Donald Trump achievements: Energy and environmental policy

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Main article: Donald Trump achievements

This article is a non-exhaustive list of achievements by U.S. President Donald Trump, his administration, and Congress related to energy and environmental policy.

2017

By his first year in office, President Trump and his administration made numerous achievements in energy and environmental policy.[1] Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Scott Pruitt sharply reoriented the EPA in a strongly conservative direction,[2][3] having it focus on "protecting the nation's air, water, and public health" rather than advance left-wing environmentalist goals.[2] While continuing to consult with environmental organizations, Pruitt also met with business organizations,[4] and the EPA re-established a program to formally work with industries when making regulations.[5]

By the end of 2017, the Trump Administration had taken numerous steps to undo the Obama Administration's environmental policies and regulations.[6] The shift in the Trump Administration regarding energy and the environment was illustrated with the replacement of a page about climate change on the official White House website with one about the "America First Energy Plan,"[7] the changes made to the website of the Environmental Protection Agency a few months after President Trump took office,[8] the organization's dismissal of global warmist scientific advisers from the EPA and Interior Department with the intention to replace them with individuals who better understand the effects of regulations,[9] as well as other EPA officials choosing to leave.[10] Despite President Trump's achievements, he was strongly opposed by the deep state.[11]

The Trump Administration established a friendly stance toward Fossil fuels.[12]

In 2017, the U.S. saw the largest drop in carbon emissions of any country even as the global level of emissions rose.[13]

Legislation signed, 2017

  • President Trump blocked and removed some energy and environmental regulations through the Congressional Review Act:
    • February 14, 2017—Trump signed H.J.Res.41 into law, which blocked an Obama Administration regulation that would have required oil, natural gas, and mining companies to disclose any payments made to foreign governments.[14]
    • February 16, 2017—President Trump signed H.J.Res.38 into law which blocked the "Stream Protection Rule," an environmental regulation.[15]
  • December 22, 2017—In the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that President Trump signed, which also cut tax rates and repealed the ObamaCare individual mandate, part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge was opened for oil drilling, ending a nearly four-decade struggle by conservatives to open up the area.[16]

Executive actions, 2017

  • January 24, 2017—Trump signed two orders reviving consideration for the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipeline projects, which Obama halted due to supposed environmental concerns.[17] On March 24, 2017, the Trump Administration approved the Keystone XL Pipeline.[18] The Dakota Access Pipeline went into service by June 1, 2017.[19]
  • January 24, 2017—In addition to the above, Trump signed three other orders, one requiring the United States Secretary of Commerce make a plan within six months mandating all new or improved pipelines be made with American steel, another order requiring every federal agency to streamline manufacturing regulations, and the third allowing fast-track approval for important infrastructure projects.[20]
  • February 28, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order directing the EPA to start the process of repealing the Obama Administration's Waters of the United States rule.[21] The EPA began the process of repealing WOTUS on June 27, 2017.[22]
  • On March 18, 2017, the Trump Administration forced the G-20 to remove any mention of climate change from its joint statement.[23] Later, in April 2017, the Trump Administration refused to sign the G7 joint statement because the other nations could not agree to include support for nuclear and fossil fuels without support for the Paris climate agreement. The G7, thus, went without a joint statement.[24][25]
  • March 28, 2017—President Trump signed a major executive order repealing several Obama-era environmental regulations unfavorable to coal, including a January 2016 moratorium on new coal leases on federal lands (the Trump Administration immediately went to work promoting coal mining on federal lands[26]). In addition to this, the order started an immediate review of Obama's Clean Power Plan, help create American energy jobs, bring American energy independence by stimulating domestic energy production, and giving authority back to the states.[27][28]
  • April 28, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order repealing a ban on offshore drilling signed by President Obama and directing the Interior Secretary to review U.S. drilling policy and regulations.[29][30] Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke began the process of expanding offshore drilling on May 1.[31]
  • May 2017—The Trump Administration signed agreements as a member of the Arctic Council,[32] and it was later revealed that it successfully weakened the language regarding climate change and environmental policy.[33]
  • May 31, 2017—Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke signed an order to open up more land in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska to energy production.[34]
  • June 1, 2017—To the dismay of world leaders,[35] the media,[36] and other liberals,[37] and in a major blow to Obama's legacy,[38] President Trump announced the U.S. would withdraw from the Paris climate agreement and immediately stop its implementation,[39][40][41] including by ending payments to the U.N. Green Climate Fund.[42] In his announcement speech, Trump made clear that "I was elected to represent the citizens of Pittsburgh, not Paris," and that "our withdrawal from the agreement represents a reassertion of America’s sovereignty."[40][43][44] (even with U.S. withdrawal, it was still well on its way to deeply reducing admissions[45]) The Trump Administration formally notified the UN of its intention to withdraw from the agreement on August 4, 2017.[46]
  • June 12, 2017—The Trump Administration formally rejected a G7 pledge to adhere to the Paris climate agreement.[47]
  • June 12, 2017—The Trump Administration rejected, on the grounds of being unnecessary and with costs greater than any benefits, a proposed regulation to put a limit on the number of certain endangered marine aminals allowed to be killed on injured in fishing nets.[48][49]
  • June 15, 2017—The Department of Energy closed its Office of International Climate and Technology in order to improve its organizational structure.[50]
  • June 30, 2017—Despite a court ruling that the EPA did not need to take the loss of coal jobs into account when implementing regulations, it chose to follow that policy regardless.[51]
  • July 6, 2017—Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke signed an order for his department to hold more lease sales and speed up permitting for oil and gas exploration. he signed the order because of delays in the approval process for federal lands.[52]
  • July 8, 2017—In the final G-20 common statement, the Trump Administration, which was ideologically opposed by the other G-20 nations, successfully received concessions from them in regards to climate policy, with the statement acknowledging the U.S.'s intention to withdraw from the Paris agreement and including language on the nation's intention to promote clean fossil fuels internationally.[53]
  • July 31, 2017—The United States and Ukraine agreed to have the U.S. export coal to Uraine, so the latter could gain energy independence from Russia.[54]
  • August 7, 2017—The EPA ended its backlog of reviews of 600 new chemicals that existed when EPA Administration Pruitt assumed office in February of that year – an important goal for him.[55]
  • August 15, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order to speed up environmental reviews for infrastructure project approvals.[56]
  • August 16, 2017—The National Park Service ended a policy begun during the Obama Administration that encouraged national parks to ban the sale of water in disposable bottles, stating that it would let visitors decide what container they want their water in while still promoting reusable containers.[57]
  • August 20, 2017—The Trump Administration did not renew the charter for the federal advisory panel for climate change, disbanding the group.[58]
  • September 15, 2017—Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke signed an order expanding the access that hunters and fishers have to lands maintained by the Interior Department.[59]
  • October 16, 2017—EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt issued a directive ending a practice called "sue and settle" used during the Obama Administration of making settlements with environmental groups that lead to additional regulations. The EPA was the first Trump Administration agency to end this practice.[60]
  • October 31, 2017—EPA Director Pritt signed a directive banning scientists who receive EPA grants from serving on the agency's independent advisory boards, something Pruitt did to avoid having board members with any conflicts of interest.[61] On November 3, 2017, Pruitt appointed dozens of conservatives and industry experts to those advisory boards, giving them a more diverse set of members compared to before.[62]
  • December 18, 2017—Among the many other aspects of President Trump's national security strategy, the Trump Administration reversed the Obama Administration's decision to list climate change as a national security threat[63] and even suggested that the climate change lobby is a national security threat.[64]
  • December 20, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order directing federal agencies to increase the production of important minerals that the U.S. is dependent on Chinese and Russian imports for, in order to reduce U.S. dependence on the countries.[65]

Appointments, 2017

Overall, President Trump appointed numerous skeptics of human-caused climate change to environmental-related positions.[66]

  • On December 8, 2016, President-elect Trump nominated Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt,[67] a conservative and a critic of the Environmental Protection Agency, as its head.[68] The U.S. Senate confirmed Pruitt on February 17, 2017.[69]
  • August 2017—The Trump Administration named Cathy Stepp, a conservative skeptic on human-caused climate change, to lead the EPA Midwest regional office.[70]
  • The EPA appointed a former Trump campaign aide to make the decisions regarding grant funding.[71]

Other achievements, 2017

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • The coal industry experienced a rebound at the beginning of Trump's presidency, after "the historic lows reached during the Obama era."[72] Although the rebound could also be seen in India and China, it was more dramatic in the United States.[73] U.S. coal exports rose about 60% in the first part of 2017 compared to the previous year, mainly due to high demand from Europe and Asia.[74] Coal production and profits also increased.[75] It was not just the coal industry that experienced a rebound, but rather all fossil fuels.[76] The American Petroleum Institute reported a 62% increase in the number of drilled and completed oil and natural gas wells in the second quarter of 2017 compared to the same period of 2016.[77]
  • June 8, 2017—President Trump showed his support for coal by sending a surprise video message for the opening of a new coal mine, saying that "I want you to know each and every day, I'm fighting for you and all the forgotten men and women of America."[78]
  • It was reported shortly before Independence Day 2017 that gas prices that weekend were at their lowest level since 2005 – 12 years.[79]
  • It was reported in late November 2017 that the number of National Science Foundation grant applications mentioning the term "climate change" decreased by 40% in 2017, something the scientists apparently chose to do voluntarily.[80]
  • In November 2017, U.S. oil production surpassed 10 million barrels a day, the first time it had done so since 1970.[81] According to the Bureau of Land Management, 2017 saw an 86% increase in its oil and gas lease sales compared to the previous year.[82]
  • December 28, 2017—President Trump trolled climate change alarmists when he tweeted that "perhaps we could use a little bit of that good old Global Warming that our Country, but not other countries, was going to pay TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS to protect against" when noting record cold weather in the U.S.[83]

2018

President Trump continued challenging the liberal consensus on climate change,[84] and EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt continued to advance President Trump's conservative environmental agenda until his resignation in July 2018.[85] President Trump continued his strong support for coal,[86] and his administration also supported renewable energy sources such as wind power.[87] The EPA continued changing its website to reflect Trump Administration priorities, such as removing a page on "international priorities."[88] The Trump Administration also moved to repeal regulations on hunting.[89] Despite these policies, other sections of the Trump Administration continued advancing climate change measures.[90]

Legislation signed, 2018

  • March 23, 2018—While opposing much of President Trump's conservative environmental agenda, Congress did allow the Trump Administration to end NASA's Carbon Monitoring System, a program to measure world carbon emissions and associated with the Paris agreement.[91] In the same bill that President Trump signed into law, Congress reduced the regulatory burden on farmers by exempting them from having to report emissions from animal waste, something the EPA implemented on July 23, 2018.[92]

Executive actions, 2018

  • January 19, 2018—In the Department of Defence's National Defense Strategy, climate change was removed as a security threat.[93]
  • January 2018—It was reported that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, frequently used to promote the existence of human-caused climate change, had been reduced by half.[94]
  • February 1, 2018—The Interior Department issued a memorandum ordering its offices to simplify and speed up the process for oil and gas leases on federal land.[95]
  • April 2, 2018—EPA Administrator Pruitt announced his agency would roll back Obama-era fuel efficiency regulations.[96]
  • April 12, 2018—President Trump signed a memorandum ordering the EPA to take several steps to make it easier for states and companies to comply with air pollution regulations, such as having the EPA speed up its decisionmaking on granting air pollution permits.[97] It was reported shortly afterward that the EPA had issued several other memos in the previous months rolling back several air pollution regulations.[98]
  • April 20, 2018—The Bureau of Land Management began the process of opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for drilling, in accordance with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that President Trump signed the previous year.[99]
  • April 24, 2018—EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt signed an order to create a rule requiring any scientific study used to justify additional regulations to be made public, thus eliminating "secret science."[100]
  • May 17, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order requiring federal agencies to reduce waste and the amount of energy they use, among other measures to promote environmental and energy efficiency.[101] This order replaced a stricter and less flexible order signed by Obama in 2015.[102]
  • June 6, 2018—The Interior Department announced it would spend $256 million for infrastructure projects in 22 of its national parks.[103]
  • June 15, 2018—The EPA released its proposed rule rolling back the Obama Administration's Waters of the United States rule.[104]
  • June 19, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order on U.S. management of ocean resources that replaced a policy enacted by Obama in 2010 by reducing bureaucracy and encouraging offshore development.[105]
  • July 19, 2018—The Trump Administration announced it would change how it enforces the Endangered Species Act, streamlining its enforcement and reducing the regulatory burden on Americans, among other changes.[106]
  • August 2, 2018—The EPA began the process to freeze fuel economy standards, reversing an Obama-era policy.[107]
  • The Trump Administration took a conservative, common-sense approach when dealing with the major wildfires in California in 2018. For example, the U.S. Forest Service moved to expand logging in the Los Padres National Forest to reduce the risk of forest fires,[108] and on August 8, 2018, the Commerce Department ordered the National Marines Fisheries Service to prioritize water for fighting fires over protecting endangered species.[109] These actions came roughly when President Trump criticized California's environmental laws for making the wildfires in the state so much worse,[110] and Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke also strongly criticized environmentalists and called for forest management.[111]
  • August 21, 2018—The EPA announced it had begun the process of repealing the Obama Administration's anti-coal Clean Power Plan and replacing it with a rule giving the states more authority on how to deal with carbon emissions.[112]
  • September 7, 2018—The Interior Department finalized a rule to allow new or expanded hunting or fishing on 30 wildlife refuges.[113]
  • September 11, 2018—The EPA proposed rolling back Obama-era regulations related to methane emissions from oil and gas wells.[114] On September 18, 2018, the Interior Department moved to roll back a similar Obama-era rule regarding methane.[115]

Other achievements, 2018

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • By early 2018, the U.S. was experiencing an oil boom, having a positive effect on the nation, while at the same time it was reducing its oil imports.[116] U.S. oil flooded European markets to the disadvantage of OPEC countries and Russia,[117] and shale oil companies earned enough money to finance new wells themselves for the first time.[118] Higher oil prices and increasing output levels helped cause an economic boom in oil-producing areas in the U.S.[119] According to the Energy Information Administration, U.S. crude oil exports reached a record high in June 2018 with an average of 3 million barrels per day during the week ending on June 22.[120] Additionally, U.S. oil exports in the first half of 2018 had risen 80% compared to the same period in 2017.[121] The EIA reported on July 18, 2018, that oil production had hit 11 million barrels per day for the first time ever.[122] The EIA reported in September 2018 that the U.S. "likely" became the largest crude oil producer worldwide, surpassing Saudi Arabia and Russia.[123]
  • Because of two proclamations President Trump signed in December 2017 – which took effect in February 2018 – reducing the size of two national monuments in Utah, the lands taken from the monuments were opened up to mining and drilling.[124]
  • Under pressure from President Trump, Saudi Arabia, the rest of OPEC, and Russia either considered or took action to drop the price of oil.[125] On June 22, 2018, OPEC agreed to increase oil production in order to lower prices.[126]
  • As an illustration of the friendlier conditions for the coal industry under President Trump, an Alabama coal mine reopened because of confidence in his policies.[127]

References

  1. Multiple references: For a left-of-center point of view on Trump Administration achievements specifically in the EPA: See also:
  2. 2.0 2.1 Siegel, Josh (September 13, 2017). Scott Pruitt criticizes Obama as 'environmental savior,' moves EPA away from climate change. Washington Examiner. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  3. Multiple references: See also:
  4. Multiple references:
  5. Multiple references:
  6. Multiple references:
  7. Martel, Frances (January 20, 2017). WhiteHouse.gov Takes Down Climate Page, Puts Up ‘America First’ Energy Plan. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  8. Rodriguez, Katherine (April 29, 2017). EPA Removes Climate Science Website, Announces ‘Changes’ to Reflect Trump Administration. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
    The White House website also removed climate change information from its website:
  9. Multiple references:
  10. Delingpole, James (December 22, 2017). Delingpole: Christmas Is Here, Everyone! EPA Officials Are ‘Leaving in Droves’. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  11. Multiple references: See also:
  12. Multiple references: For a left-of-center point of view:
  13. Multiple references: Emissions from the U.S. power sector fell to record lows: See also:
  14. Multiple references:
  15. Multiple references:
  16. Multiple references: For a conservative perspective on the policy change: See also:
  17. Multiple references:
  18. Multiple references:
  19. Cama, Timothy (June 1, 2017). Dakota Access pipeline now in service. The Hill. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
    See also:
  20. Korte, Gregory (January 24, 2017). Trump signs five more orders on pipelines, steel and environment. USA Today. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  21. Multiple references: See also: Growth by Reviewing the ‘‘Waters of the United States’’ Rule]. Federal Register. March 3, 2017. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  22. Multiple references: See also:
  23. Multiple references:
  24. Report: Trump administration officials clashed with G7 ministers over climate policy. Fox News. April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  25. Bastasch, Michael (April 11, 2017). Trump Refuses To Sign G7 Statement Endorsing Paris Climate Agreement. The Daily Caller. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  26. Lipton, Eric; Meier, Barry (August 6, 2017). Under Trump, Coal Mining Gets New Life on U.S. Lands. The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  27. Spiering, Charlie (March 28, 2017). ‘The War on Coal Is Over’: Donald Trump Signs Energy Executive Order. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  28. Trump signs executive order rolling back Obama-era energy regs. Fox News. March 28, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  29. Wolfgang, Ben (April 28, 2017). Trump tosses Obama’s offshore drilling limits: ‘We’re opening it up’. The Washington Times. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  30. Trump signs executive order aimed at expanding drilling in Arctic, Atlantic oceans. Fox News. April 28, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  31. Cama, Timothy (May 1, 2017). Interior secretary starts process for offshore drilling expansion plan. The Hill. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
  32. Starr, Penny (May 12, 2017). Tillerson Signs Docs with Climate Change Statement, Insisting U.S. ‘Still Reviewing’ Policy. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  33. Multiple references:
  34. Multiple references:
  35. Multiple references:
  36. Multiple references:
  37. Multiple references:
  38. Wolfgang, Ben (June 1, 2017). Trump eviscerates Obama’s Paris legacy. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  39. Chakraborty, Barnini (June 1, 2017). Paris Agreement on climate change: US withdraws as Trump calls it 'unfair'. Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Moons, Michelle (June 1, 2017). Trump: U.S. Will Withdraw from Paris Climate Accord. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  41. Easley, Jonathan (June 2, 2017). Trump cements 'America First' doctrine with Paris withdrawal. The Hill. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  42. Volcovici, Valerie; Mason, Jeff (June 1, 2017). Trump abandons global climate pact; allies voice dismay. Reuters. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  43. Multiple references:
  44. Despite mockery from liberals due to the fact that the mayor of the city of Pittsburgh supported the Paris accord, Trump won the Pittsburgh metro area:
  45. Wolfgang, Ben (June 21, 2017). Who needs Paris? U.S. is well on its way to lower emissions with economic, technological changes. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  46. Multiple references: The United States stated it would continue to take part in climate talks in order to protect its interests:
  47. Multiple references:
  48. Siciliano, John (June 12, 2017). Trump cancels whale and sea turtle protections. Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  49. Weikel, Dan (June 12, 2017). Trump administration cancels proposed limits on marine mammals and sea turtles trapped in fishing nets. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  50. Multiple references:
  51. Siciliano, John (June 30, 2017). Trump's EPA ignores court ruling on coal jobs. Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  52. Multiple references:
  53. Multiple references: Angela Merkel, the host of the 2017 G-20 summit, earlier stated her intention to weaken the group's climate statement in order to appease President Trump:
  54. Multiple references: Coal shipments started in August 2017:
  55. Multiple references:
  56. Multiple references:
  57. Multiple references:
  58. Multiple references:
  59. Multiple references:
  60. Multiple references: The regulations resulting from "sue and settle" cost taxpayers an estimated $68 billion between 2005 and 2017 with an annual cost of $26.5 billion: See also:
  61. Multiple references:
  62. Multiple references: See also:
  63. Multiple references:
  64. Pollak, Joel B. (December 18, 2017). Trump’s National Security Strategy Suggests Climate Change Lobby Is a Threat. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  65. Multiple references:
  66. Henry, Devin (September 9, 2017). Trump stacks administration with climate change skeptics. The Hill. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  67. Spiering, Charlie (March 28, 2017). Exclusive: Scott Pruitt Promises ‘EPA Originalism’ in Donald Trump Administration. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
  68. Multiple references:
  69. Multiple references:
  70. Multiple references:
  71. Multiple references:
  72. Multiple references: See also:
  73. Both sources are Associated Press articles, but listed in two conservative media sites: See also:
  74. Multiple references: Despite this article's headline, it does a good job illustrating the increases in coal exports: Specifically regarding Ukraine:
  75. Multiple references:
  76. Delingpole, James (July 26, 2017). DELINGPOLE: Trump’s Embrace of Fossil Fuels Is Making America Great Again. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
  77. Starr, Penny (July 12, 2017). Winning: Domestic Wells Drilled in Second Quarter of 2017 up 62 Percent. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  78. Multiple references:
  79. Multiple references:
  80. Multiple references:
  81. Multiple references:
  82. Starr, Penny (February 2, 2018). U.S. Oil and Gas Lease Sales up 86 Percent, $360 Million to Federal and State Treasuries. Breitbart News. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  83. Multiple references: Predictably, President Trump's tweet triggered the Left and the media:
  84. Multiple references:
  85. Multiple references: See also:
  86. Cama, Timothy (April 24, 2018). Winning victories for coal under Trump. The Hill. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  87. Multiple references:
  88. Manchester, Julia (April 26, 2018). EPA removes 'international priorities' page from site. The Hill. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  89. Green, Miranda (May 26, 2018). Pro-hunting Trump officials take ax to wildlife protections. The Hill. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  90. Multiple references:
  91. Multiple references:
  92. Multiple references:
  93. Multiple references:
  94. Delingpole, James (January 30, 2018). Delingpole: #Winning – Trump Slashes Budget of Global Warming Madrasa. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  95. Multiple references:
  96. Multiple references:
  97. Multiple references:
  98. Multiple references:
  99. Multiple references:
  100. Multiple references: See also:
  101. Multiple references:
  102. Multiple references:
  103. Multiple references: See also:
  104. Multiple references:
  105. Multiple references:
  106. Multiple references: See also:
  107. Multiple references: See also:
  108. Multiple references: See also:
  109. Multiple references:
  110. Multiple references: See also:
  111. Multiple references:
  112. Multiple references: Acting EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler signed off on this proposal the day prior: See also:
  113. Multiple references:
  114. Multiple references:
  115. Multiple references: See also:
  116. Multiple references: In 2018, oil exports along the Texas Gulf Coast exceeded imports for the first time:
  117. Yagova, Olga; George, Libby (April 23, 2018). Trump's revenge: U.S. oil floods Europe, hurting OPEC and Russia. Reuters. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
    See also:
  118. Crooks, Ed; Bullock, Nicole (April 23, 2018). US shale groups reach self-financing milestone as oil price rises. Financial Times. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  119. Multiple references: See also:
  120. Multiple references: It was not the first time, however, that U.S. crude oil exports reached a record high that year:
  121. Siciliano, John (September 7, 2018). US oil exports hit new records. Washington Examiner. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  122. Multiple references: See also: Starr, Penny (July 21, 2018). Energy Group: Highest-Ever U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids Production. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  123. Multiple references:
  124. Multiple references:
  125. Multiple references:
  126. Multiple references: See also: Saudi Arabia also reportedly agreed with President Trump to increase oil production:
  127. Multiple references: