Challenges to World History final exam

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Two questions on the final exam have been challenged. The first is this:

Each of the following was part of nearly all medieval towns EXCEPT:
(a) hazards of disease such as the Black Plague
(b) enclosure by a wall
(c) new opportunities for the middle class (bourgeoisie)
(d) Christianity
(e) religious conflict

The challenge is that "medieval" should include non-Christian societies such as Japan, and therefore the correct answer should be (d).

This challenge is invalid. "Medieval" refers to the Middle Ages in Europe, which was entirely Christian. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines "medieval" as pertaining to the "Middle Ages," and then defines "Middle Ages" as pertaining to Europe between about A.D. 500 and 1500.

REPLY A Google search for "medieval" gives over 60 million results, a search for medieval Europe only returns 9 Million, clearly, the term medieval does not only apply to Europe. --TimSvendsen 22:59, 1 February 2007 (EST)
Further REPLY This website clearly does not restrict the middle ages to Europe. The Middle ages term list includes such entries as Islam and Japan which are not European. --TimSvendsen 23:05, 1 February 2007 (EST)
Further Reply Throughout the course, you taught that the middle ages were one of the 4 periods of world history, along with ancient, pre-modern and modern. --TimSvendsen 23:31, 1 February 2007 (EST)
Further Reply In World History Lecture Seven the 4th heading is "Asia in the middle ages" which includes the following "...In this section we deal with East and Southeast Asia, discussing in particular what happened in China in the Middle Ages..." --TimSvendsen 23:38, 1 February 2007 (EST)
REPLY Good points, Tim, but I'm limiting "Middle Ages" to Europe only in interpreting the Merriam-Webster's use of the term in its definition for "medieval". Besides, didn't only Europe have "medieval towns" per the question?--Aschlafly 23:45, 1 February 2007 (EST)
Why do you limit the term to Europe when it used by historians (say, Will & Ariel Durant) in many contexts? What are you teaching your "students"? Human 01:25, 21 April 2007 (EDT)
Reply You have not refuted any of my points here. --TimSvendsen 10:12, 2 February 2007 (EST)
Further Reply A Google searches for: medieval towns japan, medieval towns China, medieval towns Asia and medieval towns Africa, all come up with more than 1,000,000 results. --TimSvendsen 10:08, 2 February 2007 (EST)

The second challenge is this:

An example of the element of surprise in warfare could cite which military commander?
(a) Adolf Hitler
(b) Hannibal
(c) Dwight Eisenhower
(d) George W. Bush
(e) Archimedes

The challenge is that Hitler and Eisenhower used the element of surprise, as did Hannibal. But the element of surprise was not as important or creative in Hitler's or Eisenhower's command.

Hitler did not truly succeed based primarily on surprise. Also, he was not really a "military commander."

Eisenhower receives credit for D-Day (Normandy invasion during WW II) but everyone expected an Allied invasion of the continent and Eisenhower was merely one of many important participants in that strategy. Hannibal stands above the others in his responsibilities, creativeness, and effectiveness of his surprise.


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