The Founding Fathers are the leaders who founded the United States, especially the 40 dignitaries who signed the U.S. Constitution at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and the 57 signers of the Declaration of Independence. Historians consider the most important founders to include John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington. Washington is known for his leadership and honesty; Hamilton for his brilliance; John Adams for his morality; Franklin for his inventiveness; Madison for his scholarship; and Jefferson for his egalitarianism.
The 55 initial participants—all of whom would be considered "Founders" in the broad sense of the term—wrote 15,000 articles, books and other materials. A study found that the Bible comprised 34% of their direct quotations. They particularly liked quoting the Book of Deuteronomy.
The overall philosophy of the founding fathers can be summarized as "Americanism."
Freedom and natural law
The founding fathers were heavily influenced by John Locke, who promoted the principles of individual freedom and a limited government based on natural law and unalienable rights, as advocated by John Locke. The founding fathers themselves strongly supported these principles. Their experience with the tyrannical British government made them distrustful of a powerful government, and their resolve to not repeat this experience is reflected in the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. For example, the Constitution goes to great lengths to mandate the separation of powers, and the Bill of Rights further limits government power to protect individual rights. The founders also emphasized the importance of property rights. Many of the founding fathers warned Americans to stay vigilant against trends that erode individual freedom, including the growth of bureaucracy, violation of the separation of powers, and judicial supremacy.
Views on Slavery
With the understanding that Liberty is the gift of God, the Founding Fathers well understood that slavery was morally wrong despite facing the question of what could practically be done against it. In many instances however, the Founders recognized that slavery which was brought here by the British Empire could not be eliminated immediately without risking the cohesion between the Thirteen Colonies. Without this cohesion, the Founders feared, all would be hung. When America declared Independence, Franklin's Join or Die captured this sentiment in a very powerful way. Thirteen years later at the Constitutional Convention, James Madison expressed his concern that "the greatest danger is that of disunion of the States", making it clear that for more than a decade nothing scared the Founding generation more than the might of a known superpower where the sun never set.
In private correspondence as well as major acts or events, the Founders wrote of Britain's role, such as in the Original "rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; the topic of the British government's role in slavery came up in discussion at the Constitutional Convention, and several founders such as Thomas Paine and Benjamin Rush published pamphlets decrying the practice.
Not wanting to build a government with a single figure as powerful as a king, the Founders sought a Republican form. As a republican form, all domestic issues are decided on a state level, which included the issue of slavery. As early as 1780, the Founding generation succeeded in abolishing slavery. Pennsylvania was the first state to abolish it, followed by Massachusetts in 1783 and Rhode Island and Connecticut in 1784. Other states would continue to follow suit in years to come.
The famous Northwest Ordinance specifically forbid slavery.
The Founding Fathers sought "Honor"—freedom from corruption, and a positive devotion to civic virtue. These were key elements of Republicanism, and the Founding Fathers made republicanism the core values of the American system of government.
Corruption was the great evil the Founding Fathers confronted. When Britain showed too much corruption, it was time to break free with the American Revolution. To overcome the temptations of corruption—such as luxury and bribery—in their own lives, the Founding Fathers cultivated the virtue of disinterestedness. That is, the made a conscious effort to not be the creature of his financial interests, and not give any sign to the public that they sought luxury or bribes. The goal was to be impartial, concerned only for the public good, not the advancement of friends or, still less, of party.
Even personal shame and humiliation was preferable to a tarnished honor or the hint of corruption. When Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton was accused of corruption for making secret payments to a man named James Reynolds, Hamilton revealed he had been set up and was paying blackmail to Reynolds following an affair with Mrs. Reynolds. Duels over honor were common in the era—Hamilton was killed in one, as was Hamilton's son.
The Founding Fathers cared deeply about preserving national sovereignty, since a sovereign U.S. government would serve the American people alone and protect their unalienable rights, and let them govern themselves. In fact, they chose to declare independence because Britain was not respecting their right to self-government. For example, in his farewell address in September 1796, George Washington warned his fellow Americans against becoming entangled in international treaties and alliances, as he knew it would end American freedom. In addition to Washington, Gouverneur Morris criticized "Citizens of the World" at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and called for constitutional restrictions on foreigners such as a ban on holding office.
Federalism and separation of powers
The founding fathers did not discuss or advocate for a "separation of church and state." They were religiously and theologically diverse, coming from several denominational backgrounds. Their actual beliefs and practices are debated, but here too, they were diverse and must not be generalized. Some argue that the majority of the founding fathers were deists, while others argue that the most important fathers were "theistic rationalists," meaning they were not deists, but not necessarily Christians either. Despite this, scholars agree that some founding fathers were orthodox Christians. The founding fathers that were not Christians were influenced by Christianity in a culture where publicly being a Christian was normal.
The founding fathers considered to be "theistic rationalists" did believe God was active in earthly affairs and that religion was essentially important to society because it brought morality. However, they believed this to be true for all religions, rather than just Christianity. They opposed the establishment of an official religion but supported religion in public life.
In a Judiciary Committee report published by the House of Representatives in 1854 titled "Chaplains in Congress and in the Army and Navy" it was noted that:
- In this age, there can be no substitute for Christianity; that, in its general principles, is the great conservative element on which we must rely for the purity and permanence of free institutions. That was the religion of the founders of the republic, and they expected it to remain the religion of their descendants.
Signatories of the Declaration of Independence
Signatories of the Articles of Confederation
Other Founding Fathers
==religious list of the singers of the us founding fathers from the articles of confederation the constitution and the declaration of indepence A Table of the Religious Affiliations
of American Founders
Signer State Doc. Office Affiliation (Ref.)
Adams, Andrew CT A CO(l) Adams, John MA D President CO(b)UN(a) Adams, Samuel MA D/A CO(b) Adams, Thomas VA A Banister, John VA A Baldwin, Abraham GA C CO(j,k)PR(n) Bartlett, Josiah NH D/A CO(b) Bassett, Richard DE C ME(g,j,m,n) Bedford, Gunning, Jun. DE C PR(j,m) Blair, John VA C Justice PR(a)EP(n) Blount, William NC C EP(n)PR(f,j) Braxton, Carter VA D Brearly, David NJ C EP(n) Broom, Jacob DE C QU(n)EP(m) Butler, Pierce SC C EP(j,m) Carroll, Charles MD D RC(d) Carroll, Daniel MD A/C RC(d,j,n) Chase, Samuel MD D Justice EP(a) Clark, Abraham NJ D PR(c,e) Clingan, William PA A Collins, John RI A Governor Clymer, George PA D/C QU(j,n),EP(j) Dana, Francis MA A Dayton, Jonothan NJ C PR(n)EP(j) Dickenson, John DE A/C QU(j,m,n)EP(j) Drayton, William Henry SC A Duane, James NY A EP(l) Duer, William NY A Ellery, William RI(A)MA(D) D/A CO(b) Few, William GA C ME(j,k,n) Fitzsimons, Thomas PA C RC(j,n) (variant spellings: Fitzsimmons, Fitz-Simons) Floyd, William NY D PR(c,e) Franklin, Benjamin PA D/C EP(n)DE(j) Gerry, Elbridge MA D/A EP(j) Gilman, Nicholas NH C CO(j,n) Gorham, Nathaniel MA C CO(j,n) Gwynnett, Button SC D EP(k,o) Hall, Lyman SC D CO(b,k) Hamilton, Alexander NY C EP(j,n) Hancock, John MA A/D CO(b) Hanson, John MD A Harnett, Cornelious NC A EP(f)DE(f) Harrison, Benjamin VA D Governor Hart, John NJ D PR(c) Harvie, John VA A Hewes, Joseph NC D EP?(f) Heyward, Thomas SC A Heyward, Thomas, Jr. SC D Holton, Samuel MA A Hooper, William NC D EP(f) Hopkins, Stephen RI D Hopkinson, Francis NJ D Ep(l) Hosmer, Titus CT D Huntington, Samuel CT D/A CO(b) Hutson, Richard SC A PR(l) Ingersoll, Jared PA C PR(j,n) Jefferson, Thomas VA D President DE(a) Jennifer, Dan oF St. Thomas MD C EP(j,n) Johnson, Wm. Saml. CT C Justice PR(a)EP(j,n) King, Rufas MA C EP(j)CO(n) Langdon, John NH C CO(j,n) Langworthy, Edward GA A EP(o) Laurens, Henry SC A HU(l) Lee, Henry Lightfoot VA D/A Lee, Richard Henry VA D/A Senator Lewis, Francis NY D/A Livingston, Phil. NY D P(c) Livingston, Wil. NJ C PR(j,n) Lovell, James MA A Lynch, Thomas Junr. SC D Madison, James Jr. VA C President EP(a,j,n)TH(i) Marchant, Henry RI A Mathews, John SC A McHenry, James MD C PR(j,n) Middleton, Arthur SC D Miflin, Thomas PA C QU(n)LU(j) M'Kean, Thomas DE D/A PR(m) Morris, Gouv. NY(A)PA(C) A/C EP(j)DE(i,n) Morris, Lewis NY D Morris, Robert PA D/A/C EP(j,n) Morton, John PA D Nelson, Thomas Jr. VA D Paca, William MD D Paine, Robert Treat MA D CO(b) Paterson, William NJ C Justice PT(a)PR(j,n) Penn, John NC D/A UK(f) Pinckney, Charles SC C EP(j,n) Pinckney, Chas. Cotesworth SC C EP(j,n) Read, George DE D/C EP(j,m,n) Reed, Joseph PA A Roberdeau, Daniel PA A Rodney, Caesar DE D EP(m) Ross, George PA D Rush, Benjamin PA D PR(c,e)UN Rutledge, Edward SC D Justice CE(a) Rutledge, J. SC C EP(j,n) Scudder, Nathaniel NJ A Sherman, Roger CT D/A/C CO(b,j,n) Smith, James PA D PR(c,e) Smith, Jona. Bayard PA A Spaight, Richard Dobbs NC C EP(f,j,n) Stockton, Richard NJ D PR(c,e) Stone, Thomas MD D Taylor, George PA D PR(c,e) Telfair, Edward GA A Thornton, Matthew NH D PR(c,e) Van Dyke, Nicholas DE A EP(m) Walton, George GA D AN(o) Walton, Jno. GA A Washington, George VA C President EP(a,j,n)TH(i) Wentworth, John Junr. NH A Whipple, William NH D CO(b) Williams, Jonothan NC A UK(f) Williams, William CT D CO(b) Williamson, Hu NC C PR(f,n)DE(j) Wilson, James PA D/C Ch. Justice* EP(a)PR(e,n)DE(j) Witherspoon, Jonothan NJ D/A Minister PR(c)(e) Wolcott, Oliver CT D/A CO(b) Wythe, George VA D EP(j)
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Founding Fathers Quotes