Gold

From Conservapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Gold
Gold1.jpg
Properties
Atomic symbol Au
Atomic number
Classification Group 11, Coinage metals
Atomic mass 196.967
Number of Stable Isotopes 197
Number of Unstable Isotopes 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200
Melting point (°C) 1,064
Boiling point (°C) 2,807
Density (grams per cc) 19.3
Hardness (Moh's scale) 2.5-3.0
Abundance in lithosphere (%) 0.0000005
Oxidation states +1, +3
Other Information
Date of discovery Early antiquity
Uses Coinage, ornamentation, electronics, dentistry
Obtained from Mining

Gold is a chemical element. Gold is in group 11, the copper group, it has 79 protons in its nucleus. It is a precious metal which has been used as currency. Gold is found in nature as nuggets or grains in rocks, underground and in deposits. It is a soft, shiny, yellow metal.

Purity

The purity of gold in a compound is measured in Karats, with 24 karats being pure gold. 18 karat gold is three quarters gold, one quarter other elements, and so forth. Gold is usually in alloys because it is soft and pliable.

Value

Due to its characteristics being both resistant to oxidisation and rarity on Earth, gold is seen as very valuable. Gold is the basis for a monetary standard used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Gold is currently in excess of $1500 per ounce.[1]

Uses

Because gold is highly conductive and very resistant to oxidation, it is vital in electronics. Gold plating is used on switch contacts, printed circuit boards, and device leads. There is enough gold in electronic devices to make it worthwhile to process discarded devices in order to reclaim the gold in them.

World Production (2018)

Gold production by country in 2018.[2]

Rank Country Production (kg) Production (%)
1 China 404.1 12.17
2 Australia 314.9 9.48
3 Russian Federation 297.3 8.95
4 United States 221.7 6.67
5 Canada 189 5.69
6 Peru 158.4 4.77
7 Indonesia 136.9 4.12
8 Ghana 130.5 3.93
9 South Africa 129.8 3.91
10 Mexico 115.4 3.47
11 Brazil 97.1 2.92
12 Uzbekistan 92.5 2.78
13 Sudan 76.6 2.31
14 Papua New Guinea 69.1 2.08
15 Kazakhstan 68.4 2.06
16 Mali 61.2 1.84
17 Argentina 60 1.81
18 Burkina Faso 59.3 1.79
19 Tanzania 47.7 1.44
20 Dem. Rep. of the Congo 44.9 1.35
21 Colombia 43 1.29
22 Zimbabwe 42.2 1.27
23 Côte d'Ivoire 40.9 1.23
24 Philippines 36.8 1.11
25 Chile 36.5 1.10
26 Suriname 34.3 1.03
27 Dominican Republic 31.6 0.95
28 Guinea 27.3 0.82
29 Guyana 25.6 0.77
30 Turkey 24.9 0.75
31 Bolivia 24.1 0.73
32 Venezuela 23 0.69
33 Mongolia 22.6 0.68
34 Kyrgyzstan 22.1 0.67
35 Senegal 17.5 0.53
36 Egypt 14.7 0.44
37 Nigeria 14 0.42
38 Ecuador 11.5 0.35
39 Iran 11 0.33
40 Ethiopia 11 0.33
41 New Zealand 9.3 0.28
42 Finland 8.3 0.25
43 Sweden 7.9 0.24
44 Bulgaria 6.8 0.20

Gold was one of the three Gifts of the Magi, along with frankincense and myrrh.[3]

Gold is also used in jewelry. However, the New Testament instructs Christian women not to wear gold or pearls.[4] Other uses of gold include aerospace, awards, bullion, coinage, computers, currency backing, dentistry, electronics, glassmaking, gold gilding and gold leaf and medical.[5]

See also

References

  1. Gold Price per Ounce. goldprice.org. Retrieved on 2019-08-25.
  2. Gold mine production by country. gold.org (2019-04-04). Retrieved on 2019-08-25.
  3. Matthew 2:11
  4. I Timothy 2:9
  5. The Many Uses of Gold, Geology.com, accessed December 11, 2008