (July 17, 2018). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu/may-narrowly-avoids-defeat-in-parliament-on-trade-laws-idUSKBN1K72CT May narrowly avoids defeat in parliament on EU trade laws]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
 
*James, William; MacAskill, Andrew; Piper, Elizabeth (July 17, 2018). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu/may-narrowly-avoids-defeat-in-parliament-on-trade-laws-idUSKBN1K72CT May narrowly avoids defeat in parliament on EU trade laws]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
 
*Douglas, Jason; Horner, Will (July 17, 2018). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawmakers-efforts-to-rewrite-government-plan-imperil-mays-brexit-strategy-1531844466 May’s Brexit Plan Narrowly Survives in Parliament]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved July 17, 2018.</ref>
 
*Douglas, Jason; Horner, Will (July 17, 2018). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawmakers-efforts-to-rewrite-government-plan-imperil-mays-brexit-strategy-1531844466 May’s Brexit Plan Narrowly Survives in Parliament]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved July 17, 2018.</ref>
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====Under Boris Johnson====
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Immediately upon becoming Prime Minister, [[Boris Johnson]] took a tough stance on Brexit, promising to fulfill the 2016 referendum result.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Faulconbridge, Guy; Piper, Elizabeth (July 23, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-leader/britains-new-leader-johnson-we-are-going-to-get-brexit-done-idUSKCN1UH2JQ Britain's new leader Johnson: 'We are going to get Brexit done']. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
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*Colchester, Max; Douglas, Jason (July 25, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/boris-johnson-talks-tough-on-brexit-in-combative-first-speech-11564061650 Boris Johnson Talks Tough on Brexit in Combative First Speech]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
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*Faulconbridge, Guy; MacLellan, Kylie (July 25, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu/ill-make-britain-great-again-pm-johnson-echoes-trump-over-brexit-idUSKCN1UK0OI I'll make Britain great again, PM Johnson echoes Trump over Brexit]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
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*Lawless, Jill; Kirka, Danica (July 25, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/a6eb435cefad4679b995e78470c5a550 Showdown looms as new British PM wants to redo Brexit deal]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved July 25, 2019.</ref> His government stated it would not pay any "divorce bill" to the EU in the case of a "no-deal" Brexit,<ref>Friedman, Victoria (July 25, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/07/25/new-boris-govt-confirms-uk-wont-pay-39bn-brussels-no-deal-brexit/ New Boris Govt Confirms UK Won’t Pay £39bn to Brussels in No-Deal Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 25, 2019.</ref> and Johnson stated he would push to adopt an independent trade policy and not nominate an EU commissioner.<ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-leader-commission/british-pm-johnson-unveils-new-approach-no-uk-commissioner-to-eu-idUSKCN1UK1GC British PM Johnson unveils 'new approach', no UK commissioner to EU]. ''Reuters''. July 25, 2019. Retrieved July 25, 2019.</ref>
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Johnson immediately put his cabinet to work preparing for a "no-deal" Brexit,<ref>Multiple references:
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*Friedman, Victoria (July 29, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/07/29/johnson-sets-up-brexit-war-cabinet-no-deal-preparation-number-one-priority/ Johnson Sets up Brexit ‘War Cabinet’, No Deal Preparation ‘Number One Priority’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
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*Shipman, Tim (July 28, 2019). [https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/news/boris-johnson-vows-no-deal-brexit-by-any-means-necessary-55tjljkfw Boris Johnson vows no‑deal Brexit ‘by any means necessary’]. ''The Times''. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
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*Falconer, Rebecca (July 28, 2019). [https://www.axios.com/boris-johnson-brexit-no-deal-war-cabinet-1bf3d0b3-18e3-427e-b4c5-c506b31fad12.html Boris Johnson forms "war cabinet" to prepare for no-deal Brexit]. ''Axios''. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
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*MacLennan, Kylie (July 28, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/assuming-eu-will-not-budge-britain-ramps-up-preparations-for-no-deal-brexit-idUSKCN1UN08Q Assuming EU will not budge, Britain ramps up preparations for no-deal Brexit]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
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See also:
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*Montgomery, Jack (July 28, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/07/28/chancellor-javid-treasury-turbocharging-preparations-no-deal-brexit/ Chancellor Javid: Treasury ‘Turbocharging Preparations’ for No Deal Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
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*Malnick, Edward (July 27, 2019). [https://www.telegraph.co.uk/politics/2019/07/27/sajid-javids-brexit-blitz-prepare-no-deal/ Sajid Javid to announce Brexit spending blitz to prepare for no deal]. ''The Telegraph''. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
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* https://www.ft.com/content/5c65e0e4-b118-11e9-bec9-fdcab53d6959
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*[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-javid/uks-javid-to-ramp-up-funding-for-no-deal-brexit-preparations-paper-idUSKCN1UM0O9 UK's Javid to ramp up funding for no-deal Brexit preparations: paper]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
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*James, William (August 9, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-johnson/no-deal-brexit-preparation-is-top-priority-johnson-tells-officials-idUSKCN1UZ1I3 No-deal Brexit preparation is top priority, Johnson tells officials]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
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*Friedman, Victoria (August 10, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/10/johnson-tells-civil-servants-preparing-no-deal-brexit-top-priority/ Johnson Tells Civil Servants to Make Preparing for No-Deal Brexit ‘Top Priority’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
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*Friedman, Victoria (September 2, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/02/govt-prepares-no-deal-brexit-get-ready-campaign/ Johnson Govt Prepares for No Deal Brexit with ‘Get Ready’ Campaign]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 2, 2019.</ref> and he stated he would refuse to negotiate with the EU unless it dropped its Irish backstop demand.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (July 29, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/07/29/johnson-plays-hardball-wont-meet-with-eu-until-they-remove-backstop/ Johnson Plays Hardball, Won’t Meet with EU Until They Remove Backstop]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 29, 2019.<br>See also:
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*Friedman, Victoria (August 15, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/15/johnson-accuses-remainer-mps-collaborating-eu-stop-brexit/ Boris Accuses Remainer MPs of ‘Collaborating’ with EU to Stop Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 15, 2019.</ref> Very early in Johnson's tenure, his government doubled the amount of money devoted to preparing for a "no-deal" Brexit,<ref>Multiple references:
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*[https://www.bbc.com/news/business-49183324 No-deal Brexit plans to get £2.1bn boost]. ''BBC News''. July 31, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
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*MacAskill, Andrew (July 31, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-javid/britain-to-spend-an-extra-2-1-billion-on-no-deal-brexit-planning-idUSKCN1UQ2RR Britain to spend an extra £2.1 billion on no-deal Brexit planning]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
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*Piper, Elizabeth (August 4, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/after-brexit-pledges-british-pm-johnson-announces-cash-injection-for-health-idUSKCN1UU0OF After Brexit pledges, British PM Johnson announces cash injection for health]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved August 4, 2019.</ref> and his treasury minister announced a one-year spending review to help the government prepare for a "no-deal" Brexit.<ref>Markham, Joe (August 9, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/09/chancellor-announces-special-spending-review-to-prepare-for-brexit/ Chancellor Announces Special Spending Review to Prepare for Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 9, 2019.</ref> The government announced that in the event of a "no-deal" Brexit, it would end its adherence to the EU's "freedom of movement" rules.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Markham, Joe (August 19, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/19/home-secretary-to-end-free-movement-on-october-31st/ Patel: UK Government to End Free Migration Regime on Brexit Day]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
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*MacLellan, Kylie (August 19, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-immigration/uk-plans-to-end-eu-freedom-of-movement-immediately-in-no-deal-brexit-idUSKCN1V91IN UK plans to end EU freedom of movement immediately in no-deal Brexit]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved August 19, 2019.</ref> Johnson voiced confidence and patriotism in his country.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (August 26, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/26/johnson-uk-great-country-can-easily-cope-no-deal-brexit/ Johnson: UK Is a ‘Great Country’ and Can ‘Easily Cope’ with No Deal Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 26, 2019.</ref> However, regarding the Brexit agreement with the EU, Johnson only called for the EU to remove the Northern Ireland backstop in order for him to accept it, angering Brexit supporters.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (August 28, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/28/johnson-faces-brexiteer-backlash-only-seeking-changes-backstop/ Johnson Faces Brexiteer Backlash over Only Seeking Changes to the Backstop]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.</ref> In August 2019, the EU appeared to take a softer stance on renegotiating the Brexit agreement, but this public stance was actually a way to deflect blame in the event of a no-deal Brexit.<ref>Baczynska, Gabriela (August 28, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-diplomacy-analysis/eus-softer-tone-a-ploy-to-sidestep-blame-in-case-of-a-no-deal-brexit-idUSKCN1VI1ZP EU's softer tone a ploy to sidestep blame in case of a no-deal Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.</ref>
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In August 2019, Johnson's government announced it would stop sending its officials to most EU meetings.<ref>Multiple references:
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*[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-meetings/britain-to-unshackle-officials-from-most-eu-meetings-ahead-of-brexit-idUSKCN1VA1GH Britain to 'unshackle' officials from most EU meetings ahead of Brexit]. ''Reuters''. August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
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*Dickson, Annabelle (August 20, 2019). [https://www.politico.eu/article/uk-officials-to-withdraw-from-eu-meetings-from-september-1/ UK officials to withdraw from EU meetings from September 1]. ''Politico''. Retrieved August 20, 2019.</ref>
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On August 28, 2019, Johnson announced he would ask the queen to suspend parliament as Brexit Day approached.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (August 28, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/28/british-government-to-suspend-parliament-for-five-weeks-outraging-anti-brexit-rebels/ British Government to Suspend Parliament For Five Weeks, Outraging Anti-Brexit Rebels]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Colchester, Max (August 28, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-k-s-johnson-to-ask-queen-to-suspend-parliament-making-no-deal-brexit-more-likely-11566985097 Boris Johnson Moves to Suspend Parliament, Making No-Deal Brexit More Likely]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Darrah, Nicole (August 28, 2019). [https://www.foxnews.com/world/boris-johnson-queen-suspend-parliament-brexit Boris Johnson asks queen to suspend Parliament to push through no-deal Brexit]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Rodrigo, Chris Mills (August 28, 2019). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/459076-johnson-asking-for-suspension-of-uk-parliament-to-push-through-brexit Johnson asks Queen to suspend UK Parliament ahead of Brexit deadline]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Murphy, James (August 28, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/33261-boris-johnson-plays-queen-card-monarch-agrees-to-shut-down-parliament-ahead-of-brexit Boris Johnson Plays Queen Card: Monarch Agrees to Shut Down Parliament Ahead of Brexit]. ''The New American''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Friedman, Victoria (August 28, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/28/tin-pot-dictator-remainers-melt-down-over-bojo-suspending-parliament/ ‘Tin Pot Dictator’: Remainers Melt down over BoJo Suspending Parliament]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Axelrod, Tal (August 28, 2019). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/europe/459108-queen-agrees-to-suspend-parliament-as-johnson-seeks-to-deter-no Queen agrees to suspend UK Parliament as Johnson seeks to deter no-deal Brexit showdown]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (August 28, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/08/28/its-official-suspension-of-uk-parliament-approved-by-queen-elizabeth-ii/ It’s Official: Suspension of UK Parliament Approved by Queen Elizabeth II]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
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*Campisi, Jessica (September 10, 2019). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/europe/460642-johnson-suspends-uk-parliament-in-brexit-push Johnson suspends UK Parliament in Brexit push]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
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*Lawless, Jill (September 10, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/1673b60fcc264a4ebaea2d08bb0bb05f Johnson suspends UK Parliament after latest Brexit defeat]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved September 10, 2019.</ref> He threatened to expel any Tory MP who voted to delay or block Brexit.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Murphy, James (September 2, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/33296-boris-johnson-threatens-to-purge-tory-rebels-unless-they-get-on-board-his-brexit-train Boris Johnson Threatens to Purge Tory Rebels Unless They get on Board his Brexit Train]. ''The New American''. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
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*Montgomery, Jack (September 2, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/02/ultimatum-tory-remain-mps-be-kicked-out-party-back-brexit-delay/ Ultimatum: Tory Remain MPs to Be Kicked Out of Party If They Back Brexit Delay]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
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*Colchester, Max; Douglas, Jason (September 2, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/brexit-battle-lines-harden-as-lawmakers-prepare-for-parliamentary-showdown-11567432609 U.K.’s Johnson Brandishes Election in Bid to Stop Parliament From Foiling Brexit]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved September 2, 2019.</ref> Parliament voted to block a no-deal Brexit and Johnson followed through on his threat.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 4, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/04/bojo-purges-party-of-anti-brexit-rebel-former-ministers/ BoJo Purges Party of Anti-Brexit Rebel Former Ministers]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
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*[https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/04/brexit-delay-bill-passes-commons-johnson-tables-motion-election/ Brexit Delay Bill Passes in Commons, Johnson Tables Motion for Election]. ''Breitbart News'' (from the ''Associated Press''). September 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
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*Delingpole, James (September 6, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/06/boris-has-drained-the-swamp-saved-the-conservatives/ Delingpole: Rejoice! Rejoice! Boris Johnson Has Drained the Swamp and Saved the Conservatives]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 6, 2019.</ref> While calling for a new election for two years, the Labor Party suddenly opposed holding a new election after Johnson announced his support for it.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Murphy, James (September 5, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/33342-as-the-uk-turns-more-brexit-drama-delay-and-dithering-in-british-parliament As the U.K. Turns: More Brexit Drama, Delay, and Dithering in British Parliament]. ''The New American''. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 4, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/04/would-turkeys-vote-for-christmas-why-mps-will-resist-boris-johnsons-snap-election/ Would Turkeys Vote For Christmas? Why MPs Will Resist Boris Johnson’s Snap Election]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 4, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/04/after-years-of-demanding-an-election-labours-corbyn-refuses-vote-offered-by-boris-johnson/ After Years of Demanding an Election, Labour’s Corbyn Refuses Vote Offered by Boris Johnson]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
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*Douglas, Jason (September 4, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-k-lawmakers-seek-to-delay-brexit-again-dealing-johnson-another-blow-11567602853 U.K. Lawmakers Foil Johnson With Votes to Delay Brexit and Bar Snap Election]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
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*Lawless, Jill; Kirka, Danica (September 4, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/3539dba87ab343a8a7252bb0387addc3 Johnson’s Brexit plans in crisis after 3rd defeat in 2 days]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved September 4, 2019.</ref> Johnson continued voicing support for achieving Brexit,<ref>Multiple references:
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*Lovell, Hunter (September 5, 2019). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/boris-johnson-on-delaying-brexit-id-rather-be-dead-in-a-ditch Boris Johnson on delaying Brexit: 'I'd rather be dead in a ditch']. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
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*Hannon, Paul; Douglas, Jason (September 9, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/boris-johnson-insists-he-wants-a-brexit-deal-despite-no-deal-planning-11568037248 Boris Johnson Vows Oct. 31 Brexit as Law Rules Out No Deal, Election Bid Fails]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
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*James, William; MacLellan, Kylie (September 9, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/british-pm-johnson-tells-parliament-you-can-tie-my-hands-but-i-will-not-delay-brexit-idUSKCN1VU0PH British PM Johnson tells parliament: You can tie my hands, but I will not delay Brexit]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
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*Friedman, Victoria (September 16, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/16/pm-johnson-stands-brexit-date-ahead-meeting-top-eurocrat/ PM Johnson Stands by Exit Date Ahead of Meeting with Top Eurocrat, Condemns MPs ‘Trying to Crush Brexit’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 16, 2019.</ref> and he refused to request a Brexit extension from the EU.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Friedman, Victoria (September 7, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/07/defiant-johnson-will-not-ask-eu-brexit-delay-remainers-ready-take-pm-court/ Defiant Johnson ‘Will Not’ Ask EU for Brexit Delay, Remainers Ready to Take PM to Court]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
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*Piper, Elizabeth (September 8, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/sticking-to-brexit-plan-uks-johnson-will-not-seek-a-delay-idUSKCN1VT0BS Sticking to Brexit plan, UK's Johnson will not seek a delay]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 9, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/09/future-of-october-31st-brexit-in-doubt-as-parliament-attempts-to-force-three-month-delay/ Future of October 31st Brexit In Doubt As Parliament Attempts to Force Three Month Delay]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
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See also:
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 9, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/09/parliament-votes-against-early-election-as-pm-boris-reaffirms-he-will-not-seek-brexit-extension/ Parliament Votes Against Early Election as PM Boris Reaffirms He Will Not Seek Brexit Extension]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 9, 2019.</ref> The UK Supreme Court, however, ruled against Johnson's parliamentary suspension on September 24, 2019.<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 24, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/24/boris-johnson-suspended-parliament-unlawfully-uk-supreme-court-finds/ Boris Johnson Suspended Parliament Unlawfully, UK Supreme Court Finds]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
*Wallace, Danielle (September 24, 2019). [https://www.foxnews.com/world/boris-johnsons-suspension-of-parliament-ruled-unlawful-by-uk-supreme-court Boris Johnson's suspension of Parliament ruled unlawful by UK Supreme Court]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
*Douglas, Jason; Fidler, Stephen (September 24, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-k-court-rules-against-johnsons-freeze-on-parliament-11569318257 Boris Johnson Acted Illegally in Suspending Parliament, U.K.’s Highest Court Rules]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
See also:
 +
*Friedman, Victoria (September 24, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/24/farage-prorogation-worst-political-decision-ever-reactions-supreme-court-ruling/ Farage Calls Prorogation ‘Worst Political Decision Ever’: Reactions to Supreme Court Ruling]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
*Delingpole, James (September 24, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/24/supreme-court-enemies-of-the-people-sabotage-brexit/ Delingpole: Judicial Enemies of the People Sabotage Brexit Again]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
*Delingpole, James (September 24, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/24/a-sinister-shadow-government-is-killing-brexit/ Delingpole: A Sinister, Nebulous Shadow Government Is Holding Brexit Hostage]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
*Hannan, Dan (September 26, 2019). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/boris-brexit-and-the-politicization-of-britains-judiciary Boris, Brexit and the politicization of Britain's judiciary]. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
 +
Johnson's response after Parliament reconvened:
 +
*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 25, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/25/bojo-throws-down-gauntlet-fight-election-or-ill-deliver-brexit/ PM Bojo Throws Down the Gauntlet to Remainers: Challenge me in an Election or I’ll Deliver Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
 +
*Colchester, Max (September 25, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/british-leader-goads-rivals-to-end-his-rule-call-new-vote-11569443576 British Leader Goads Rivals to End His Rule, Call New Vote]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved September 25, 2019.</ref>
 +
 +
Despite pushing for Brexit, Johnson made the mistake of publicly disavowing and insulting [[Nigel Farage]] when he proposed forming an electoral coalition – and incident which illustrated that Johnson was not a political conservative.<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Lane, Oliver JJ (September 11, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/11/embattled-boris-slaps-down-farages-offer-of-help-not-fit-and-proper-persons/ Embattled Boris Slaps Down Farage’s Offer of Help: ‘Not Fit and Proper Persons’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
 +
*Faulconbridge, Guy; James, William (September 11, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-farage/uk-pm-johnson-rules-out-farage-deal-despite-warning-of-electoral-kicking-idUSKCN1VW12Q UK PM Johnson rules out Farage deal despite warning of electoral 'kicking']. ''Reuters''. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
 +
Later comments:
 +
*[https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-johnson-farage/pm-johnson-says-no-to-election-pact-with-brexit-party-idUSKBN1W82N1 PM Johnson says no to election pact with Brexit Party]. ''Reuters''. September 23, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
 +
*Casalicchio, Emilio (September 23, 2019). [https://www.politico.eu/article/johnson-rejects-uk-election-pact-with-nigel-farage/ Johnson rejects UK election pact with Nigel Farage]. ''Politico''. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
 +
*Montgomery, Jack; Lane, Oliver JJ (September 24, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/24/boris-refuses-farages-offer-of-an-electoral-pact-to-deliver-brexit/ Boris Refuses Farage’s Offer of an Electoral Pact to Deliver Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
 +
See also:
 +
*Delingpole, James (September 11, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/11/boris-johnson-should-not-be-attacking-nigel-farage/ Delingpole: Boris Attacking Farage Is a Foolish, Unforced Error]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
 +
*Fridman, Victoria (September 13, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/09/13/spartans-call-johnson-reverse-rejection-farage-election-pact/ Brexit Spartans Call for Johnson to Reverse Rejection of Farage Election Pact]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 13, 2019.</ref>
 +
 +
Johnson announced a revised Brexit deal proposal on October 2, 2019.<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Colchester, Max; Douglas, Jason (October 2, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/boris-johnson-announces-last-ditch-brexit-proposal-11570014506 Boris Johnson Makes Last-Ditch Brexit Bid to EU]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
 +
*Lawless, Jill; Kirka, Danica (October 2, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/04a5ab581a1747528024e94285b29c95 Boris Johnson: UK is offering Brexit ‘compromise’ to EU]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
 +
*Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacLellan, Kylie (October 1, 2019). [hhttps://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu/pm-johnson-makes-final-brexit-offer-draws-guarded-welcome-from-eu-idUSKBN1WG4S8 PM Johnson makes final Brexit offer, draws guarded welcome from EU]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
 +
See also:
 +
*Friedman, Victoria (October 2, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/02/eu-rejects-boriss-politically-unacceptable-final-brexit-offer/ Europeans Reject Boris’s Politically ‘Unacceptable’ Final Brexit Offer]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
 +
*[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-nireland/dup-deputy-leader-says-ireland-reaction-shows-backstop-a-trap-idUSKBN1WI1X7 DUP deputy leader says Ireland reaction shows backstop a trap]. ''Reuters''. October 3, 2019. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
 +
*Zindulka, Kurt (October 14, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/14/lets-finish-this-off-boris-pitches-take-leave-last-ditch-brexit-deal/ ‘Let’s Finish This off’: Boris Pitches a Take it or Leave it, Last Ditch Brexit Deal]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
 +
*Friedman, Victoria (October 22, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/22/boris-deal-uk-remains-subject-eu-court-rulings-brexit/ Boris Deal Means UK Subject to EU Court Rulings up to 3 Years After Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
 +
*Gomez, Christian (October 22, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/33814-problems-with-boris-johnson-s-brexit-mirror-those-of-usmca Problems With Boris Johnson’s “Brexit” Mirror Those of USMCA]. ''The New American''. Retrieved October 22, 2019.</ref> On October 17, 2019, Johnson announced he had reached an agreement with the EU.<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Bydryk, Zack (October 17, 2019). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/europe/466223-boris-johnson-says-brexit-deal-between-uk-eu-reached Boris Johnson says Brexit deal between UK, EU reached]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Friedman, Victoria (October 17, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/17/weve-got-great-new-deal-brexit-treat-agreed-uk-eu/ ‘We’ve Got a Great New Deal’: Brexit Treaty Agreed by Boris Johnson and EU]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Darrah, Nicole (October 17, 2019). [https://www.foxnews.com/world/brexit-breakthrough-boris-johnson-deal-eu-vote Brexit breakthrough: Boris Johnson agrees 'great new deal' with EU; British MPs to vote Saturday]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Halaschak, Zachary (October 17, 2019). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/weve-got-a-great-deal-uk-and-eu-agree-to-brexit-deal 'We’ve got a great deal': UK and EU agree to Brexit deal]. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Norman, Laurence; Colchester, Max (October 17, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/brexit-talks-are-dealt-a-blow-as-northern-irish-party-rejects-draft-11571294766 U.K., EU Agree on Draft Brexit Deal, Paving Way for Key Vote]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Casert, Raf; Lawless, Jill (October 17, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/e28aa5a31bc74a84844e7277821cf9b8 UK, EU reach tentative Brexit deal; still needs ratification]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Piper, Elizabeth; Chalmers, John (October 17, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/britain-clinches-brexit-deal-johnson-now-faces-parliament-hurdle-idUSKBN1WW13M Britain clinches Brexit deal, Johnson now faces parliament hurdle]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
See also:
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*Milliken, David; John, Mark (October 17, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-economy/uk-heading-for-fairly-hard-brexit-if-johnson-deal-passes-idUSKBN1WW2BO UK heading for 'fairly hard' Brexit if Johnson deal passes]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Herszenhorn, David M.; Barigazzi, Jacopo; Von der Burchard, Hans (October 17, 2019). [https://www.politico.eu/article/concessions-eu-led-brexit-deal/ 3 concessions by the EU that led to a Brexit deal]. ''Politico''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.</ref> The conservative Northern Irish [[Democratic Unionist Party]] announced it would oppose the proposed agreement,<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-dup-statement-text/northern-irelands-dup-party-wont-support-new-brexit-deal-idUSKBN1WW1RA Northern Ireland's DUP party won't support new Brexit deal]. ''Reuters''. October 17, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-letwin-dup/northern-irelands-dup-say-they-will-use-every-strategy-to-seek-changes-to-brexit-deal-idUSKBN1WY0BZ Northern Ireland's DUP say they will use every strategy to seek changes to Brexit deal]. ''Reuters''. October 19, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.</ref><ref name="PaisleyFarage">Lane, Oliver JJ; Montgomery, Jack (October 19, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/19/no-surrender-ian-paisley-nigel-farage-denounce-boriss-brexit-deal/ ‘No Surrender’ – Ian Paisley, Nigel Farage Denounce Boris’s Brexit Deal]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.</ref> and [[Brexit Party]] leader [[Nigel Farage]] also criticized it.<ref name="PaisleyFarage"/><ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Friedman, Victoria (October 17, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/17/brexit-deal-reaction-not-brexit-farage-dup/ Farage Says New Deal Is ‘Just Not Brexit’ as DUP Says It Won’t Support It]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
 +
*Friedman, Victoria (October 24, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/24/farage-treaty-not-brexit-urges-boris-drop-deal-partnership/ Farage Says Treaty ‘Is Not Brexit’, Tells Boris to Drop Deal and Agree Election Pact]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 24, 2019.</ref> On October 19, 2019, the House of Commons voted to delay the vote on the agreement and to delay Brexit if the agreement did not pass.<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Shaw, Adam (October 19, 2019). [https://www.foxnews.com/world/brexit-delay-vote-derailed Brexit vote derailed at last minute by rebel lawmakers; Boris Johnson pledges not to negotiate a delay]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Becker, Carlin (October 19, 2019). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/brexit-deal-on-hold-as-uk-parliament-votes-to-withhold-full-approval Anti-Brexit forces block UK Parliament vote on Boris Johnson deal with EU]. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Colchester, Max; Douglas, Jason (October 19, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-k-parliament-poised-to-force-delay-on-critical-brexit-vote-11571484241 U.K. Parliament Defers Critical Vote, Likely Forcing Brexit Delay]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Lawless, Jill; Corder, Mike (October 19, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/1e0eeb157ec143b48cdcc1d6860ae493 UK lawmakers vote to delay final Brexit decision again]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*[https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-50110601 Brexit: Johnson vows to press on despite defeat over deal delay]. ''BBC News''. October 19, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*James, William, Piper, Elizabeth; MacLellan, Kylie (October 19, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/johnson-defiant-after-british-parliament-votes-to-force-brexit-delay-idUSKBN1WX2M2 Johnson defiant after British parliament votes to force Brexit delay]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Frazin, Rachel (October 19, 2019). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/europe/466573-british-parliament-passes-amendment-to-delay-brexit-decision British Parliament passes amendment to delay Brexit decision]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.</ref> Later in the day, Johnson requested a Brexit extension despite promising not to take such an action.<ref>Multiple references:
 +
*Montgomery, Jack (October 20, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/20/boris-sends-eu-letters-one-asking-for-brexit-delay-one-saying-he-doesnt-want-one/ Boris Sends EU Letters: One Asking for Brexit Delay, One Saying He Doesn’t Want One]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
 +
*Bowden, John (October 19, 2019). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/466599-uks-boris-johnson-reverses-requests-extension-of-brexit-deadline U.K.'s Boris Johnson reverses, requests extension of Brexit deadline]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Colchester, Max (October 19, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-k-parliament-poised-to-force-delay-on-critical-brexit-vote-11571484241 British Government Asks for EU Delay Amid Johnson Resistance]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Lawless, Jill; Casert, Raf (October 19, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/1e0eeb157ec143b48cdcc1d6860ae493 UK’s Johnson asks for Brexit delay, but argues against it]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Piper, Elizabeth (October 19, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu/uk-pm-sends-unsigned-letter-to-eu-asking-for-brexit-delay-idUSKBN1WY0Q9 UK PM sends unsigned letter to EU asking for Brexit delay]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
 +
*Corder, Mike; Katz, Gregory (October 20, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/42d3b01c903b4427940edfebd51299e0 UK’s Johnson asks for a Brexit delay that he doesn’t want]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
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See also:
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*MacLellan, Kylie; Sandle, Paul (October 19, 2019). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu/brexit-will-happen-on-october-31-despite-pms-unsigned-delay-request-uk-says-idUSKBN1WY0Q6 Brexit will happen on October 31 despite PM's unsigned delay request, UK says]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved October 20, 2019.</ref> On October 22, 2019, Parliament voted in favor of the Brexit deal but voted against Johnson's three-day schedule for giving the final approval of the deal.<ref>Multiple references:
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*Lane, Oliver JJ (October 22, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/10/22/boris-johnsons-brexit-plan-delayed-as-parliament-votes-against-october-31st-timetable/ Boris Johnson’s Brexit Plan Delayed as Parliament Votes Against October 31st Timetable]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
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*Colchester, Max; Douglas, Jason (October 22, 2019). [https://www.wsj.com/articles/boris-johnsons-brexit-deal-clears-vital-hurdle-in-parliament-11571768188 Johnson’s Brexit Deal Clears Hurdle in Parliament but His Timetable Is Rejected]. ''The Wall Street Journal''. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
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*Lawless, Jill; Kirka, Danica (October 22, 2019). [https://www.apnews.com/fa378c6a8b5e43c8812115fc8cee3974 Boris Johnson inches toward securing Brexit but delay likely]. ''Associated Press''. Retrieved October 22, 2019.</ref>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 07:53, 25 October 2019

Brexit results. Blue-shaded areas stand for council areas that voted "Leave". Orange stands for "Remain".
For the political philosophy in favor of Brexit, see Euroskepticism

Brexit is a repudiation of globalism and the campaign slogan for "Britain's Exit" from the European Union. The British people became the first nation to vote on a referendum whether or not to remain in membership to the EU, on June 23, 2016. The historic vote shocked the world as the Leave campaign won by a 52–48% margin. Prime Minister David Cameron campaigned to remain in the EU and was humiliated by the outcome, whereupon he resigned his position. Former London Mayor Boris Johnson was a leader of the Leave camp, though previously supporting Remain. Regaining self-governance and sovereignty were the top reasons for leaving the EU,[1] and the difficulty in leaving was the result of having surrendered control to the EU in the first place.[2]

On May 24, 2019, this issue caused the resignation of the prime minister of the United Kingdom, as Theresa May tearfully announced she would step down due to her inability to negotiate an agreement on how to implement Brexit. Boris Johnson, an advocate of a "no-deal Brexit" (i.e., leaving the EU without any agreement), was victorious in replacing Mrs. May.

Polling prior to the referendum indicated a tight race, with 44% preferring to stay (anti-Brexit) and 42% supporting leaving the EU (Brexit), as of April 17, 2016.[3] Two weeks after Barack Obama gave his support to Cameron and chided Britain to stay in the EU, a survey says Brexit gained 3% who want out.[4] Final results showed "Leave" with 52% of the vote to "Remain" with 48%, a margin that was 5 points better than polling. This was despite the fact that the "Remain" side was fined several times for cheating and lack of transparency, and despite the British government sending fliers to every citizen to urge them to vote "Remain."[5] After the election, many British voters felt betrayed by their politicians who undermined and threatened Brexit.[6][7][8]

The British High Court ruled on November 3, 2016, that the British government could not unilaterally begin formal exit negotiations with the EU, but rather that parliamentary approval via an Act of Parliament is needed to permit the British Government to trigger Article 50 and begin the withdrawal process.[9] The British government appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, skipping the Court of Appeal. On the 1st of February 2017, the British House of Commons approved beginning Brexit negotiations.[10] Amendments were later made in the House of Lords, and each amendment was refused by the House of Commons. The bill eventually became law and on the 29th of March, Theresa May triggered Article 50 and began the withdrawal process from the European Union.

Prime Minister Theresa May officially initiated Brexit on March 29, 2017.[11][12] In the Brexit negotiations, the EU parliament has a very powerful role, and has ruled out certain things the British Government was hoping to achieve (such as trade agreements with individual nation-states, rather than the European Union as an entity), thus acting as a bully to Britain.[13] Run by weak establishment and globalist politicians, the UK had serious trouble agreeing to leave the EU as voters demanded.[14]

Conservatives pushed back against the establishment attempt to nullify Brexit, with Nigel Farage forming the Brexit Party in April 2019.

Eligible voters

  • Voters must have been 18 or older
  • British, Commonwealth or Irish citizen who resided in Britain.
  • British nationals who lived overseas for less than 15 years could also vote.

Economic impact

Prior to the referendum, the Left and establishment claimed that approving Brexit would lead to terrible economic ruin for the UK. Pro-Brexiteers labeled this hysteria "Project Fear." Financial giants warned the British of credit downgrades. The British Pound dropped significantly as results started pouring in showing Leave doing better than expected.

Contrary to claims by anti-Brexit activists, the British economy did well, and it even improved after the referendum.[15] In early 2017, the chief economist of the Bank of England admitted that hysteric establishment predictions of economic gloom from a pro-Brexit result were wrong and inaccurate.[16] The British finance ministry admitted the same in January 2018.[17] In 2017, British manufacturing grew at its fastest rate since early 2008.[18] Despite contrary claims by "Remain" campaigners, the British Pound climbed to pre-Brexit vote levels in January 2018.[19] Employment also rose.[20] By 2018, British export levels reached the highest level since 2010.[21] Car manufacturing and investment also increased significantly in 2018.[22] The Office for National Statistics found in February 2019 that the British economy was growing faster than that of the Eurozone.[23] European investment more than doubled in nearly three years after the vote.[24] In July 2019, the British economy increased more than expected.[25] London's status as a capital for finance remained despite contrary claims by anti-Brexiteers.[26]

Despite the economic growth, anti-Brexit activists continued to predict "doom-and-gloom" economic scenarios.[27] However, former prime minister David Cameron, who supported the "Remain" campaign, admitted in January 2018 that Brexit "turned out less badly than we first thought" despite continuing to voice displeasure about it.[28]

Anti-Brexit advocates continued promoting Project Fear, or "Project Hysteria," regarding a potential no-deal "Hard Brexit."[29][30]

Crawford Falconer, the UK's main trade negotiator, admitted in July 2019 that Britain had very little influence in international trade policy as an member of the European Union.[31]

Secular leftists, Brexit and mental illness

See also: Secular leftists and psychogenic illness

There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggests that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism (See:Atheism and health).[32] In addition, atheists have higher suicide rates (see: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression).

Politically, most atheists fall on the left side of the political spectrum (see: Atheism and politics and Secular left).

The new atheist Richard Dawkins was against Brexit.[33] Dawkins is a liberal/leftist.[34] Most leftists were against Brexit.

A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".[35] See also: British atheism

The Guardian reported about Brexit:

In shrinks’ offices across the country, just as in homes, pubs and offices, people are trying to come to terms with the surprise and shock of the Brexit result. Strangers gather together to talk of how “the world is falling apart”.

Many people feel transported into a dystopian Britain that they “do not recognise, cannot understand”. Thousands are hatching plans to leave the country. Social media are full of suddenly violent flaming between former friends.

Therapists everywhere are reporting shockingly elevated levels of anxiety and despair, with few patients wishing to talk about anything else. Mental health referrals have already begun to mushroom. Why is the Brexit vote affecting us so personally? And, what does this tell us about the make-up of our psyches?[36]

The columnist Patrick West wrote in his article The Post-Brexit Ugliness of the left:

The liberal-left couldn’t understand why people would vote in the name of abstract principles such as ‘democracy’ or ‘freedom’ or ‘self-determination’, because they view everything in terms of their own money and their own public image.

There was a time when it was Tories who sneered at the poor, who deplored them as stupid and feckless. This was in the loadsamoney era of the 1980s, during which the market ruled and we were beholden to the whims of capitalists and the sainted market. There was even a time, many years ago, when the left spoke of principles, of democracy and liberty. How the roles have been reversed. How strange that it’s mostly conservatives who now talk in abstractions, and it’s the left that obsesses about the markets and worry about the FTSE 100, about their own money.[37]

Process for leaving the EU

Even before the process for leaving the EU began, globalists planned on sabotaging Brexit in the hope that the UK would retain much of its vassalage to the EU or even remain in the EU outright.[38]

Despite British leaders' reluctance for achieving a "no deal" hard Brexit, Professor Patrick Minford of Cardiff University estimated that such an exit would actually cost the EU £507 billion with the UK gaining £641 billion.[39] The British establishment claimed that a "no deal" Brexit would have disastrous consequences for Britain, similar to "Project Fear" prior to the referendum, despite the lack of evidence.[40]

The UK parliament passed a bill implementing the referendum decision, becoming law on June 27, 2018, about a year after being introduced.[41][42] Globalists of the EU[43] and in the UK refused to admit their defeat in the referendum by trying to undermine and even reverse Brexit – thus undermining democracy.[44] By July 2018, Prime Minister Theresa May had hurt her country's chances of securing a real Brexit because of several poor decisions and refusal to stand firm against the EU in negotiations.[45] The UK parliament voted to make a clean Brexit more difficult to achieve, increasing the chance of no Brexit.[46]

On November 14, 2018, May announced the UK had reached an agreement with the EU.[47] The agreement was very poorly received by Brexit supporters.[48] Not only was May a weak negotiator, but she also advocated for a bad deal. For example, she requested that a "backstop" be added to the final Brexit deal that would keep the UK in the customs union with no exit.[49] Despite the major concessions to the EU, European countries were still not satisfied and wanted yet more concessions.[50] While May claimed that her deal was the only possible one that the UK could achieve, pro-Brexit MPs Jacob Rees-Mogg and David Davis released their own Brexit plan that would respect British sovereignty.[51] In December 2018, the British government was forced to release legal advice it had received that stated the agreement would be worse for Britain than the government claimed.[52] After the UK surrendered to additional Spanish demands regarding Gibraltar,[53] the EU approved the agreement.[54]

On January 15, 2019, the UK Parliament rejected the deal by a vote of 202 for and 432 against, making it the largest government defeat since World War I.[55] The British establishment, nonetheless, opposed any meaningful Brexit, if any at all.[56] On March 12, 2019, Parliament again rejected May's Brexit deal.[57] May tried to bully pro-Brexit MPs to vote for her bad deal by claiming that Brexit would not happen if they did not vote her way,[58] and she later announced she would vote against a no-deal Brexit despite originally claiming to prefer no-deal over a bad deal.[59] The following day, Parliament – along with May[59] – voted against a no-deal Brexit.[60] The day after that, Parliament voted to delay Brexit,[61] even though May had repeatedly promised that such a delay would not happen.[62][63] Not content with all this, May chose to have Parliament vote once again on her Brexit deal,[64] and the third vote on March 29, 2019, also failed.[65] Not content, May wanted parliament to vote on her deal a fourth time.[66]

May then began negotiations with the far-left Jeremy Corbyn on a Brexit agreement.[67] Her government also announced the UK would participate in the European Parliament elections,[68][69] something anti-Brexit deep state officials set aside money for in 2018.[70] May even threatened to keep the UK in the EU.[71] This came even though her own government had prepared extensively for a "no deal."[72] In April 2019, the EU and May government agreed to further extend Brexit to October 31 of that year.[73] Anti-Brexit members of May's government then stated that parliament would consider a second referendum,[74] and her government even ended its Brexit "no deal" planning.[75] Despite claiming to oppose a second referendum, May announced on May 21, 2019, that she would offer such a referendum as a condition of approving her exit plan.[76]

Despite voting to leave the EU, the UK's payments to the globalist organization increased by 20% by 2019.[77]

Some Tory MPs opposed achieving Brexit so much that they even supported far-left socialist Jeremy Corbyn becoming prime minister in place of Boris Johnson.[78] Those Tories voted with Labour in early September 2019 to block a "no-deal" Brexit.[79] The EU worried that Brexit would mean closer relations between the UK and U.S.[80]

While the EU attempted to scare the UK about the risks of a "no deal" Brexit and pretend that it would allow it to happen, the European Parliament simultaneously voted to grant the UK yet another extension if thought necessary.[81] The EU and its member-nations worried that the UK would be a competitor to the organization.[82]

Johnson suspended parliament in early September 2019, but the UK Supreme Court ruled against this action on September 24.[83]

Article 50

The Article 50 document was signed by the Prime Minister of the UK, Theresa May, on the 29th March 2017. It was delivered to Donald Tusk (President of The European Council) who commented there was "no reason to pretend this was a happy day" especially as the UK had been integral to the European Union for 44 years.

Following the acceptance of article 50 there will be two years of intense negotiation to finalise agreements over:

  • current UK and EU nationals living in each other's territories
  • financial liabilities and responsibilities to each other
  • trade and legal agreements

If this is not completed within two years then it is likely that World Trade Organization rules would apply to any future trade unless all EU member nations agree to extend the negotiating period by up to one year.

In December 2018, the European Court of Justice, which always rules in favor of the EU's preferred position, stated that a country could unilaterally reverse Article 50.[84]

Negotiations

The main concern of the British government is to ensure access to the single market for its banking and manufacturing sectors - both major income streams for the UK. Along with this the UK business sector are very concerned about the potential loss of EU (especially Eastern European) labour for many agricultural and low paid roles. Negotiations are proceeding very slowly because of the obstructive tactics of the EU negotiators. They are insisting that Britain must agree to an "exit fee" of over £50 billion before they will start trade talks.[85] They also wanted to discuss the "rights" of EU citizens before such talks.

Under Theresa May

In July 2018, Theresa May and her cabinet agreed to a very weak negotiating position that would leave the country under the European Court of Justice, effectively in the single market, and under the jurisdiction of many of the EU's regulations.[86] Anti-Brexit Europhiles applauded the negotiating position.[87] In opposition to such a weak agreement, several of her pro-sovereignty ministers resigned,[88][89] including Brexit Minister David Davis[90] and Foreign Minister Boris Johnson.[91] Several other officials also resigned.[92] Pro-"Remain" officials in May's government consolidated their influence over the exit negotiations.[93][94] The UK government also gave the Europhile European Court of Justice the final say over any Brexit issue in the negotiations.[95]

The House of Commons approved May's negotiating position as official UK policy on July 16, 2018, though it also added four amendments to the bill created by pro-Brexit MPs.[96] The following day, it approved a trade bill while rejecting an anti-Brexit amendment to the bill that would have required the government to enter a customs agreement with the EU if free trade negotiations failed, though parliament also voted to require the government to remain under the EU's medicine regulations.[97]

Under Boris Johnson

Immediately upon becoming Prime Minister, Boris Johnson took a tough stance on Brexit, promising to fulfill the 2016 referendum result.[98] His government stated it would not pay any "divorce bill" to the EU in the case of a "no-deal" Brexit,[99] and Johnson stated he would push to adopt an independent trade policy and not nominate an EU commissioner.[100]

Johnson immediately put his cabinet to work preparing for a "no-deal" Brexit,[101] and he stated he would refuse to negotiate with the EU unless it dropped its Irish backstop demand.[102] Very early in Johnson's tenure, his government doubled the amount of money devoted to preparing for a "no-deal" Brexit,[103] and his treasury minister announced a one-year spending review to help the government prepare for a "no-deal" Brexit.[104] The government announced that in the event of a "no-deal" Brexit, it would end its adherence to the EU's "freedom of movement" rules.[105] Johnson voiced confidence and patriotism in his country.[106] However, regarding the Brexit agreement with the EU, Johnson only called for the EU to remove the Northern Ireland backstop in order for him to accept it, angering Brexit supporters.[107] In August 2019, the EU appeared to take a softer stance on renegotiating the Brexit agreement, but this public stance was actually a way to deflect blame in the event of a no-deal Brexit.[108]

In August 2019, Johnson's government announced it would stop sending its officials to most EU meetings.[109]

On August 28, 2019, Johnson announced he would ask the queen to suspend parliament as Brexit Day approached.[110] He threatened to expel any Tory MP who voted to delay or block Brexit.[111] Parliament voted to block a no-deal Brexit and Johnson followed through on his threat.[112] While calling for a new election for two years, the Labor Party suddenly opposed holding a new election after Johnson announced his support for it.[113] Johnson continued voicing support for achieving Brexit,[114] and he refused to request a Brexit extension from the EU.[115] The UK Supreme Court, however, ruled against Johnson's parliamentary suspension on September 24, 2019.[116]

Despite pushing for Brexit, Johnson made the mistake of publicly disavowing and insulting Nigel Farage when he proposed forming an electoral coalition – and incident which illustrated that Johnson was not a political conservative.[117]

Johnson announced a revised Brexit deal proposal on October 2, 2019.[118] On October 17, 2019, Johnson announced he had reached an agreement with the EU.[119] The conservative Northern Irish Democratic Unionist Party announced it would oppose the proposed agreement,[120][121] and Brexit Party leader Nigel Farage also criticized it.[121][122] On October 19, 2019, the House of Commons voted to delay the vote on the agreement and to delay Brexit if the agreement did not pass.[123] Later in the day, Johnson requested a Brexit extension despite promising not to take such an action.[124] On October 22, 2019, Parliament voted in favor of the Brexit deal but voted against Johnson's three-day schedule for giving the final approval of the deal.[125]

See also

External links

References

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