Essay: The evolutionist and atheist Oxyaena reveals his total incompetence

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In a previous essay entitled The evolutionist and atheist Oxyaena offers a lame reply to Conservapedia's challenge, Conservapedia crushes Oxyaena's lame argumentation like an aluminum can.

Oxyaena is an editor of an atheist/agnostic wiki which is covered in these essays:

Below Conservapedia covers a statement of Oxyaena's which reveals his total incompetence.

The evolutionist and atheist Oxyaena reveals his total incompetence

In this essay, Conservapedia will tackle this statement of Oxyaena: "In fact it should tell you something about fundamentalism that people are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with it."

Setting aside that Oxyaena is committing the ad populum logical fallacy, let's see how accurate the statement that "people are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with [fundamentalism]" is.

In addition, Conservapedia will cover how Oxyaena often commits the fallacy of exclusion. The fallacy of exclusion is a logical fallacy where "Important evidence which would undermine an inductive argument is excluded from consideration. The requirement that all relevant information be included is called the 'principle of total evidence.'"[1]

Religious fundamentalism is rising in the world

Actually, religious fundamentalism is rising in the world and it is expected to continue to grow (see: Growth of religious fundamentalism). And these religious fundamentalists, who have higher fertility rates than the native population who have sub-replacement levels of births, have poured into developed nations in recent times. This partly explains why France/UK and Protestant Europe have experienced zero secularization rates in recent times (see: European desecularization in the 21st century).

Global creationism is expanding in the world and in the secular areas of Europe and China

Dr. Carl Wieland was a founder of Creation Ministries International, a Christian ministry which is in four continents.

In addition, consider the below information on global creationism.

Johns Hopkins University Press reported in 2014: "Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus, and Muslims, even as anti-creationists sought to smother its flames."[2] See also: Evolutionary indoctrination

On October 4, 2014, the Vancouver Sun reported that evolutionism is rejected by hundreds of millions of evangelical Christians and Muslims around the world.[3]

Specifically, the Vancouver Sun declared:

Creationism, a religious world view that adamantly rejects Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, is on the rise among evangelical Protestants and most of the world’s Muslims.

It is not only the majority of residents in Muslim countries such as Pakistan, Indonesia and Turkey who strongly reject the teaching that humans and other species evolved over millions of years from less complex creatures. So do tens of millions of evangelical Christians in North America (as well as South America and Africa).

Overall, [Nidhal Guessoum, a Middle Eastern physics and astronomy professor] who teaches at the American University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates, estimates roughly 60 per cent of the world’s Muslims are creationists, including many living in the U.S. and Canada.

Even though poll results about evolution vary based on the questions asked, Salman Hameed reported in the journal Science that strong anti-evolution majorities exist in Turkey, Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt and Pakistan. The latter is among Canada’s top six source countries for immigrants...

An Angus-Reid survey found 43 per cent of Americans accept the creationist teaching that the Earth is less than 10,000 years old, which means they reject the...view the universe began roughly 13 billion years ago.[4]

Evangelical Christianity has experienced explosive growth in China (see: Growth of Christianity in China). China may have one of the largest populations of biblical creationists in the world by 2030 (see: China and biblical creationism). To see the magnitude of the explosive growth of Christianity in China, look at THIS GRAPH ABOUT THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA in a DW news story about Chinese Christianity (DW is a mainstream news outlet in Germany).

Jun-Yuan Chen Research Professor Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology was quoted in the Wall Street Journal as saying, "In China we can criticize Darwin but not the government. In America you can criticize the government, but not Darwin."[5]

Future growth of religious fundamentalism in the world

Eric Kaufmann, a professor at Birkbeck College, University of London, using a wealth of demographic studies, argues that there will be a significant decline of global atheism in the 21st century which will impact the Western World.[6][7][8][9]

At a conference Professor Eric Kaufmann, who specializes in religious/irreligious/political demography, said of religious demographic projections concerning the 21st century:

Part of the reason I think demography is very important, at least if we are going to speak about the future, is that it is the most predictable of the social sciences.

...if you look at a population and its age structure now. You can tell a lot about the future. ...So by looking at the relative age structure of different populations you can already say a lot about the future...

...Religious fundamentalism is going to be on the increase in the future and not just out there in the developing world..., but in the developed world as well.[10]

According to Kaufmann:

It will be a century or more before the world completes its demographic transition. There is still too much smoke in the air for us to pick out the peaks and valleys of the emerging social order. This much seems certain: without a new [secular liberal] ideology to inspire social cohesion, fundamentalism cannot be stopped. The religious shall inherit the earth.[11]

Dr. Steve Turley wrote:

According to University of London scholar Eric Kaufmann’s detailed study on global demographic trends, we are in the early stages of nothing less than a demographic revolution. In Kaufmann’s words, "religious fundamentalists are on course to take over the world." There is a significant demographic deficit between secularists and conservative religionists. For example, in the U.S., while self-identified non-religionist women averaged only 1.5 children per couple in 2002, conservative evangelical women averaged 2.5 children, representing a 28 percent fertility edge. Kaufmann notes that this demographic deficit has dramatic effects over time. In a population evenly divided, these numbers indicate that conservative evangelicals would increase from 50 to 62.5 percent of the population in a single generation. In two generations, their number would increase to 73.5 percent, and over the course of 200 years, they would represent 99.4 percent. The Amish and Mormons provide contemporary illustrations of the compound effect of endogamous growth. The Amish double in population every twenty years, and projections have the Amish numbering over a million in the U.S. and Canada in just a few decades. Since 1830, Mormon growth has averaged 40 percent per decade, which means that by 2080, there may be as many as 267 million Mormons in the world, making them by 2100 anywhere from one to six percent of the world’s population.

In Europe, immigration is making the continent more religiously conservative, not less; in fact, London and Paris are some of the most religiously dense areas within their respective populations. In Britain, for example, Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Jews constitute only 17 percent of the Jewish population but account for 75 percent of Jewish births. And in Israel, Haredi schoolchildren have gone from comprising a few percent to nearly a third of all Jewish pupils in a matter of five decades, and are poised to represent the majority of the Jewish population by 2050. Since 1970, charismatic Christians in Europe have expanded steadily at a rate of 4 percent per year, in step with Muslim growth. Currently, Laestadian Lutherans in Finland and Holland’s Orthodox Calvinists have a fertility advantage over their wider secular populations of 4:1 and 2:1 respectively.

In contrast, Kaufmann’s data projects that secularists, who consistently exemplify a low fertility rate of around 1.5 (significantly below the replacement level of 2.1), will begin a steady decline after 2030 to a mere 14 to 15 percent of the American population. Similar projections apply to Europe as well. Kaufmann thus appears to have identified what he calls "the soft underbelly of secularism," namely, demography. This is because secular liberalism entails its own “demographic contradiction,” the affirmation of the sovereign individual devoid of the restraints of classical moral structures necessitates the freedom not to reproduce. The link between sex and procreation having been broken, modernist reproduction translates into mere personal preference. It thus turns out that the radical individualism so celebrated and revered by contemporary secular propagandists is in fact the agent by which their ideology implodes.[12]

Additional information concerning the United States, Christianity, conservative Christianity and religious fundamentalism

General picture of religion/irreligion and the United States

See also: American atheism

David Silverman is the ex-president of the American Atheists who was forced to resign amidst purported scandals.

According to the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS), the number of atheists and agnostics in the United States has remained relatively stable in the past 23 years. In 2014, 3% of Americans identified as atheists, and 5% identified as agnostics.[13] In 1991, 2% of Americans identified as atheist, and 4% identified as agnostic.[14]

In June 2016, American Interest reported:

First of all, religious belief is still very powerful and widespread, and there is nothing inevitable about its decline. In fact, the proportion of people who say they believe in God actually ticked modestly upward, from 86 percent to 89 percent, since Gallup last asked the question in 2014.[15]

Religious fundamentalism and the United States

Michael Brown wrote:

Several decades ago, church statistician and demographer David Barrett began to report the surprising news that around the world, the most rapidly growing faith was Spirit-empowered Christianity, marked by clear gospel preaching, belief in the literal truth of the Scriptures, and the reality of God’s presence. (The data were compiled in the prestigious “World Christian Encyclopedia,” published by Oxford University Press.)...

This is confirmed in the new Pew Forum report, which showed that evangelical Protestant churches in America grew by 2 million from 2007 to 2014 whereas the so-called mainline (liberal) Protestant churches declined by 5 million, meaning that evangelical Protestants now make up the largest religious group in the nation. (Although this is not part of the Pew Forum survey, my surmise is that the evangelical churches that are most Bible-based and make the most serious, grace-empowered demands on their congregants are, generally speaking, the ones that are growing rather than declining.[16]

In their 2010 journal article entitled, Secularism, Fundamentalism or Catholicism? The Religious Composition of the United States to 2043 published in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vegard Skirbekk and Anne Goujon wrote that the "prevailing view ...envisions the continued growth of “strong religion” (Stark and Iannaccone 1994a)."[17] See also: Baylor University researchers on American Christianity

Professor Eric Kaufmann wrote:

In North America, only small Anabaptist sects like the Hutterites (population 50,000), Amish and some Mennonites maintain a Haredi-like fertility premium, and will emerge as significant groups in rural areas over several generations...

Conservative Christians as a whole will have a stronger presence in the white America of 2050 than they do today, and a more powerful national voice if they can forge alliances with traditionalist Hispanic Catholics, as shown in the recent success of Proposition 8 (anti-same sex marriage) in California.[18]

Eric Kaufman wrote in his 2010 book Shall the Righteous Inherit the Earth? concerning America:

High evangelical fertility rates more than compensated for losses to liberal Protestant sects during the twentieth century. In recent decades, white secularism has surged, but Latino and Asian religious immigration has taken up the slack, keeping secularism at bay. Across denominations, the fertility advantage of religious fundamentalists of all colours is significant and growing. After 2020, their demographic weight will begin to tip the balance in the culture wars towards the conservative side, ramping up pressure on hot-button issues such as abortion. By the end of the century, three quarters of America may be pro-life. Their activism will leap over the borders of the 'Redeemer Nation' to evangelize the world. Already, the rise of the World Congress of Families has launched a global religious right, its arms stretching across the bloody lines of the War on Terror to embrace the entire Abrahamic family.[19]

Key articles on religion and religious fundamentalism in the United States

Baylor University research

Pat Neff Hall at Baylor University.

In November 2015, the Christian Post reported

Distinguished scholars from Baylor University on Tuesday decried the myth that religion is on the decline in America and argued that it's actually growing and is stronger than ever.

Professors from Baylor University's Institute for Religion Studies in Waco, Texas, participated in a panel discussion at the National Press Club focusing on the "secularization myth," where they lambasted the media's spin on various surveys which has led many to believe that irreligion is on the rise in the United States...

J. Gordon Melton, professor of American religious history, explained that although Mainline denominations have lost membership in recent years, the number of denominations in America has increased steadily since the 1960s. Now, there are over 1,000 denominations in the U.S.

Melton cited the Encyclopedia of American Religion and the 2010 American Religious Census to show that, as the American population has risen, church membership in America has risen at a much quicker rate.[20]

The Baylor University website similarly declares:

Recent coverage of American religious life, by focusing on the decline of some of the larger denominations and the new organized life of non-theistic communities, have missed the larger story that since World War II, religion in the United States has grown spectacularly and ahead of the population curve. America is now the most religious it has ever been with Church membership at an all-time high and relatively new worshipping communities representing the spectrum of the world's religions now spread across the urban landscape. As a nation in which the great majority of its people have affiliated with a religious community, without government coercion, America is possibly the most religious country that the world has ever seen.”[21]
Miscategorization of nondenominational Christians as having "no religion"

See also: Nones

Research shows that a significant amount of American nondenominational church members are checking "unaffiliated" or "no religion" on surveys.

Based on research done by Baylor University, a February 2011 article entitled Good News about Evangelicalism declares:

Nondenominational churches, almost exclusively evangelical, now represent the second-largest group of Protestant churches in America, and the fastest growing section of the American religious market...

This trend has affected popular statistics and has also served to exaggerate the loss of religious faith and evangelical influence in America. Most previous research missed a new phenomenon: that members of nondenominational churches often identify themselves on surveys as unaffiliated or even as having “no religion.” Because traditional surveys do not provide categories that adequately describe those who attend nondenominational congregations, their members often check “unaffiliated” in typical surveys and questionnaires...

Similarly, claims that Americans, including evangelicals, are falling away from the faith contradict seven decades of survey research confirming that only 4 percent of Americans are atheists.,,

...We found no statistically significant difference between younger and older evangelicals on other moral and political issues, however. Younger evangelicals were, in fact, sometimes more conservative than their elders.

...The number of evangelicals remains high, and their percentage among practicing Christians in America is, if anything, rising.[22]

A review of Rodney Stark's book Why the World is More Religious Than Ever declares:

...it is argued that the percentage of Americans who say they have no religion is skyrocketing. But, all that reflects is an increase in the percentage who have no denominational preference. They are not irreligious. Most of them pray and say they believe in God. In 1944, the Gallup Poll was the first to ask about belief in God, and four percent of Americans said, “No.” When asked that question today, four percent say, “No.” In fact, actual church membership is at an all-time high, and 66 percent now tell Gallup that “religion is important in my daily life."[23]

Vegard Skirbekk and Anne Goujon religion/irreligion/fundamentalism demographic projections

Current religious demography scholarship suggest that the relatively low fertility of secular Americans and the religiosity of the immigrant inflow provide a countervailing force that will cause the secularization process within the total population to plateau before 2043. This represents an important theoretical point in that demography permits society to become more religious even as individuals tend to become less religious over time.[24]

In their 2010 journal article entitled, Secularism, Fundamentalism or Catholicism? The Religious Composition of the United States to 2043 published in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vegard Skirbekk and Anne Goujon wrote:

We find considerable stability of religious groups over time, but there are some important shifts. Hispanic Catholics experience the strongest growth rates to 2043. Immigration, high fertility, and a young age structure will enable this group to expand from 10 to 18 percent of the American population between 2003 and 2043, despite a net loss of communicants to secularism and Protestantism. This will power the growth of Catholics as a whole, who will surpass Protestants by mid century within the nation’s youngest age groups. This represents a historic moment for a country settled by anti-Catholic Puritans, whose Revolution was motivated in part by a desire to spread dissenting Protestantism and whose populationon the eve of revolution was 98 percent Protestant (Huntington 2004; Kaufmann 2004). Another important development concerns the growth of the Muslim population and decline of the Jews. High Muslim fertility and a young Muslim age structure contrasts with low Jewish childbearing levels and a mature Jewish age structure. Barring an unforeseen shift in the religious composition and size of the immigrant flow, Muslims will surpass Jews in the population by 2023 and in the electorate by 2028. This could have profound effects on the course of American foreign policy. Within the non-Hispanic white population, we expect to see continued Liberal Protestant decline due to low fertility and a net loss in exchanges with other groups. White Catholics will also lose due to a net outflow of converts. Fundamentalist and Moderate Protestant denominations will hold their own within the white population, but will decline overall as the white share of the population falls.

The finding that Protestant fundamentalism may decline in relative terms over the medium term contrasts with a prevailing view that envisions the continued growth of “strong religion” (Stark and Iannaccone 1994a). This is the result of an older age structure, which increases loss through mortality, and immigration, which reduces the size of all predominantly white denominations — all of which are poorly represented in the immigration flow. Fundamentalists’ relatively high fertility and net surplus from the religious marketplace is not sufficient to counteract the effects of immigration. Obviously, this could change if significant immigration begins to arrive from more Pentecostalist source countries such as Guatemala or parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

Our work also sheds light on the religious restructuring paradigm, though we do not find a clear victor between secularism and fundamentalism. The secular population will grow substantially in the decades ahead because it has a young age structure and more people leave religion than enter it. The sharpest gains for secularism will be within the white population, where seculars will surpass fundamentalists by 2030. On the other hand, there are important demographic limits to secularism, demonstrating the power of religious demography. The relatively low fertility of secular Americans and the religiosity of the immigrant inflow provide a countervailing force that will cause the secularization process within the total population to plateau before 2043. This represents an important theoretical point in that demography permits society to become more religious even as individuals tend to become less religious over time.[25]

Notice the excerpt from the above journal article indicates "prevailing view that envisions the continued growth of 'strong religion' which would certainly include Protestant religious fundamentalists.

And there are indications that American Hispanic evangelicalism could experience strong growth as can be seen in the articles below:

Final thoughts on USA religious fundamentalism

As far as the growth of religious fundamentalism in the United States, there is the issue of future immigration policy and border policy. Of course, these two matters are somewhat unpredictable in the United States.

In addition, the United States has a sub-replacement level of births and a nation's fertility rate certainly has an effect on immigration policy.

Next, economic/political instability in country often causes a growth of evangelical Christianity in a country (see: Essay: The evolutionist and atheist Oxyaena offers a lame reply to Conservapedia's challenge) and there are signs the United States could experience increasing political polarization and political/economic instability related to race, immigration and various economic issues (including a federal debt which is large and rising).

Lastly, while there has been about a 6% drop in young earth creationism over the last 36 years or so in the United States (In 2017, 38% of Americans were young earth creationist)[26], as shown above, the prevalent view among scholars appears to be that "strong religion" will increase in the 21st century of the United States which could potentially increase the percentage of young earth creationists in the United States - especially if future U.S. legislators pass legislation related to the creation vs. evolution issue and/or the U.S. Supreme Court becomes more conservative (especially if it has more conservative Protestant judges).

Oxyaena and the fallacy of exclusion

As indicated above, I will cover how Oxyaena often commits the fallacy of exclusion. The fallacy of exclusion is a logical fallacy where "Important evidence which would undermine an inductive argument is excluded from consideration. The requirement that all relevant information be included is called the 'principle of total evidence.'"[27]

In the essay, The evolutionist and atheist Oxyaena offers a lame reply to Conservapedia's challenge, I posed a number of questions to Oxyaena which would force him to stop engaging in the fallacy of exclusion. Unsurprisingly, his dishonesty and/or illogical thinking caused him to not answer those questions.

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world's population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[28] See: Global atheism

For example, Oxyaena focuses like a laser beam on the recent rise of the nones in the United States (while largely ignoring developments in the rest of the world concerning religion, irreligion, desecularization and religious fundamentalism), while not adequately addressing the fact that 72% of American nones say they believe in a higher power of some kind.[29] In addition, a large portion of the nones switched from liberal Christianity and nominal Catholicism which is a rather milqtoast form of religion anyways. In addition, there has been a big increase in conservative Protestant Christianity in the United States as a result of people leaving liberal Protestantism/Catholicism.

In addition, Oxyaena appears to be allergic to scholarship concerning demographic projections into the future concerning religion/irreligion/fundamentalism despite the fact the Professor Eric Kaufmann rightly notes that demography is the "most predictable of the social sciences". And we have about 50 years of data indicating that since 1970 the percentage of atheists in the world has continually dropped (see: Global atheism statistics). Futhermore, various underlying causes of desecularization have been increasing (see: Causes of desecularization).

Final comments concerning Oxyaena

See also: Essay: More incompetence from the evolutionist and atheist Oxyaena

In his essay Of Atheism Sir Francis Bacon wrote: "I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran (Koran), than that this universal frame is without a mind."[30]

Oxyaena wrote: "Will you open your eyes and uncover your ears to the light of reason, or would you rather us move back to the Dark Ages of old?"

A few things:

1. Atheism cannot account the existence of the laws of logic and it is irrational (see: Atheism and logic and Atheism and irrationality and Atheism and reason

2. Oxyaena is committing the appeal to novelty logical fallacy. In short, newer is not truer.

3. I am not fan of the Catholic church and I am a staunch Protestant. But I will say this: Atheists, particularly secular leftists are known for their historical illiteracy and historical revisionism (see: Atheism and historical illiteracy and Atheism and historical revisionism).

Consider this article from History.com: 6 Reasons the Dark Ages Weren’t So Dark. In short, the criticisms of the secular leftists about the Middle Ages are overblown.

Furthermore, the scientific revolution was birthed in Christianized Europe (see: Christianity and science).

Sociologist Rodney Stark investigated the individuals who made the most significant scientific contributions between 1543 and 1680 A.D., the time of the Scientific Revolution. In Stark's list of 52 top scientific contributors,[31] only one (Edmund Halley) was a skeptic and another (Paracelsus) was a pantheist. The other 50 were Christians, 30 of whom could be characterized as being devout Christians.[31] Stark believes that the Enlightenment was a ploy by "militant atheists" to claim credit for the rise of science.[32]

And atheism does not have a fantastic track record when it comes to science (see: Atheism and science). And much scientific fraud is now happening by scientists who reject Christian morality (see: Limitations of science).

The scientific enterprise is greatly enhanced if a society is virtuous. On the other hand, a great deal of errors are introduced into the scientific community in a culture which lacks integrity. And sadly, much of academia and the scientific community discriminates against Bible believers. In 2013, a study found that academia was less likely to hire evangelical Christians due to discriminatory attitudes.[33] See also: Atheism and intolerance

Scientific community and fraud in science publications:

Social science literature has major problems:

References

  1. Stephen's Guide: Fallacy of Exclusion
  2. Creationism spreading in Europe
  3. Evolution rejected by hundreds of millions of Muslims and evangelicals, Vancouver Sun, October 4, 2014
  4. Evolution rejected by hundreds of millions of Muslims and evangelicals, Vancouver Sun, October 4, 2014. 9:12 am
  5. Two views about how Darwinism stays in place, with but one difference
  6. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London
  7. Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?
  8. Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series
  9. Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  10. Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century
  11. The Stork Theory By Allan C. Carlson, February 28, 2018
  12. (source: Text below the YouTube video Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth and the text was written by Dr. Steven Turley).
  13. Hout, Michael; Smith, Tom (March 2015). "Fewer Americans Affiliate with Organized Religions, Belief and Practice Unchanged: Key Findings from the 2014 General Social Survey" (PDF). General Social Survey. NORC
  14. Hout, Michael; Smith, Tom (March 2015). "Fewer Americans Affiliate with Organized Religions, Belief and Practice Unchanged: Key Findings from the 2014 General Social Survey" (PDF). General Social Survey. NORC
  15. Atheism is Rising, But…, American Interest
  16. Why conservative churches are still growing
  17. Secularism, Fundamentalism or Catholicism? The Religious Composition of the United States to 2043, Journal for the Sientific Study of Religion, vol. 49, no. 2 (June) 2010, Vegard Skirbekk and Anne Goujon,
  18. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century\ By Eric Kaufmann
  19. Why are 2012 and 2020 key years for Christian creationists and pro-lifers?
  20. Christianity Is Not Declining in America, Baylor University Professors Say, Christian Post, November 11, 2015
  21. Scholars Will Challenge “Secularization Myth” Nov. 10 at National Press Club
  22. Good News about Evangelicalism, First Things
  23. Rodney Stark: Why the World is More Religious Than Ever By Steve Addison, 3 November, 2015
  24. Secularism, Fundamentalism or Catholicism? The Religious Composition of the United States to 2043, Journal for the Sientific Study of Religion, vol. 49, no. 2 (June) 2010, Vegard Skirbekk and Anne Goujon,
  25. Secularism, Fundamentalism or Catholicism? The Religious Composition of the United States to 2043, Journal for the Sientific Study of Religion, vol. 49, no. 2 (June) 2010, Vegard Skirbekk and Anne Goujon,
  26. In U.S., Belief in Creationist View of Humans at New Low
  27. Stephen's Guide: Fallacy of Exclusion
  28. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  29. Key findings about Americans' belief in God. Pew Research Center (April 25, 2018). “In recent years, the share of American adults who do not affiliate with a religious group has risen dramatically. In spite of this trend, the overwhelming majority of Americans, including a majority of the religiously unaffiliated – those who describe themselves, religiously, as atheists, agnostics or “nothing in particular” – say they believe in God or a higher power, according a new Pew Research Center survey conducted in December of 2017....Finally, among those who describe themselves as religiously unaffiliated – also known as “nones” – 72% say they believe in a higher power of some kind.”
  30. Bacon, Francis, Of Atheism
  31. 31.0 31.1 Williams, Alex,The biblical origins of science, Journal of Creation 18(2):49–52, August 2004.
  32. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-3274629/False-conflict-Christianity-is-not.html
  33. Alexander, Rachel (June 10, 2013). "Suspicions confirmed: Academia shutting out conservative professors". Townhall.com.