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Columbia University is the oldest and most prestigious university in New York City, in Manhattan's Morningside Heights neighborhood, adjacent to Harlem. More Nobel Prize laureates graduated from Columbia University than any other university in the United States, and it is the seventh largest private employer in New York City. It is a member of the Ivy League, and began admitting women in 1983. Columbia University accepts applications from homeschooled students if they have four SAT II subject exam scores.
Columbia University is the fifth oldest college in the nation, founded under the name "King's College" in 1754 under a royal charter by King George II of England. Its original religious affiliation was Anglican. Samuel Johnson held the first classes in a new schoolhouse next to Trinity Church in downtown Manhattan. Columbia's early students and trustees included future Chief Justice John Jay, future Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, future drafter of the U.S. ConstitutionGouverneur Morris, and future co-author of the Declaration of Independence Robert R. Livingston.
Housing Frankfurt School
After the Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung) was shut down by the Nazis in 1933, the exiled circle of Freudian Marxists later known as Frankfurt School regrouped in New York, where they were housed at Columbia University. From there, these left-wing intellectuals began to exert their ideas responsible for various societal pathologies on American culture. The Frankfurt School's relationship to Columbia University has been somewhat neglected by its many historians, and it is peculiar and hard to comprehend why Columbia University's conservative president, Nicholas Murray Butler, and its sociology department, would extend an invitation to a group of predominantly German-speaking social philosophers with strong links to the Marxian left.
Columbia has a law school, a medical school, and the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science.
Columbia has a large campus in Morningside Heights in northern Manhattan. It also owns Nevis Laboratories in Irvington, New York to study high-energy experimental particle and nuclear physics. That 60-acre estate was once owned by Alexander Hamilton's son. In addition, Columbia owns the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, New York, which allows study of global climate change, earthquakes, volcanoes, and environmental issues.
Columbia came under fire from conservatives and free speech activists when Minutemen Project founder Jim Gilchrist and Minuteman Marvin Stewart were attacked by a crowd of student protesters while attempting to give a speech at the school, forcing them to abandon their speech. "They have no right to speak here", said one student.
Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who had called for the destruction of the nation of Israel and called for the execution of homosexuals, was allowed to speak at Columbia on September 26, 2007, but also not without much protest and controversy.
- College Search - Columbia University - At a Glance (English). College Board. Retrieved on May 28, 2010.
- 2011 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. Retrieved on November 20, 2012.
- Joel Anderson (2000). "The "Third Generation" of the Frankfurt School". Intellectual History Newsletter (St. Louis: Washington University) (22). http://www.marcuse.org/herbert/scholaractivists/00JoelAnderson3rdGeneration.htm. Retrieved 28 Jul 2017. "After the Institute was shut down by the Nazis in 1933, the exiled circle remained relatively intact, especially during the initial period in New York, where they were housed at Columbia University (not, as is often thought, at the New School for Social Research). Horkheimer, Adorno, and the others pursued the defining themes of the first generation - Freudian Marxist analyses of the roots of totalitarianism in mass culture - themes that became the basis for work carried out in Frankfurt, after the Institute for Social Research was reestablished under the directorship of Horkheimer (later rector of the University of Frankfurt). During this second heyday of the Institute (1950-70), the term "Frankfurt School" came to stand for a social-theoretic approach employing methods of qualitative social science to expose the ideology responsible for various societal pathologies.".
- Joel Kovel et al.. Kovel on the Frankfurt School, lecture on the Frankfurt School at the Brecht Forum. Retrieved on 28 Jul 2017. “After Hitler came to power, the Frankfurt intellectuals came to the United States. Ironically, Adorno, the hater of popular culture, settled in Los Angeles. Marcuse ended up in NYC, where the work of the Frankfurt School was continued on a formal basis at Columbia University.”
- Tyler Durden (12 Aug 12 2016). The Birth Of Cultural Marxism: How The "Frankfurt School" Changed America. “As fate would have it, the National Socialists came to power in Germany in 1933. It was a bad time and place to be a Jewish Marxist, as most of the school’s faculty was. So, the school moved to New York City, the bastion of Western culture at the time. Coming to America. In 1934, the school was reborn at Columbia University. Its members began to exert their ideas on American culture.”
- Thomas Wheatland (Fall 2004). "The Frankfurt School's Invitation from Columbia University: How the Horkheimer Circle Settled on Morningside Heights". German Politics & Society (Berghahn Books) 22 (3 (72)): 1–32. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23740578. Retrieved 28 Jul 2017. "Oddly enough, the Frankfurt School's relationship to Columbia University has been somewhat neglected by its many historians. It is not hard to understand why the Horkheimer circle would have desired to settle at Columbia, but it is peculiar that the Frankfurt School would have received an invitation from Columbia. After all, why would Columbia University's conservative president, Nicholas Murray Butler, and its sociology department extend an invitation to a group of predominantly German-speaking social philosophers with strong links to Marxian left? Regrettably, the one time that questions were raised about the Horkheimer circle's connection with Columbia University, a debate ensued in which the focus shifted away from Morningside Heights, and the only result was a Cold War polemic...".