Last modified on 22 January 2019, at 01:05

Civilization

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A civilization needs a form of government (a set of laws), a form of education, skilled workers, an agricultural surplus to feed the skilled workers, law enforcement, economy, and a currency or trading system.

Civilization has also been defined by Clyde Kluckhohn as having "three essential criteria for civilization: towns containing more than 5000 people, writing, and monumental ceremonial centers".[1]

In order to attain these prerequisites a group of humans must have climbed up the ladder of Technological Development necessary to attain them.

Three major attributes of every civilization include:

  • Urbanism - There must be cities to have civilization.
  • Politics - There must be something to bring the people together.
  • Religion - There must be a code of conduct or standard of morality to maintain civilization.
  • People with common language, customs, government, and economy, earliest in Mesopotamia 3000 BC.

Positives

  • More people, more sedentary, more predicable
  • More & Better food, clothing, and shelter
  • Lifespan increases
  • Sophisticated religion and technology

Negatives

  • Tyrannical rule
  • Conscription & War

Timeline

  • 6200 BC: Liao civilization begins in Northeast China
  • c. 3200 BC: Sumer
  • 3200 BC: Norte Chico civilization begins in Peru
  • 3200 BC: Rise of Proto-Elamite Civilization in Iran
  • 3200 BC: Newgrange built in Ireland.
  • 3200 BC: Cycladic civilization in Greece
  • 3150 BC: First Dynasty of Egypt
  • 3100 BC: Skara Brae in Scotland
  • 3000 BC: Jiroft civilization begins in Iran
  • 2800 BC: Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins
  • 2800 BC: Longshan culture in China
  • 2700 BC: Minoan Civilization ancient palace city Knossos reach 80,000 inhabitants
  • 2700 BC: Rise of Elam in Iran
  • 2600 BC: Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley civilization (in present-day Pakistan and India) begins
  • 2600 BC: Emergence of Maya culture in the Yucatán Peninsula
  • 2334 or 2270 BC: Akkadian Empire is founded, dating depends upon whether the Middle chronology or the Short chronology is used.
  • 1900 BC: Erlitou culture in China
  • 1600 BC: Minoan civilization on Crete is destroyed by the Minoan eruption of Santorini island.
  • 1600 BC: Mycenaean Greece
  • 1600 BC: The beginning of Shang Dynasty in China, evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system
  • 1400-400 BC: Olmec civilization flourishes in Pre-Columbian Mexico, during Mesoamerica's Formative period
  • 1200 BC: The Hallstatt culture
  • 1000 BC: Nok culture in West Africa
  • 800 BC: Rise of Greek city-states
  • c.785 BC: Rise of the Kingdom of Kush

Western civilization

Bernard Lewis wrote, Template:Lewis-heir-civ

References

External links