The study of the earth's history as revealed in the rocks that make up the earth.
Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, "the earth") and λογος (logos, "word", "reason")) is the science and study of the solid matter of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape it. It is one of the Earth sciences.
Evolutionary geologists assert the age of the Earth at about 4.6 billion years, and have asserted that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust, is fragmented into tectonic plates that move over a rheic upper mantle (asthenosphere) via processes that are collectively referred to as plate tectonics. Geologists help locate and manage the Earth's natural resources, such as petroleum and coal, as well as metals such as iron, copper, and uranium. Additional economic interests include gemstones and many minerals such as asbestos, perlite, mica, phosphates, zeolites, clay, pumice, quartz, and silica, as well as elements such as sulfur, chlorine, and helium.
Planetary geology (sometimes known as Astrogeology) refers to the application of geologic principles to other bodies of the solar system. However, specialised terms such as selenology (studies of the Moon), areology (of Mars), etc., are also in use.
The word "geology" was first used by Jean-André Deluc in the year 1778 and introduced as a fixed term by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the year 1779. The science was not included in Encyclopedia Britannica's third edition completed in 1797, but had a lengthy entry in the fourth edition completed by 1809. An older meaning of the word was first used by Richard de Bury to distinguish between earthly and theological jurisprudence.