- For the political philosophy in favor of Brexit, see Euroskepticism
Brexit is a campaign slogan for 'Britain's Exit' from the European Union. The British people became the first nation to vote on a referendum whether or not to remain in membership to the EU on June 23, 2016. The historic vote shocked the world as the Leave campaign won by a 52–48% margin. Prime Minister David Cameron campaigned to remain in the EU and with the results public, resigned his position. Former London Mayor Boris Johnson was a leader of the Leave camp, though previously supporting Remain.
Polling indicated a tight race, with 44% preferring to stay (anti-Brexit) and 42% supporting leaving the EU (Brexit), as of April 17, 2016. Two weeks after Barack Obama gave his support to Cameron and chided Britain to stay in the EU, a survey says Brexit gained 3% who want out. Final results showed "Leave" with 52% of the vote to "Remain" with 48%, a margin that was 5 points better than polling. This was despite the fact that the "Remain" side was fined several times for cheating and lack of transparency, and despite the British government sending fliers to every citizen to urge them to vote "Remain."
The British High Court ruled on November 3, 2016, that the British government could not unilaterally begin formal exit negotiations with the EU, but rather that parliamentary approval via an Act of Parliament is needed to permit the British Government to trigger Article 50 and begin the withdrawal process. The British government appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, skipping the Court of Appeal. On the 1st of February 2017, the British House of Commons approved beginning Brexit negotiations. Amendments were later made in the House of Lords, and each amendment was refused by the House of Commons. The bill eventually became law and on the 29th of March, Theresa May triggered Article 50 and began the withdrawal process from the European Union.
Prime Minister Theresa May officially initiated Brexit on March 29, 2017. In the Brexit negotiations, the EU parliament has a very powerful role, and has ruled out certain things the British Government was hoping to achieve (such as trade agreements with individual nation-states, rather than the European Union as an entity), thus acting as a bully to Britain.
- Voters must have been 18 or older
- British, Commonwealth or Irish citizen who resided in Britain.
- British nationals who lived overseas for less than 15 years could also vote.
Prior to the referendum, the Left and establishment claimed that approving Brexit would lead to terrible economic ruin for the UK. Pro-Brexiteers labeled this hysteria "Project Fear." Financial giants warned the British of credit downgrades. The British Pound dropped significantly as results started pouring in showing Leave doing better than expected.
Contrary to claims by anti-Brexit activists, the British economy did well, and it even improved after the referendum. In early 2017, the chief economist of the Bank of England admitted that hysteric establishment predictions of economic gloom from a pro-Brexit result were wrong and inaccurate. The British finance ministry admitted the same in January 2018. In 2017, British manufacturing grew at its fastest rate since early 2008. Despite contrary claims by "Remain" campaigners, the British Pound climbed to pre-Brexit vote levels in January 2018. Employment also rose. By 2018, British export levels reached the highest level since 2010.
Despite the economic growth, anti-Brexit activists continued to predict "doom-and-gloom" economic scenarios. However, former prime minister David Cameron, who supported the "Remain" campaign, admitted in January 2018 that Brexit "turned out less badly than we first thought" despite continuing to voice displeasure about it.
Anti-Brexit advocates continued promoting Project Fear, or "Project Hysteria," regarding a potential no-deal "Hard Brexit."
Secular leftists, Brexit and mental illness
See also: Secular leftists and psychogenic illness
There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggests that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism (See:Atheism and health). In addition, atheists have higher suicide rates (see: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression).
A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". See also: British atheism
The Guardian reported about Brexit:
|“|| In shrinks’ offices across the country, just as in homes, pubs and offices, people are trying to come to terms with the surprise and shock of the Brexit result. Strangers gather together to talk of how “the world is falling apart”.
Many people feel transported into a dystopian Britain that they “do not recognise, cannot understand”. Thousands are hatching plans to leave the country. Social media are full of suddenly violent flaming between former friends.
Therapists everywhere are reporting shockingly elevated levels of anxiety and despair, with few patients wishing to talk about anything else. Mental health referrals have already begun to mushroom. Why is the Brexit vote affecting us so personally? And, what does this tell us about the make-up of our psyches?
The columnist Patrick West wrote in his article The Post-Brexit Ugliness of the left:
|“|| The liberal-left couldn’t understand why people would vote in the name of abstract principles such as ‘democracy’ or ‘freedom’ or ‘self-determination’, because they view everything in terms of their own money and their own public image.
There was a time when it was Tories who sneered at the poor, who deplored them as stupid and feckless. This was in the loadsamoney era of the 1980s, during which the market ruled and we were beholden to the whims of capitalists and the sainted market. There was even a time, many years ago, when the left spoke of principles, of democracy and liberty. How the roles have been reversed. How strange that it’s mostly conservatives who now talk in abstractions, and it’s the left that obsesses about the markets and worry about the FTSE 100, about their own money.
Process for leaving the EU
Despite British leaders' reluctance for achieving a "no deal" hard Brexit, Professor Patrick Minford of Cardiff University estimated that such an exit would actually cost the EU £507 billion with the UK gaining £641 billion.
The UK parliament passed a bill implementing the referendum decision, becoming law on June 27, 2018, about a year after being introduced. Globalists in the UK refused to admit their defeat in the referendum by trying to undermne and even reverse Brexit. By July 2018, Prime Minister Theresa May had hurt her country's chances of securing a real Brexit because of several poor decisions and refusal to stand firm against the EU in negotiations.
The Article 50 document was signed by the Prime Minister of the UK, Theresa May, on the 29th March 2017. It was delivered to Donald Tusk (President of The European Council) who commented there was "no reason to pretend this was a happy day" especially as the UK had been integral to the European Union for 44 years.
Following the acceptance of article 50 there will be two years of intense negotiation to finalise agreements over:
- current UK and EU nationals living in each other's territories
- financial liabilities and responsibilities to each other
- trade and legal agreements
If this is not completed within two years then it is likely that World Trade Organization rules would apply to any future trade unless all EU member nations agree to extending the negotiating period by up to one year.
The main concern of the British government is to ensure access to the single market for its banking and manufacturing sectors - both major income streams for the UK. Along with this the UK business sector are very concerned about the potential loss of EU (especially Eastern European) labour for many agricultural and low paid roles. Negotiations are proceeding very slowly because of the obstructive tactics of the EU negotiators. They are insisting that Britain must agree to an "exit fee" of over £50 billion before they will start trade talks. They also wanted to discuss the "rights" of EU citizens before such talks.
In July 2018, Theresa May and her cabinet agreed to a very weak negotiating position that would leave the country under the European Court of Justice, effectively in the single market, and under the jurisdiction of many of the EU's regulations. Anti-Brexit Europhiles applauded the negotiating position. In opposition to such a weak agreement, several of her pro-sovereignty ministers resigned, including Brexit Minister David Davis and Foreign Minister Boris Johnson. Several other officials also resigned. Pro-"Remain" officials in May's government consolidated their influence over the exit negotiations. The UK government also gave the Europhile European Court of Justice the final say over any Brexit issue in the negotiations.
The House of Commons approved May's negotiating position as official UK policy on July 16, 2018, though it also added four amendments to the bill created by pro-Brexit MPs. The following day, it approved a trade bill while rejecting an anti-Brexit amendment to the bill that would have required the government to enter a customs agreement with the EU if free trade negotiations failed, though parliament also voted to require the government to remain under the EU's medicine regulations.
- United Kingdom Independence Party
- Examples of EU regulations on Britain
- European migrant crisis
- Obama fails to swing Britain behind EU as 'Out' takes poll lead, Reuters, April 28, 2016
- Kassam, Raheem (March 25, 2018). 5 Ways the Remain Camp Cheated During Brexit…. And Still Lost! Breitbart News. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- Brexit court defeat for UK government. BBC. November 3, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Brexit: MPs overwhelmingly back Article 50 bill. BBC. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Suarez Sang, Lucia I. (March 29, 2017). Brexit triggered: UK prime minister sends letter to European Union to begin divorce. Fox News. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- TRIGGERED: Britain Invokes Article 50 to Begin Brexit Process. Breitbart News. March 29, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- EU legislators tell UK on Brexit: no parallel talks. Fox News (from the Associated Press). April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Bank of England economist: Brexit predictions were wrong. Fox News. January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
- Reuters: Treasury Says Pre-Referendum ‘Project Fear’ Forecasts No Longer Valid. Breitbart News. January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- Deacon, Liam (January 11, 2018). UK Manufacturing Growing at Fastest Rate in a Decade After Brexit Vote. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Sterling Climbs Above $1.40 to New Post-Brexit-Vote High. Breitbart News. January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- REUTERS: UK Employment Surges to Record High, Wages Increase. Breitbart News. January 24, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (March 8, 2018). Brexit Boom: British Exports Strongest Since 2010, Defying Pre-Referendum Recession Threats. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (January 11, 2018). Project Fear Redux: As Economy Surges, Anti-Brexit Economists Predict Disaster in Report Funded by Sadiq Khan. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Lane, Oliver JJ (January 24, 2018). David Cameron at Davos: ‘Brexit Has Turned Out Less Badly Than We First Thought’. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- Friedman, Victoria (September 17, 2018). ‘Project Hysteria’: Dire No-Deal Brexit Predictions from the End of Sandwiches to the Sky Falling in. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
- Multiple references:
- Mueller, Dr. Paul S. et al. (December 2001). "Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for clinical practice". Mayo Clinic Proceedings vol. 76:12, pp. 1225-1235. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic Proceedings website on July 20, 2014.
- "Research library". Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
- McCullough, Michael E. et al. (2000). "Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review". Health Psychology. vol. 19:3. pp. 211-222. Retrieved from University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website on July 24, 2014.
- Casey, Professor Patricia (April 3, 2009). "The psycho-social benefits of religious practise" [executive summary]. Iona Institute for Religion and Society [Ireland] website. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
- McCullough, Michael E. and Willoughby, Brian L. B. (2009). "Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: associations, explanations, and implications". Psychological Bulletin, vol. 135: 1, pp. 69–93. Retrieved from University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website on July 24, 2014.
- University of Colorado at Boulder (May 17, 1999). "Research shows religion plays a major role in health, longevity". ScienceDaily. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
- Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004). "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [abstract]. The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8. Abstract retrieved from National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med on July 24, 2014.
- University of Warwick (December 2003). "Psychology researcher [Dr. Stephen Joseph] says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism". Scienceblog. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
- Richard Dawkins: Brits have not spoken on Brexit, BBC
- Religion and Politics, Richard Dawkins' website
- Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, p. 204". Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
- The EU referendum has caused a mental health crisis by Jay Watts, The Guardian
- The Post-Brexit Ugliness of the left by Patrick West
- Montgomery, Jack (January 15, 2018). Study: ‘No Deal’ Will Cost the EU £507bn, While Britain Gains £641bn. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
- Gaydos, Ryan (June 26, 2018). Brexit bill becomes law, allowing UK to leave European Union. Fox News. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- Manchester, Julia (June 26, 2018). British Brexit bill becomes law. The Hill. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- Newman, Alex (June 27, 2018). Brexit Is Now Law, but Globalists Refuse to Surrender. The New American. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- Friedman, Victoria (July 11, 2018). Concessions, Threats, No Confidence: Five Ways ‘Zombie May’ Bungled Brexit. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (July 6, 2018). TOTAL CAPITULATION: May Proposes Sub-Norway Brexit Deal – Concedes on Goods, Rules, EU Court, and More. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- Friedman, Victoria (July 9, 2018). Remainers Congratulate May’s Brexit Betrayal. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacAskill, Andrew (July 8, 2018). British eurosceptic ministers quit in blow to May's Brexit plan. Reuters. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Murphy, James (July 10, 2018). U.K. Government Reels in the Wake of Brexit-related Resignations. The New American. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- Multiple references:
- Montgomery, Jack (July 8, 2018). REBELLION: Brexit Secretary David Davis Resigns Over May’s ‘Turd’ Deal, ‘Couldn’t Sell Out His Own Country’. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Top UK official in charge of Brexit quits in fresh blow to May. Associated Press. July 8, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (July 10, 2018). Ex-Brexit Minister Slams May: Establishment ‘Don’t Want to Leave EU’, Exit Plan Led by ‘Fear and Supplication’. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- Lane, Oliver JJ (July 9, 2018). Brexit-Supporting Dominic Raab Chosen as New Brexit Secretary After David Davis Resignation. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Lane, Oliver JJ (July 9, 2018). British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson Resigns Government Amid Brexit Rebellion. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Former foreign minister Johnson warns Britain will end up like colony to the EU after Brexit. Reuters. July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (July 9, 2018). BORIS SPEAKS: ‘Brexit is Dying, White Flags Are Fluttering, May Deal Will Make Britain an EU Colony’. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Multiple references:
- Friedman, Victoria (July 16, 2018). Theresa May’s Government Implodes as 9th MP Resigns over Soft Brexit Plan. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Sang, Lucia I. Suarez (July 16, 2018). Theresa May dismisses calls for 2nd Brexit vote as ninth parliament member resigns. Fox News. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Mikhailova, Anna (July 15, 2018). Theresa May hit by her eighth resignation over Brexit plans in nine days, as ministerial aide quits. The Telegraph. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Deacon, Liam (July 17, 2018). Power Grab: May’s Brexit Bureaucrat Purges 50 Brexit Department Staff. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Deacon, Liam (July 24, 2018). PM’s Bureaucrats Officially Take Charge of Brexit Talks, Brexit Department Snubbed. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- Deacon, Liam (July 30, 2018). EU Courts to Have Final Say on Brexit ‘Divorce Bill’ and Millions of Migrants. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Multiple references:
- Brexit: Government scrapes through Customs Bill votes. BBC News. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacAskill, Andrew (July 15, 2018). May wins parliament vote after bowing to Brexit pressure. Reuters. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- McTague, Tom; Dickson, Annabelle (July 16, 2018). Theresa May narrowly avoids House of Commons defeat as Tory split worsens. Politico. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Multiple references:
- Cooper, Charlie (July 17, 2018). UK government wins vote on customs union amendment. Politico. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Brexit vote: Government defeats EU customs union bid. BBC News. July 17, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Sparrow, Andrew; Rawlinson, Kevin (July 17, 2018). May wins key customs union vote by six after surprise Brexit loss on medicines agency – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- James, William; MacAskill, Andrew; Piper, Elizabeth (July 17, 2018). May narrowly avoids defeat in parliament on EU trade laws. Reuters. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Douglas, Jason; Horner, Will (July 17, 2018). May’s Brexit Plan Narrowly Survives in Parliament. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 17, 2018.