Federalist No. 68
Federalist No. 68, authored by Alexander Hamilton under the pen name Publius, is the sixty eighth of 85 essays. Titled "The Mode of Electing the President", Hamilton discusses how the president is to be elected by the people. For this task, the Electoral College was implemented as a way to protect small states and large states from each other, as well as protect the people and the republic from mob rule, the tyranny of the majority, and the failures of democracy. The system of electors was considered a huge triumph at the time.
It was published on March 12, 1788.
Hamilton wrote of the process:
It was desirable that the sense of the people should operate in the choice of the person to whom so important a trust was to be confided. This end will be answered by committing the right of making it, not to any preestablished body, but to men chosen by the people for the special purpose, and at the particular conjuncture.
By involving the states in the process, every level of governance is involved thus insuring the stability and the reliability of elections and the process of electing the president.