Racially disproportionate results or outcomes are differences out of proportion to the ratio of the races in a population. Often the difference in proportions is considered to be proof of discrimination. One report called racial differences in school discipline an "alarming ... problem", citing "evidence of a pervasive and systematic bias". Others say the outcomes are genuinely reflective of human behavior. Heather Mac Donald attributes disparate outcomes of arrests or shootings to higher rates of crime and violence:
- ... as long as crime rates are so disproportionate, policing will be more intense in minority neighborhoods, increasing the chances that when an encounter goes awry, it will have a minority victim.