Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) longer form Chapters 1-7

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Introduction (Main article)

Index

One

Chapter 1 Prologue Bible texts
Peace be with you.
In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one!

Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us, even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the Word delivered them to us, it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Friend of God; that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed.

The beginning of the everlasting Good News of Jesus Christ, the Son of God (which is, being interpreted, Jesus Anointed, the Son of God).

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him. Without him, nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.

That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life (and the life was revealed, and we have seen, and testify, and declare to you the life, the eternal life, which was with the Father, and was revealed to us); that which we have seen and heard we declare to you, that you also may have fellowship with us. Yes, and our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ. And we write these things to you, that our joy may be fulfilled.

For God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, who, when he had by himself purified us of our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, having become as much better than the angels as the more excellent name he has inherited is better than theirs.

For we did not follow cunningly devised fables when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received from God the Father honor and glory when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” We heard this voice come out of heaven when we were with him on the holy mountain of transfiguration. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. For the law was given through Moses. But grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, has declared him.

Without controversy, the core mystery of truly godly religion is great: God was revealed in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen by angels, preached among the nations, believed on in the world, and received up in glory.

He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world did not recognize him. He came to his own, and those who were his own did not receive him. But as many as received him, to them he gave the power to become God’s children, to those who believe in his name: who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father. He who confesses the Son has the Father also. Therefore, as for you, let that remain in you which you heard from the beginning. If that which you heard from the beginning remains in you, you also will remain in the Son, and in the Father. This is the promise which he promised us, the eternal life.

"This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ. Let him who glories glory in this, that he has understanding, and knows me, that I am the LORD who exercises loving kindness, justice, and righteousness, in the earth; for I delight in these things,” says the LORD.

No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up in the sight of all, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. He who believes in him is not judged. He who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the one and only Son of God. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. For everyone who does evil hates the light, and does not come to the light, lest his works would be exposed. But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be revealed, that they have been done in God.

He who comes from above is above all. He who is from the earth belongs to the earth and speaks of the earth. He who comes from heaven is above all. What he has seen and heard, of that he testifies; and no one receives his witness. He who has received his witness has set his seal to this, that God is true. For he whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for God gives the Spirit without measure. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. One who believes in the Son has eternal life, but one who disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.

Not everyone who calls him, "Lord", will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only those who do the will of his Father in heaven.

God will pay back to everyone according to their works: to those who by perseverance in well-doing seek for glory, honor, and incorruptibility, eternal life; but to those who are self-seeking, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, will be wrath, indignation, oppression, and anguish on every soul of man who does evil, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile. But glory, honor, and peace go to every man who does good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile. For there is no partiality with God.

Jesus said, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent”: “Why do you call me 'Lord, Lord,' and not do what I say?” Belief by itself, if it has no works, is dead. You say you believe in God. Even the demons believe—and they shudder. As a body without the spirit is a dead corpse, so belief without works is dead. We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as the Savior of the world. And he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen him after he had risen. But Jesus said to them, “As the Father has sent me, even so I send you. Whoever listens to you listens to me, and whoever rejects you rejects me. Whoever rejects me rejects him who sent me.” He said, “My Teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the Teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself.” And he said, “If a man loves me, he will keep my word. My Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make our home with him.”

“Why do you not understand what I say? It is because you cannot endure to hear my word. Whoever is of God hears the words of God; the reason why you do not hear them is that you are not of God.”

"Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me."

Amen! Yes, come, Lord Jesus.

He who has ears to hear, let him hear!

John 20:19e
Matthew 28:19, 20c
Mark 12:29b
Luke 1:1-4
Mark 1:1
Revelation 14:6b
John 1:1-5
Luke 1:1-4
1 John 1:1-4
Hebrews 1:1-4
2 Peter 1:16-18
John 1:14b
John 1:16-18
1 Timothy 3:16
John 1:10-13
1 John 2:23-25
John 17:3
Jeremiah 9:24
John 3:13-21
John 3:31-36
Matthew 7:21
Romans 2:6-11
John 6:29
Luke 6:46
James 2:17, 19
1 John 4:14
Mark 16:14b
John 20:21
Luke 10:16
John 7:16-17
John 14:23
John 8:43, 47
Revelation 3:20
Revelation 22:20c
Matthew 11:15; Mark 4:9b; Luke 8:8b, 14:35b
(he who has ears to hear)

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Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


This Prologue chapter is constructed on the initial pattern of the introduction of the Gospel according to Luke, which sets forth the purpose of its writing.

The collected texts begin with the Trinitarian formula as both the dedication of the text of this Harmony of the Gospel, and as a declaration in the name of the Holy Trinity that the Shema of Israel itself is also the dogmatic teaching of the Christian faith in one God, followed by those New Testament texts stating who Jesus is, declare that belief in Jesus Christ is founded on eyewitness testimony, give the purpose of written testimony, warn against not believing the testimony of those who saw him after he had risen from death, and state the necessity and great benefit of believing in Jesus as the Son of God and the true Christ.
Together they provide a comprehensively redacted text which proclaims the importance of the message and introduces the body of the testimony of the Canonical Gospels, redacted into a single chronological Harmony of the Gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God.


"Holy Spirit/Breath"

literal Greek Ἁγίου Πνεύματος
"Agiou Pneumatos"

"Friend of God"

literal Greek Θεόφιλε "Theo-phil-e"
Latinized "Theophilus".
See James 2:23 where Abraham is called "the friend of God".
In ancient times the formal title "Friend of the King" was bestowed on government officials who were strongly supportive of the ruling power—trusted advisors and counsellors—who could be expected to act as representatives or ambassadors expressing in word and deed the mind and intention of the ruler, and in return were entrusted with positions of authority. Compare 2 Samuel 15:32-37 ("David's friend") and 2 Samuel 16:15-19; 1 Kings 4:5 ("Zabud...was priest and king's friend"); 1 Maccabees 11:27, 14:38-39, 15:32 ("king's friend"); John 19:12 (Pilate's title "Caesar's friend"), and James 4:4 ("friend of the world").

"everlasting Good News"

preferred to "eternal good news"
See Revelation 14:6.
"Good News" The literal meaning of the words "gospel" and "evangel". See definition and discussions of the word "gospel" in the following brief articles

"In the beginning was the Word ... Without him, nothing was made that has been made."

John 1:1-3
A direct allusion to the Septuagint text, Wisdom 9:1 "who hast made all things by thy word".

"the core mystery of truly godly religion"

"the mystery of godliness" (Greek eusebeias)
"Great is the mystery of our religion" (RSVCE)
See 1 Timothy 3:16 and interlinear text
The Greek word εὐσεβείας eusebeias also means "religion" and "piety" (in the active sense of belief and practice, i.e. complete "living faith [noun]").
See multiple translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 and Strong's number 2150 εὐσεβεία eusebeia: godliness, holiness, piety, worship.
See also Religion - Catholic Encyclopedia (catholic.org)
Many Christians firmly proclaim that true Christianity is not a Religion. They define the word "religion" as an institutionalized, formal, organized system, based solely on accumulated traditions of men, useless pietistic devotions, hollow ritualistic ceremony, superstitious customs, unintelligent sentimentalism, ignorance of Scripture, a doctrine of salvation by works alone, fear, and oppressive legalism. Translating εὐσεβείας in 1 Timothy 3:16 as "religion" is denounced as a false reading on the basis of this formulated definition. See
The majority of Christians, Catholic, Orthodox, Lutherans and others declare that real Christianity is religion, the True Religion of God, founded by Jesus Christ, animated by the Holy Spirit, received from the Apostles, proclaiming salvation in Christ alone through faith and obedience to him and to those leaders who are authorized to speak in his name, compiling the Bible, the Church visible and invisible against which even the "gates of hell" shall not prevail, which has been faithfully handed down and preserved to this day as the Christian Religion, Christianity. All others falsely pretend to religion "having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof". 2 Timothy 3:5; Acts 17:16-34.
Translating εὐσεβείας in 1 Timothy 3:16 as "religion" is seen as an accurate reading of the text, on the basis of linguistic studies of first century Greek language, and the documented consistent use of the word in Christian writings from the first through the fifteenth centuries which describe Christianity as religion, and not merely as "a" religion, one among others. See

"Truly Godly Religion." Again: "The majority of Christian believers in the United States and throughout the world declare that real Christianity is religion, the True Religion of God."

"No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven."

John 3:13
An allusion to the Septuagint text, Baruch 3:29.
(In the context of Baruch 3:24-37 speaking of the "wisdom of God" which "appeared on earth and lived among men" v.37. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:30.)

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

Jesus came and stood in the middle of them, and said to them, "Peace be to you."

So go and make students from all ethnic groups, baptizing them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Divine Guide,

"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is One."

Though many have endeavored to write accounts of our most cherished beliefs, and have given these accounts to us, of eyewitnesses and chosen ministers of Christ, it seems fitting that I should write an account as well, to you, Theophilus (Greek "friend of God"), for I have had a perfect understanding of all these things from the beginning so that you will know the certainty of all these things you have been told of.

The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God:

In the beginning was perfection; its logic was with God and its truth was God. All this was in the beginning, with God. All things were made by Him; not one thing was made without Him. Life was in Him, and this life was the beacon of mankind. In the darkness shined the light, and the darkness could not snuff it out.

This is the way it was from the beginning: what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, and what we have observed and handled with regard to the word which gives life. That life was made crystal clear, and we have seen it; now we affirm our creed and proclaim to you that life eternal which was with the Father and has been revealed to us. What we have seen and heard, we in turn proclaim to you, so that you can share in community with us. And our communion is with the Father and with His son, Jesus Christ. We are writing this letter to you with the intent of perfecting your joy.

In many ways and at many times in the past, God spoke to our fathers through the prophets, but in these the Last Days He has spoken to us through His Son, whom He determined to be the inheritor of everything, the Son, by whom He made the worlds, the Son, who is the very brightness of His Glory, and the very image of His Person, and the bearer of all things, carrying them by the Word of his power. When He, the Son, had Himself accomplished a cleansing of our sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Greatness on High. This One, then, is to be considered inestimably better than angels having been bequeathed a title more excellent than they.

Remember: we have not followed any cleverly invented fables, when we made the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ known to you. We were eyewitnesses of His Majesty. Because he received from God the Father both honor and glory, when such a voice as this came to him from the highest glory: "This is My Beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased." We heard this Voice that came from heaven, when we were with Him on the holy mountain. --we beheld his glory, the glory as the only child of the Father, full of grace and truth.

And from His abundance, all of us have received, indeed, with grace for grace. For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. Never has a man seen God; instead God is fully presented by His only son, who is in the heart of the Father.

No-one denies the mystery of godliness is great: God appeared in the flesh, was vindicated by the Spirit, witnessed by messengers, preached to all nations, was believed on in the whole universe, and glorified.

He was in the world, and the world was made by Him, but the world did not recognize Him. He came among his own, but his own accepted him not. But many did accept him, and to those who also believed in him, to them he gave power to be the sons of God. Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

Whoever denies the Son, the same ignores the Father; but he who acknowledges the Son knows the Father also. So keep close that which you'd heard since the beginning. If the truth of the beginning stays with you, you will stay strong in the Son and Father. He has promised eternal life to us for this.

And this is eternal life: knowing You, the one true God, and Jesus Christ, Whom You have sent.

(Jeremiah 9:24 Conservative Bible has not been translated. See Conservative Bible, Jeremiah 1-9 (Translated) Chapter 9. KJV)

For God so loved the people of the world that He gave His Only Son, so that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son to mankind to condemn it, but to save it. He who believes in Him is not condemned, but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. And this is the condemnation: that light came into the world, but men loved darkness instead of light, because their actions were evil. For all those who do evil things hate the light, and avoid coming to the light, to avoid judgment of their actions. But he who lives the Truth walks within the light, so that his actions may be clearly seen, because they have been done through God."

Jesus, who comes from above is above all, while I who am of the Earth am earthly, and my words are not from Heaven. God is above all." And what He has seen and hears He is continuing to testify; but nobody receives His testimony. Whoever who fully accepted His testimony gave a stamp of approval to this: that God is truth. For the One God sent speaks the very words of God, because God did not give Him just a portion of the Spirit. The Father loves the Son, and has given Him authority over everything. He who thoroughly believes in the Son has eternal life, while he who does not believe in the Son will not, but will instead face the full anger of God.

Who will pass judgment to every man according to his deeds: To those who through persistent good deeds aspire to God's glory, honor and immortality, in eternal life: But to those who are rebellious, and who disregard the truth, and follow sin and anger, Suffering and anguish, upon every soul of man who commits evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; But glory, honor, and peace, to every man who does good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile: For there is no distinction among men by God.

Jesus answered and said to them, "This is how you do the work of God: believe in the One He sent."

We've seen and testify that the Father sent the Son to be the World's Savior.

(Mark 16:14 Conservative Bible has not been translated. See Conservative Bible, Mark 9-16 (Translated) Chapter 16. KJV)

Then Jesus told them again, "Peace be to you. As My Father sent me, I also am sending you in the same way."

He who hears you hears Me, and he who disregards you disregards Me, and he who disregards Me disregards Him that sent Me.”

The teaching which you hear is not mine, but comes from the Father who sent Me. If anyone is willing to do what God wants, he will know whether this teaching is from God or if what I am saying is merely from me.

Jesus answered, "If anyone loves Me, he will carefully observe my teaching, my Father shall love him, We will come to him, and We will make our home with him."

Do you know why you cannot understand the things I say? Because you refuse to listen to my message.

The one who is from God hears the very words God speaks. You cannot hear them because you are not from God."

Look: I'm standing at the door and knocking. If any man hears My voice, and opens the door, I will come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me.

He who bears witness to these things says, "Indeed, I am coming quickly!" Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!

Let anyone hear if he has ears to hear.
"let any man who has ears hear."
"If you have ears, listen!"
He that has ears to hear with, let him hear this."

Two

Chapter 2 Bible texts
As it is written in the prophets,
“Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you: the voice of one crying in the wilderness, ‘Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!’ ”

there came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world.

In the days of Herod, the king of Judea, there was a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. They were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. Now while he executed the priest’s office before God in the order of his division, according to the custom of the priest’s office, his lot was to enter into the Temple of the Lord and burn incense. The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense.

An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. You will have joy and gladness; and many will rejoice at his birth. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother’s womb. He will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah,

“ ‘to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,’

“and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to prepare a people prepared for the Lord.”

Zacharias said to the angel, “How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years.”

The angel answered him, “I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. Behold, you will be silent and not able to speak, before the day that these things will happen, because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time.”

The people were waiting for Zacharias, and they marveled that he delayed in the Temple. When he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the Temple. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. When the days of his service were fulfilled, he departed to his house.

After these days Elizabeth, his wife, conceived, and she hid herself five months, saying, “Thus has the Lord done to me in the days in which he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.”

Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of David’s house. The virgin’s name was Mary. She was consecrated to the Lord as a perpetual virgin according to the law of the Lord; and possessing an inheritance of her father according to the law of the Lord, a descendant of David according to the flesh, she was pledged to be married to one of the family of the tribe of her father, according to the law of the Lord. And Joseph, of David's house, was a just man who feared the Lord, and according to the law of the Lord he would not make void her consecration to the Lord. Having come in, the angel said to her, “I salute you, full of grace! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women!”

But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered what kind of salutation this might be. The angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. Behold, you will conceive in your womb, and give birth to a son, and will call his name ‘Jesus.’ He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his Kingdom.”

Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, seeing I am a virgin?” For she was consecrated to the Lord.

The angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. Behold, Elizabeth, your relative, also has conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren. For nothing spoken by God is impossible.”

Mary said, “Behold, the servant of the Lord; let it be done to me according to your word.”

The angel departed from her. And the Word became flesh, and lived among us. For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins. Therefore when he comes into the world, he says,

“You did not desire sacrifice and offering, but you prepared a body for me. You had no pleasure in whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin. Then I said, ‘Behold, I have come (in the scroll of the book it is written of me) to do your will, O God.’ ”

When He brings in the firstborn into the world He says,

“Let all the angels of God worship him.”

Now, as it is written in the law of the Lord, according to the law of the Lord:

Moses spoke to the heads of the tribes concerning the descendants of Israel, saying, "This is what the Lord has commanded. If a man vows a vow to the Lord, or swears an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceeds out of his mouth.
If a woman also vows a vow to the Lord, and binds herself by a bond, in her father's house in her youth; and her father hears her vow, and her bond with which she has bound her soul, and her father shall hold his peace: then all her vows shall stand, and every bond with which she has bound her soul shall stand. But if her father does not allow her vow in the day he hears it, none of her vows, or of her bonds with which she has bound her soul, shall stand: and the Lord shall forgive her, because her father did not allow her vow. And if she had at all a husband, when she vowed, or uttered any vow from her lips, with which she bound her soul, and her husband heard, and held his peace in the day that he heard: then her vows shall stand, and her bonds with which she bound her soul shall stand. But if her husband does not allow her vow on the day that he heard, then he shall make her vow which she vowed, and what she uttered with her lips, with which she bound her soul, of no effect, and the Lord shall forgive her. And if she vowed in her husband's house, or bound her soul by a bond with an oath, and her husband heard, and held his peace, and did not disallow her vow, then all her vows shall stand, and every bond with which she bound her soul shall stand. But if her husband has utterly made them void on the day he heard, whatever proceeded from her lips concerning her vows, or concerning the bond of her soul, shall not stand: her husband has made them void, and the Lord shall forgive her. Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may establish, or her husband may make void. But if her husband entirely holds his peace from day to day, then he establishes all her vows, or all her bonds which are on her: he confirms them, because he held his peace in the day he heard of them. But if he shall in any way make them void after he has heard, then he shall bear her iniquity." These are the statutes, which the Lord commanded Moses, between a man and his wife, and between the father and his daughter in her youth in her father's house.
The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "When a man makes a special vow of persons to the Lord, the estimated value of a male from twenty years old even to sixty years old, shall be fifty shekels of silver, according to the shekel of the sanctuary. And if it be a female, then the estimation shall be thirty shekels. And if from five years old even to twenty years old, then your estimation of the male shall be twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels. And if from a month old even to five years old, then your estimation of the male shall be five shekels of silver, and for the female your estimation shall be three shekels of silver. And if from sixty years old and above, if a male, then your estimation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels. But if he is poorer than your estimation, then he shall present himself before the priest, and priest shall value him, according to his ability who vowed shall the priest value him. No devoted thing, that a man shall devote to the Lord of all he has, of man and beast, of the field of his possession, shall be sold or redeemed: every devoted thing is most holy to the Lord.
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "Speak to Aaron and to his sons that they keep away from the holy things of the people of Israel, which they dedicate to me, so that they may not profane my holy name in what they consecrate to me: I am the Lord. Say to them, 'Whoever of all your descendants throughout your generations who approaches the holy things, which the people of Israel dedicate to the Lord, having an uncleanness, that soul shall be cut off from my presence: I am the Lord'."
"Every daughter, who possesses an inheritance in any tribe of the descendants of Israel, shall be wife to one of the family of the tribe of her father, that the descendants of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers. Neither shall the inheritance be transferred from tribe to tribe, but every one of the tribes of Israel shall keep to himself his own inheritance."

Mary arose in those days and went from Galilee south into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah called Ain Karim, just southwest of Jerusalem, and entered into the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth. When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. She called out with a loud voice, and said, “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! Why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For behold, when the voice of your greeting came into my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy! Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord!”

Mary said, “My soul magnifies the Lord. My spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior, for he has looked at the humble state of his servant. For behold, from now on, all generations will call me blessed. For he who is mighty has done great things for me. Holy is his name. His mercy is for generations of generations on those who fear him. He has shown strength with his arm. He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly. He has filled the hungry with good things. He has sent the rich away empty. He has given help to Israel, his servant, that he might remember mercy, as he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and his offspring forever.”

And Mary stayed with her about three months.

Now the time that Elizabeth should give birth was fulfilled, and she gave birth to a son. Her neighbors and her relatives heard that the Lord had magnified his mercy toward her, and they rejoiced with her. Then Mary returned to her house.

On the eighth day, they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. His mother answered, “Not so; but he will be called John.”

They said to her, “There is no one among your relatives who is called by this name.”

They made signs to his father, what he would have him called. He made signs to them and asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, “His name is John.”

They all marveled. His father, Zacharias, was filled with the Holy Spirit, his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue freed, and he spoke, blessing God, and prophesied, saying, “Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, for he has visited and redeemed his people; and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David (as he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets who have been from of old), salvation from our enemies, and from the hand of all who hate us; to show mercy toward our fathers, to remember his holy covenant, the oath which he swore to Abraham, our father, to grant to us that we, being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, should serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. And you, child, will be called a prophet of the Most High, for you will go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways, to give knowledge of salvation to his people by the remission of their sins, because of the tender mercy of our God, by which the dawn from on high will visit us, to shine on those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death; to guide our feet into the way of peace.”

Fear came on all who lived around them, and all these sayings were talked about throughout all the hill country of Judea. All who heard them laid them up in their heart, saying, “What then will this child be?”

The hand of the Lord was with him.

Mark 1:2-3
— (LXX) Malachi 3:1; Isaiah 40:3
John 1:6-9
Luke 1:5-38
John 1:14a
Hebrews 10:4-7
— (LXX) Psalm 40:6-8
Hebrews 1:6
— (LXX) Deuteronomy 32:43; Psalm 97:7
Numbers 30
Leviticus 27:1-8
Leviticus 22:1-3
Numbers 36:8-9
Luke 1:39-56a
Luke 1:57
Luke 1:56b, 58-64, 67-79, 65-66

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
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multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Behold, I send my messenger before your face...The voice of one crying in the wilderness..."

Mark 1:2-3
—Mark quotes Malachi 3:1 and Isaiah 40:3
Quotations of Septuagint texts (LXX), not Hebrew.
Both Hebrew and Septuagint Malachi 3:1 say,
—"prepare the way before me".
See LXX Malachias 3:1; LXX Esias 40:3
See Septuagint (LXX).

"Lord"

Greek Κυρίου, from Κυρίος Kyrios
Kyrios = "Lord" (that is, "God").
In the Greek New Testament the word Kyrios in all its forms designates God as "Lord" 700 times. The word is emphasized in boldface print in this chapter to highlight the fact that it is always the same word Kyrios (God) with the same meaning each time throughout the entire NT. In the Orthodox and Catholic rituals of worship it is included in the phrase "Kyrie eleison (Lord, have mercy on us)".

"of the priestly division of Abijah

Abijah is the eighth division listed in the First Book of Chronicles.
1 Chronicles 24:1-19

"a just man" Matthew 1:19

literally, "a just"
KJV "being a just man"
NAB NRSV "righteous man"
REV "man of principle"
NJB "upright man"

"I salute you, full of grace!"

Luke 1:28.
Many modern translators avoid the literal rendering of the angel's words to Mary according to the Greek text.
"HAIL" (Greek χαίρε chaire) is a formal salute of heartfelt respect to one worthy of honor, rendered by one who ranks as a subordinate of the one so addressed, announcing good news to the high superior, similar to "Hail, Caesar!" See
Strong's number 5463 "Hail", "all Hail", "rejoice", etc.
"Full of grace", or "filled with grace", by the favor of the Lord, is an assertion by the angel Gabriel, by one who "stands before the Lord", that there is already at that moment no grace lacking in her. She is "full" of grace because she has been "filled" with grace by God: there is actually little or no difference in meaning. This implies the fullness of the grace of salvation is and has been already bestowed on Mary by God her Savior in preparation of her to become the mother of the incarnation of the holy Word of God, the Son of God. Linguistically, this can apply to that very moment, or to the very moment she was first conceived, either way, in preparing her immediately, or in anticipation long beforehand, to be the grace-filled mother of the Messiah.
See also Mary (mother of Jesus)
Orthodoxy strongly affirms instead against the Catholic doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, that Mary was cleansed from sin by God at the moment of Gabriel's greeting to her, that she was according to nature accounted with the human race simply as a sinner among sinners before the Incarnation of the Lord, and was cleansed of sin as Isaiah was, in preparation for her to become the mother of Christ who is God, mother of God, Theotokos, but that the grace bestowed on her was immeasurably greater. (Isaiah 6:7).
Evangelicals and Fundamentalists declare without hesitation that Mary was a mortal human being no better than the most filthy sinner steeped in sin, and as equally lost as they, along with all of the rest of damned humanity, and that she was not saved, and could not be saved, before the total sacrifice of Jesus on the cross and his resurrection from the dead, and not before she accepted Him as her personal Lord and Savior afterward.
The Catholic doctrine of the Immaculate Conception and the Orthodox and Catholic doctrine that Mary is the Mother of God (Greek Theotokos) and Queen of Heaven are utterly abhorred as abominations and denounced by Evangelicals and Fundamentalists as pagan doctrines of the Devil straight out of the pits of hell, "doctrines of devils", and that those who believe these things are damned and lost, as long as they do not totally reject such teachings, renounce the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, and come out of them, and accept Jesus as their only Lord and personal Savior. (Isaiah 52:11; Jeremiah 44:16-23; 1 Timothy 4:1; 6:3-16; Acts 4:11-12; 17:30-31.)
“It is a sin to recognize, pay tribute to, honor, sing about, worship or elevate Jesus' mother as being anything more than a vile, guilty, filthy, dirty, rotten, SINNER!” — David J. Stewart — “Jesus' mother was a dirty, rotten, sinner just like Adolf Hitler or any other sinner.” — David J. Stewart — [1] [2] [3]
Compare:
Titus 1:15-16
Matthew 12:7 "the guiltless"
Matthew 12:50
1 Peter 3:2-5 "holy women";
Titus 3:4-5
John 10:27-29;
Acts 10:15;
Matthew 23:12
Luke 1:30
Luke 1:35
1 John 4:13
Matthew 12:30-37
Luke 1:41-43
Luke 1:45-49
Luke 2:14
Luke 14:11
Romans 8:28-30
Acts 2:26-28
1 Corinthians 15:51-53
1 John 4:15
Acts 1:14;
Revelation 12:1-2
Revelation 12:5
Revelation 12:13
Matthew 12:30-37
Titus 1:15-16
Revelation 22:11
2 Timothy 3:12-17
2 Thessalonians 2:13-15
1 John 3:1-3 and 1 John 3:11-15;
James 4:11-12.
See Council of Ephesus.
This sequence of scriptural texts represents the position of the majority of Christian believers (about 70.5% world-wide Chapter One, Bible text marginal note column: scroll down to "Truly Godly Religion.") regarding the dignity of Mary the mother of Jesus, Catholic, Orthodox, and mainstream Protestant Anglican, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Reform (First Things: "Evangelicals and the Mother of God", by Timothy George, 2007 (firstthings.com)).
A minority of Christian believers (about 29.5% world-wide, less than one-third) most firmly maintain and agree that “It is a sin, an abomination and an affront to God and to His Son, to recognize, pay tribute to, honor, sing about, worship or elevate Jesus' mother as being anything more than a vile, guilty, filthy, dirty, rotten, SINNER just like Adolf Hitler or any other sinner.” They proclaim this boldly and without any hesitation whatsoever, to please Jesus Christ her son and acknowledge him as our King, as the one Lord and Savior, to render all honor and glory and praise to Him, and to Him alone, the risen Son of God the Father on His throne of eternal glory. If it were possible, they would happily, joyfully, crush to powder every basilica, church, building, shrine, statue, painting, mosaic, stained glass window, tapestry, vestment, rosary, medal, emblem, banner, flag, knick-knack, music, hymn, song, book, and T-shirt, sweatshirt, blouse and dress dedicated to Mary Queen of Heaven, and rid the earth of every vestige of honor to her, that Jesus Christ alone might be exalted.
It is worth noting that the sinner's prayer is found nowhere in the Bible, but has become a standard requirement of salvation added to the teaching of the Bible by those who teach it. (Many regard it as a violation of the Evangelical and Fundamentalist Protestant principle to "not to go beyond what is written" 1 Corinthians 4:6; see Sola scriptura.) According to its critics, "the sinner's prayer" has become a tradition of men from outside of the Bible, and therefore, "it represents a corruption of the pure Gospel" because "it's not in the Bible".
See The Heresy Of Having To "Pray" To Be Saved, by David J. Stewart (soulwinning.info) In particular, the author expresses especial concern regarding the Sinner's Prayer as a formula for unconditionally assured salvation.
See Eternal security (salvation).
In the above linked article, "The Heresy Of Having To 'Pray' To Be Saved", author David J. Stewart quotes Pastor Harry Ironside (1876-1951):
The Gospel is not a call to repentance, or to amendment of our ways, to make restitution for past sins ... Nor is the Gospel a demand that you give up the world, that you give up your sins, that you break off bad habits, and try to cultivate good ones.”—Dr. Harry A. Ironside, from the sermon What is the Gospel? (full text)
David J. Stewart asserts, "Nor does a person have to “say 'Jesus is Lord'” or “turn from their sins” to be saved", and he says that "repentance is TO believe, and not a separate act of forsaking sinful behavior as perquisite to placing one's faith in the Gospel"
NOTE: It is important to read in full both David J. Stewart, "The Heresy Of Having To 'Pray' To Be Saved" and the sermon by Dr. Harry A. Ironside, "What is the Gospel?", so that nothing is misunderstood or taken here as misrepresented or distorted out of context.
In answer to their teaching, compare the following Bible verses:
James 2:17 and 19 and 24
Matthew 3:2; 4:17; 7:21; 9:13; 11:20
Mark 1:15; 2:17; 6:12
Luke 5:32; 13:3 and 5; 15:10; 24:47
Acts 2:38; 3:19; 14:15; 17:30; 20:21; 26:18 and 20
Romans 2:4 and 10
2 Corinthians 7:10; 12:21
Ephesians 2:10
2 Timothy 2:25
Hebrews 6:1
2 Peter 3:9
Revelation 2:5; 3:3 and 19
Ezekiel 18:21-24
See also the definition of "repent": “turn away from sin:
Repentance Bible Verses (biblestudytools.com)
Bible Concordances: Nave's Topical Bible: Repentance (studylight.org).
Compare the Catholic doctrine of salvation in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) Part Three: Life in Christ. Section One: Man's Vocation: Life in the Spirit. Chapter Three: God's Salvation: Law and Grace. Article 2: Grace and Justification. I. Justification. II. Grace. III. Merit. IV. Christian Holiness. – CCC numbers 1987-2029 (scborromeo.org)
Compare Antinomianism and Licentiousness.

"How can this be?"—"How shall this be?"

"shall"—present future tense ἔσται estai "shall", indicating both now and for the future
"How shall (ever) this be?"
Literal Greek:
"I do not know (have sexual relations with) man"
"pos estai moi touto, epei andra ou ginosko"
πῶς ἔσται μοι τοῦτο, ἐπεὶ ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω
"I do not do this", instead of "I have not done this"
WEB "seeing I am a virgin"
DR "because I know not man"
KJV "seeing I know not a man"
RSV "since I have no husband"
hence: "How can this be?"
"I am a virgin" is not the same as "I have no husband". See the interlinear text of Luke 1:34. Mary was already betrothed as a wife to a husband, according to the meaning of Jewish betrothal, which was and still is much more than an engagement to be married. Because she was already betrothed (Luke 1:27), she could not have said, "I have no husband."
Every Jewish maiden betrothed to be married knew how she would naturally have a child after the wedding night. If she was not a consecrated virgin, she would not ask how this could be. Clearly, she did not think this was possible.
compare:
Leviticus 27:1-6 and
1 Samuel 1:27-28 and
Numbers 30:1-16 and
Leviticus 22:1-3 and
Leviticus 22:31-33
If Mary was consecrated to God as a virgin by her parents, she could not have relations with a man, KJV "seeing I know not a man", WEB "seeing I am a virgin", and if she was sole heiress of her father's property, then by the law of Moses, which made no exception, she must be given in marriage to a member of her father's clan, which presents a dilemma resolved only by betrothing her to be lawfully married to a "just/righteous" member of her father's clan who could be trusted to fulfill the law of Moses regarding inheritance in Israel, and at the same time not violate her consecration to God as a virgin; and according to the simplest and plainest reading of scripture this would explain why she said, "How can this be?".
Compare the Greek text of John 4:17 "I have no husband / man" (οὐκ ἔχω ἄνδρα "[I] with not man")
with the RSV reading of the Greek text of Luke 1:34 "I have no husband" (RSV)—"I have no husband" has not the same meaning as "since I know not man" (ἐπεὶ ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω "therefore man [I] never know"):
DR reading "I know not man",
KJV and others "I know not a man",
ESV and majority "I am a virgin".
Some readers believe that Mary had never met a man before, other than her father, because she "knows no man", or that he had died, and that her mother kept Mary in seclusion so that she had never in her life seen any man, or at least that she never got to know any man socially, even her neighbors, apart from the most limited awareness of men seen apart from a distance during the segregated worship within the local synagogue from behind the screen separating the women from the men.
The RSV reading here, "I have no husband", is a misleading paraphrase which alters the meaning of the text "I do not know man" by avoiding any suggestion that Mary was under a vow of virginity, and suggests instead that she was a normally eligible maiden who was deliberately kept in innocent ignorance of the full meaning of her already existing betrothal to a husband (which was virtually marriage), culminating in the definitive act of consummation of the marriage with him on their wedding night, in the full expectation of becoming pregnant with a child. Such a reading represents Mary as understanding Gabriel to mean that she was to immediately consummate marital relations with Joseph before the end of the one year betrothal period and that Joseph was not her husband before the end of that time, which completely misrepresents the meaning of Jewish betrothal. In Matthew 1:20 Joseph is not told to "take Mary as your wife"; he is told to "take Mary your wife". During the betrothal she is already his wife, and he is already her husband. Mary therefore could not have said, "I have no husband", when she was already betrothed to Joseph. The literal meaning of ἐπεὶ ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω is "I man not know", "I know not man" (Amplified: How shall this ever be, for this is something I do not do: I do not have relations with any man, I know not man, I am a virgin).
See
multiple versions of Jeremiah 8:8
and commentaries.

"You did not desire sacrifice and offering, but you prepared a body for me...Let all the angels of God worship him."

Text from Hebrews 10:4-7 and 1:6.
Hebrews 10:4-7 quotes Psalm 40:6-8
Hebrews 1:6 quotes Deuteronomy 32:43 (but only from the LXX); and indirectly Psalm 97:7
KJV Psalm 97:7 says,
—"worship him all ye gods."
Quotations of Septuagint texts (LXX), not Hebrew.
LXX ennumeration of the psalms differs from Hebrew text enumeration of the psalms.
See LXX Psalm 39:6-8 (KJV 40:6-8);
LXX Deuteronomy 32:43; LXX Psalm 96:7 (KJV 97:7)
See Septuagint (LXX).
Note:
The (biblestudytools.com) Septuagint w/ Apocrypha LXX Brenton translation site does not include the Book of Psalms (access date 4/29/2018)—it has been entirely omitted by biblestudytools.com without comment or notification.
The (ellopos.net/elpenor) Septuagint LXX Brenton translationsite does include the entire Book of Psalms (including Psalm 151).

"called Ain Karim/Ein Karem"

According to tradition and archaeology this is the actual name of the town of Zachariah and Elizabeth.

"“Blessed are you among women..."

Luke 1:42
An allusion to the Septuagint, Judith 13:18

"mother of my Lord"

that is, "mother of my Kyrios (Lord)".
Greek Κυρίου from Κυρίος = "Lord" (that is, "God").
Here in Luke 1:43 the Holy Spirit Himself, speaking through Elizabeth, addresses Mary as "mother of my God (Kyrios)". She does not say the NT word for "King (Basileus)", or "Ruler (Archon)", or "Governor or Prince (Hegemon)" in Greek, not even the Hebrew or Aramaic equivalents, Melek, Nasi, Pechah. From this basis in scripture Orthodox and Catholic Christians call Mary "the Mother of God" and "Blessed". And according to constant Christian doctrine, Jesus, even from the moment of his incarnation in the womb, is, and always has been, "Lord and God" (John 20:28); he was God even before his incarnation, and Mary his true mother beginning from the moment of his incarnation, and he has never ceased being God.
The Orthodox seek to defend the doctrine of the true divinity of Christ Jesus in giving Mary the title Theotokos (Greek: "God-bearer"). He is God and by the fact (Latin factum est) of his incarnation in her womb she became his true mother. And the Ecumenical (whole Church) Council of Ephesus in 431 condemned Nestorians and Pelagians in defense of the reality of the Incarnation of God by declaring, as genuine Christian doctrine, the centuries-old belief in the divine maternity of Mary as the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ who from the moment of his conception is both Eternal God and man. God before he became man, and God after becoming man, and God in her womb. There has never been a moment when Jesus was not God, and there was never a moment from the first instant of his incarnation that Mary was not his mother, nurturing him in her womb.
All Fundamentalists and most Evangelicals utterly reject as blasphemy any teaching about Mary being called "mother of God". There are many who teach that Jesus emptied himself entirely of his divine nature the moment he became incarnate in Mary's womb, and that during his ministry, passion and crucifixion, and his lying in the tomb before his resurrection, he was not God, and therefore she could not have been mother of God. Compare Nestorianism and Theotokos.
The Apostle Paul in the Book of Acts, teaches that the Church of God was purchased, obtained, by "his own blood", the blood of God (Acts 20:28)—although some ancient authorities, some few extant manuscripts of Acts, do not have the phrase "of God" in Acts 20:28.
Outside the Book of Acts Paul teaches that he was fully God, in saying, "It was the Father's good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross" (NAS Colossians 1:19-20). The fullness of the Father's divinity was in Christ during His birth, His entire ministry and His passion.
See the arguments for and against this position in Kenosis: Christ "emptied himself" (Philippians 2:7)also Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) nos. 461-483. If the Son of God was only by nature one finite human first century Jew when he was crucified, and not also by divine nature the infinite God as well, his sacrifice on the cross as one man alone by himself could not have had infinite atoning value and efficacy for the redemption and salvation of "all" (Romans 5:18).
"Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life."
"Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me:..." John 14:10=11.
"I and the Father are one." John 10:30 (context John 10:27-38).
"Why is this to me, that the mother of my LORD should come to me?"—"Jesus is Lord!" Greek Κύριον
(Luke 1:43; Romans 10:9).
See Strong's Concordance entry "LORD", Strong's number 2962 κύριος kurios: God, Lord, master. Compare:
Matthew 1:20-24; 2:13-19; 3:3; 4:7-10; 9:38; 11:25; 22:37; 23:39; 28:2;
Mark 1:3; 5:19; 11:9-10; 12:29-30; 13:20; 16:20;
Luke 1:6-76; 2:9-15 and 22-39; 3:4; 4:8-19; 10:2, 21, 27; 20:37, 42-44;
John 1:23; 11:3, 12-39; 12:13 and 38; 20:28; (etc.)

"He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly."

Luke 1:52
An allusion to the Septuagint, Sirach 10:14

"serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life"

Luke 1:74-75.
This is the essential definition of true religion, internal and external together. 1 Timothy 3:16 "Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of our religion" εύσεβείας eusebeias RSV "religion" KJV "godliness"—see 1 Timothy 3:16 RSVCE and other multiple translations of 1 Timothy 3:16—"true godliness", "faith", "godliness", "godly worship", "religion", "godly religion", "Righteousness", "reverence for God", "reverence", "piety"—all translations of the Greek εύσεβείας eusebeias.
See also Strong's number 2150 εὐσέβεια and 2152 εὐσεβής eusebēs—piety, duty.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

As was written by Isaiah the prophet: "Behold, I am sending My messenger before your face, who will prepare your way. The voice of one shouting in the desert: 'Prepare for the way of the Lord and make straight His path.'"

There was a man sent by God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to bear witness to the Light, so that all men might believe because of him. John was not the Light, but a messenger of the Light. That was the true Light, which illuminates every person who comes into the world.

During the reign of King Herod of Judea, there was a priest named Zacharias in the tradition of Abia, who was married to Elisabeth, a descendant of Aaron. These two were both good and just people in the eyes of God, keeping all the commandments and all the laws of the Lord. Elisabeth was infertile, and so they grew old without having a child. Zacharias, in his capacity as a priest, was required to burn incense in the temple of the Lord. Crowds of people were praying outside the temple at this time, and there appeared to Zacharias an angel of the Lord, on the right side of the altar. Upon seeing him, Zacharias was very afraid. But the angel said to him, "Don't be afraid, Zacharias. Your prayer has been heard, and your wife Elisabeth shall be pregnant with a son, and you shall name him John. And you will feel great joy, and many shall rejoice at your sons birth. He shall be great in the eyes of the Lord, and shall not drink alcohol of any kind, and he will be filled with the Divine Guide, even in the womb. And he shall witness to many Jews and convert them. And He will go with him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to bring families together and bring the wisdom of justice to the unjust; to prepare the people for the coming of the Lord." Zacharias said to the angel, "How shall I know this? I am an old man, and my wife is also old." The angel answered him, saying, "I am Gabriel, who has stood before God, and have been sent to speak to you, and give you good news. Because you have doubted my words, which shall soon be shown to be true, you shall be unable to speak until all I have said has occurred." The crowds outside waited for Zacharias, surprised that he took so long in the temple. When he came out, he could not speak, and they could tell that he had seen a vision in the temple, for he gestured to them, but remained speechless. As soon as his duties as a priest were completed, he went to his home. And his wife Elisabeth became pregnant, and hid for five months, saying, "The Lord has cured me of my infertility, and taken away my shame among men."

In the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to Nazareth, a city in Galilee, to a virgin named Mary, who was engaged to a man named Joseph, a descendant of King David. The angel came to her, saying, "Hail, you are favored and the Lord is with you. You are blessed among women." When she saw him, she was troubled, unsure of the manner of this news. And the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, you have found favor with God. And you shall become pregnant, and bear a son, and his name shall be JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Lord, and the Lord shall give him the throne of his ancestor King David. And he shall reign over Israel forever, and his kingdom shall have no end." Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I have not been with a man?" The angel answered, saying, "The Divine Guide shall be alight on you, and the power of the Lord will overshadow you, so that the holy child you shall bear will be called the Son of God. Your cousin Elisabeth, who was called barren, is also pregnant in her old age, and has been for six months. With God, all things are possible." So Mary said, "I shall be the servant of the Lord; let his will be done to me." And the angel departed. And the perfection was made flesh, and made his home among us; This is because it not possible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. For this He came into the world, saying, "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me. There is no pleasure in your burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin." Then I said, "Alas, I came (as written in the scriptures) to do your will, oh God."

[said] as happened when He brought the Firstborn into the world, "Let all the angels of God worship Him"?

(Numbers chapter 30 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Numbers 28-36 (Translated) Chapter 30 KJV)

(Leviticus 27:1-8 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Leviticus 19-27 (Translated) Chapter 27 KJV)

(Leviticus 22:1-3 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Leviticus 19-27 (Translated) Chapter 22 KJV)

(Numbers chapter 36:8-9 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Numbers 28-36 (Translated) Chapter 36 KJV)

That day, Mary went into the hills to the city of Juda, and went to the house of Zacharias, and greeted Elisabeth. When Elisabeth heard Mary's greeting, the unborn child jumped in her womb, and Elisabeth was filled with the Divine Guide. And she said in a loud voice, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is your unborn child. Who am I, that the mother of my Lord should visit me? For as soon as I heard your greeting, the baby jumped for joy in my womb. She was blessed because she believed in the fulfillment of what she had heard from the Lord." And Mary said, "I praise the Lord with all my heart, and my spirit rejoices in God my savior. For he has seen the low fortune of his servant, but now all future generations shall call me blessed. He who is mighty has done a great thing for me, and his name is holy. He is merciful to those who have feared him for generations. He has done mighty deeds with his arm; he has brought down the self-centered. He has brought down the mighty, and exalted the humble. He has fed the hungry with the best foods, and the miserly he sent away empty-handed. He has aided his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy, as he spoke to our ancestors, to Abraham, and to his descendants for all time."

Mary lived with Elisabeth for three months before returning to her own house. It was then that Elisabeth came to term, and delivered a son, and her neighbors and her cousins heard how the Lord had shown mercy upon her, and they rejoiced with her. On the eighth day, the time came to circumcise the boy, and they wanted to name him Zacharias, after his father. But Elisabeth answered, "No, he shall be called John." Her neighbors said to her, "None of his family is named John. So they called for Zacharias his father, and asked what he would have the child be named. He called for a tablet, and wrote, "His name shall be John." And they all were amazed that he should choose this. Immediately, his mouth was opened, and he could speak again, and he praised God.

His father, Zacharias, was filled with the Divine Guide, and prophesied, saying, "Blessed is the Lord God of Israel, for he has come and redeemed his people, and has raised up a trumpet-call of salvation for us descended from his servant, David. As has been prophesied by his holy prophets, who have come since the world began: that we should be saved from our enemies and from all those who would hate us; to perform the mercy promised to our ancestors, and to remember his holy covenant; that oath which he swore to Abraham, that he would grant us deliverance from out enemies, so that we could worship him without fear, in holiness and righteousness all the days of our life. And you, my boy, shall be the prophet of the Highest, for you shall prepare the way of the Lord, giving knowledge of the salvation to come to his people, by the remission of their sins, through the tender mercy of our God, from which all blessings flow forth to us from heaven, to give light to those us mortals who are in darkness, to guide our feet along the path of the just."

And all of their neighbors were awed, and they spoke of these things all throughout the hills of Judea. And all who heard these things pondered them in their hearts, thinking, "What kind of boy shall this be? For the hand of the Lord is with him."

Three

Chapter 3 Bible texts
Now the birth of Jesus Christ occurred this way (Christ means Anointed): After his mother, Mary, was betrothed to Joseph as his wife, before they came together, she was found pregnant by the Holy Spirit. Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a public example, intended to put her away secretly. As it is written in the law of Moses,
“When a man takes a wife and marries her, then it shall be, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because he has found some unseemly thing in her, that he shall write her a certificate of divorce, and put it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”

But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. She shall give birth to a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins.”

Now all this has happened that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying,

“Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall give birth to a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;”

which is, being interpreted, “God with us.” Joseph arose from his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took his wife to himself; and did not know her sexually at any time before she had given birth to her firstborn son. He named him Jesus (which means, “God saves”).

Now this is an account of the ancestry of Joseph, son of David. Jacob was the father of Joseph, the son of Heli, according to what is written in the law of the Lord,

“If brothers dwell together, and one of them dies, and has no son, the wife of the dead shall not be married outside to a stranger. Her husband’s brother shall go in to her, and take her as his wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her. It shall be that the firstborn whom she bears shall succeed in the name of his brother who is dead, that his name not be blotted out of Israel.”

And Jacob was the half-brother of Heli, according to Eusebius, born of one woman, Estha their mother, who was wife to Matthan and to Matthat, first to one and then to the other, in succession; for the law of Moses does not forbid a widow to marry again. Thus Jacob the son of Matthan of the house of David became the father of Joseph, the son of Heli the son of Matthat of the house of David.

And this is the genealogy of Joseph, son of David. The sons of David, who were born to him in Hebron: Amnon, Daniel, Absalom, Adonijah, Shephatiah, Ithream: six were born to him in Hebron; and these were born to him in Jerusalem: Shimea, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon, Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine. All these were the sons of David. These are the heads of the clans of the house of David.

David became the father of Solomon. Solomon became the father of Rehoboam. Rehoboam became the father of Abijah. Abijah became the father of Asa. Asa became the father of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat became the father of Joram. Joram became the father of Uzziah. Uzziah became the father of Jotham. Jotham became the father of Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah. Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh. Manasseh became the father of Amon. Amon became the father of Josiah. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah. Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel. Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel. Zerubbabel became the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim. Eliakim became the father of Azor. Azor became the father of Zadok. Zadok became the father of Achim. Achim became the father of Eliud. Eliud became the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan. Matthan became the father of Jacob. And Jacob became the father of Joseph, the son of Heli, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai, the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah, the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er, the son of Jose, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonan, the son of Eliakim, the son of Melea, the son of Menan, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David.

Now in those days, a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. This was the first enrollment, made later when Quirinius was governor of Syria. All went to enroll themselves, everyone to his own city. But Joseph moreover went up from Galilee, out of his own city, the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to David’s city, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David; to enroll himself with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him as wife, being pregnant.

While they were there, the day had come for her to give birth. She gave birth to her firstborn son. She wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a feeding trough, because there was no room for them in the inn. As it is written in the law of Moses,

“If a woman conceives, and bears a male child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of her monthly period she shall be unclean.”

As it is written,

“She shall be in her impurity seven days. Whoever touches her shall be unclean before the evening. Everything that she lies on in her impurity shall be unclean. Everything also that she sits on shall be unclean. Whoever touches her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean before the evening. Whoever touches anything that she sits on shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean before the evening. If it is on the bed, or on anything she sits on, when he touches it, he shall be unclean before the evening.”

And

“Thus you shall separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness, so they will not die in their uncleanness when they defile my tabernacle that is among them.”

There were shepherds in the same country staying in the field, and keeping watch by night over their flock. Behold, an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. The angel said to them, “Do not be afraid, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be to all the people. For there is born to you today, in David’s city, a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. This is the sign to you: you will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth, lying in a feeding trough.”

Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army praising God, and saying, “Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good will toward men.”

When the angels went away from them into heaven, the shepherds said to one another, “Let us go to Bethlehem, now, and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us.”

They came with haste, and found both Mary and Joseph, and the baby was lying in the feeding trough. When they saw it, they publicized widely the saying which was spoken to them about this child. All who heard it wondered at the things which were spoken to them by the shepherds. But Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart. The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, just as it was told them.

When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. Behold the blood of the Lord! Begone, you hostile powers! His name shall be called in Israel, Yeshua ben David, ben Avraham, ben Adonai, as he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and his offspring forever.

The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, Jesus Anointed, the son of David, the son of Abraham. Now the number of the name of David by the reckoning of gematria is fourteen. And this is the reckoning of the generations.

Abraham, one, became the father of Isaac, two. Isaac became the father of Jacob, three. Jacob became the father of Judah and his brothers, four. Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar, five. Perez became the father of Hezron, six. Hezron became the father of Ram, seven. Ram became the father of Amminadab, eight. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon, nine. Nahshon became the father of Salmon, ten. Salmon became the father of Boaz by Rahab, eleven. Boaz became the father of Obed by Ruth, twelve. Obed became the father of Jesse, thirteen. Jesse became the father of King David, fourteen.

David became the father of Solomon by her who had been Uriah’s wife, one. Solomon became the father of Rehoboam, two. Rehoboam became the father of Abijah, three. Abijah became the father of Asa, four. Asa became the father of Jehoshaphat, five. Jehoshaphat became the father of Joram, six. The son of Joram was Ahaziah, seven. The son of Ahaziah was Joash, eight. The son of Joash was Amaziah, nine. The son of Amaziah was Azariah, also called Uzziah, ten. (But Joram was the father of Uzziah.) Uzziah became the father of Jotham, eleven. Jotham became the father of Ahaz, twelve. Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah, thirteen. Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh, fourteen, the first of that generation deported to Babylon. (The king of Assyria took Manasseh in chains, bound him with fetters, and carried him to Babylon.) Manasseh became the father of Amos, who was called Amon, the second generation. Amon became the father of Josiah, the third generation. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers, the fourth generation, at the time of the exile to Babylon, according to what is written,

“In the fourth generation they will come here again.”

After the exile to Babylon, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel, one. Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel, two. Zerubbabel became the father of Abiud, three. Abiud became the father of Eliakim, four. Eliakim became the father of Azor, five. Azor became the father of Zadok, six. Zadok became the father of Achim, seven. Achim became the father of Eliud, eight. Eliud became the father of Eleazar, nine. Eleazar became the father of Matthan, ten. Matthan became the father of Jacob, eleven. Jacob became the father of Joseph, twelve. Joseph became the husband of Mary, thirteen (a full generation younger than he). From Mary was born Jesus, who is called Christ, Anointed, fourteen.

When the fullness of the time came, God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law, that he might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of children.

So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; from David to the exile to Babylon fourteen generations; and from the carrying away to Babylon to the Christ, the Anointed, fourteen generations.

Now, as it is written in the Law of the Lord:

"The LORD spoke to Moses, saying, ‘Speak to the children of Israel, saying, “If a woman conceives, and bears a male child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of her monthly period she shall be unclean. In the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised. She shall continue in the blood of purification thirty-three days. She shall not touch any holy thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purifying are completed.” ’ ”

When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord,

“Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”),

and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord,

“A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.”

Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon. This man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ, the Lord's Anointed. He came in the Spirit into the Temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law, then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said, “Now you are releasing your servant, Master, according to your word, in peace; for my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared before the face of all peoples; a light for revelation to the nations, and the glory of your people Israel.”

Joseph and his mother were marveling at the things which were spoken concerning him, and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, “Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”

There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, about one hundred and six years, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, about the age of fifteen, and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who did not depart from the Temple, worshiping with fastings and petitions night and day. Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem.

Matthew 1:18-19
Deuteronomy 24:1
Matthew 1:20-25
—LXX Isaiah 7:14
Matthew 1:16a
Luke 3:23b
Deuteronomy 25:5-6
1 Chronicles 3:1-9a
Matthew 1:6b-16a
Luke 3:24-31
Luke 2:1-7
Leviticus 12:2
Leviticus 15:19-23
Leviticus 15:31
Luke 2:8-21
Luke 1:55
Matthew 1:1-8
1 Chronicles 3:11-12
Matthew 1:9-10a
2 Chronicles 33:11
"brought him to Babylon"
Matthew 1:10b-11
Genesis 15:16a
Matthew 1:12-16
Galatians 4:4-5
Matthew 1:17
Leviticus 12:1-4
Luke 2:22-38

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
Conservative Bible text
multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

—in Gregorian Calendar click the cursor in the day, month, or year fields, to highlight selection,
then use [Backspace ←] and [←] [→] right and left arrow keys in the day and year fields,
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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Now the birth of Jesus Christ occurred this way (Christ means Anointed):"

Matthew 1:18 amplified
"Jesus Christ" is from the Hebrew Yehoshua Meshiach, Joshua Messiah = (Literally) "God's Savior/Salvation Anointed-Deliverer", "LORD's Anointed Salvation".
See the following:
"An educated Greek, who knew something (as many at that time did) of the Greek translation of the ancient Hebrew Scriptures, ... would have known that 'Jesus' was the Greek form of Joshua; that 'Christ' was the Greek rendering of Messiah, or Anointed, the title of the great King for whom the Jews were looking; he might further have remembered that 'the Lord' is the expression which the Greek Old Testament constantly uses instead of the ineffable name of God, which we now call 'Jehovah' "
—See Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend (vicmitorenogseirilinpers.wordpress.com) This page link offers a download of this work.
—See also Constantine's Creation of Jesus Christ (thecreatorscalendar.com)
These articles are an attack on the reliability of the text of the Bible itself in support of the Great Apostasy. The author asserts with fully confident assurance that the Catholic Church at the time of Constantine replaced the real Hebrew name of the Son of God with an artificially constructed name designed to promote the worship of Zeus and inserted it into all of the manuscripts of all of the books of the New Testament everywhere—thus everyone who utters the word "Jesus/Iesous" is unwittingly praising Zeus instead, and is therefore actually guilty of committing pagan idolatry by taking the name of another god upon their lips, and the whole Christian world who reveres the name of "Jesus" is proven guilty of blasphemy by replacing the true name of the Lord and Savior with the name of a false god.
This directly implies that the spirit that has been guiding the pastoral leadership of the churches that revere the name of "Jesus" is the Devil from hell, and that their worship and deeds of mercy are utterly worthless in the eyes of God. This represents the promises of Jesus as either completely broken or utterly false. See John 14:15-17; 16:12-15; Hebrews 13:17 and Romans 13:1-3; especially Matthew 10:24-28; 12:24-37; Mark 3:22-30; Luke 11:14-23; especially 1 Corinthians 10:7-21, 31-32.
See article Invincible ignorance.
NOTE: It is an historically documented fact that, before his reported conversion to Christianity, the Roman general Constantine did not worship the Greek god Zeus, but either the Roman god Jupiter Optimus Maximus "Jupiter the Best and Greatest" or the Roman God Sol Invictus "the Unconquerable Sun" (Apollo).
List of Roman gods and goddesses (simple.wikipedia.org)
—See: Emperor Constantine: Pagan, Christian, or first Pope? (biblicalcatholic.com)
—See also: Was the Emperor Constantine a True Christian or Was He a Secret Pagan? (ancient-origins.net) The article presents the controversial argument that there is substantial evidence that Constantine worshiped the Sun (Sol/Apollo) instead of Christ (the article presents no evidence that he worshiped Zeus).
All of the evidence for "sun worship" by Constantine can also conversely be interpreted as substantial evidence that Constantine displaced the Sun God with Christ, the "sun of righteousness" Malachi 4:2; Revelation 1:16.
See multiple commentaries on Malachi 4:2 and Revelation 1:16. Compare Psalm 84:11 and 1 Timothy 6:16.
Christians have traditionally been warned to avoid misjudging people by how they interpret the meaning of the outward appearance they see without also asking what is the intention in the heart and the mind and the soul that they cannot see. The fundamental issue lies at the heart of what is the real intent in the heart of the worshipers?: are they actually worshiping and adoring another god by uttering the name of "Jesus" or are they actually and truly directing their heartfelt worship to the one Lord and Savior, the Son of God the Father Almighty from Whom proceeds the Holy Spirit of God, according to what they understand and believe is the true meaning of "Jesus"? (What do you, reader, actually mean when you say the name of "Jesus"? Who do you understand is normally being referred to and meant by that name?)
See multiple commentaries on 1 Samuel 16:7 "Do not look on his appearance...man looks on the outward appearance, but the LORD looks on the heart."
Compare Matthew 12:31-37 and 1 Corinthians 12:4-30.
Catholic apologists firmly assert that when Orthodox and Catholic worshipers bow down to representations of the Persons of God, and of those who belong to Him as ministers and saints and teachers of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, they are not only not worshiping other gods and goddesses from the pagan pantheon, but are directing their worship to God alone and in his honor are honoring and acknowledging those He has chosen and honored for the glory of His name. To honor them with visible physical representations and songs and prayers of praise is to honor him. They point to the passage of Hebrews 1:3 in which the physical nature of Jesus Christ is made by God to be the very icon and image of God (χαρακτὴρ charaktér = "an exact image"—see interlinear text of Hebrews 1:3; John 14:9-11 and 2 Corinthians 5:16-20; also Genesis 1:27).
See Seventh Ecumenical Council (orthodoxwiki). This is the Council which condemned iconoclasm and defended the (by then traditional) Christian use of images as aids to Christian devotion and worship of God.
Evangelicals and Fundamentalists respond that they are not deceived by such arguments, but, like the expression, "If it walks like a duck, talks like a duck, and acts like a duck, it must be a duck", so it is that "If it looks like idolatry, sounds like idolatry, and appears to us to be idolatry, it must be idolatry." They point out that according to Exodus 32:4 the golden calf was intended by the Israelites as a representation of God Himself ("This is your elohim, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt"), and that God condemned such an act as idolatry and a turning aside from the covenant He had made with Israel. "Their sin then lay, not in their adopting another god, but in their pretending to worship a visible symbol of Him whom no symbol could represent."—(Barnes' Notes on the Bible: Exodus 32:4). See commentaries on Exodus 32:4. The full context is found in Exodus 32:1-14.
See Exodus 20:2-6. On the basis of this text alone, both Jews and Moslems charge Christians with committing idolatry by worshiping Jesus as God, Jesus himself as being one of the Divine Persons of the Holy Trinity, which they interpret as being three separately individual gods. See Council of Chalcedon. Those Christian groups and churches which firmly reject the definitions of Chalcedon are the non-Chalcedonian Christians of various denominations, among which are included the Church of God, International, and United Church of God, the Unitarian Baptists, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and Jehovah's Witnesses. See Trinitarian Heresies (monergism.com) and Nontrinitarianism - Wikipedia.
The logical argument from these historically and doctrinally documented facts leads most people to the considered conclusion that if individuals have not been instructed, or told, explicitly, that these forms of worship are performed to honor the Roman and Babylonian gods and goddesses (as the religion of Santería uses the images of Christian saints to represent the gods and goddesses of Vodoun) they are not committing idolatry, or if individuals have not been instructed, or told, explicitly that the saints and angels and the persons of the Trinity are separate gods and goddesses in their own right, without any relation to God alone as servants of the Supreme God—if they have not been taught this—then it is an established certainty that therefore they are not committing idolatry. Orthodox and Catholic worshipers do not believe that the icons and statues and paintings are actually alive, and insist therefore that they are not idols, as the pagan worshipers regarded their own religious images.
Rejection of this Orthodox and Catholic argument is based primarily on Exodus 20:4-6; 23:24; 34:12-17; Deuteronomy 4:23-24; 5:7-10; all of which pertain to pagan gods. Consider the following:
  • God did command the making of an image which healed those who looked at it (Numbers 21:8-9; John 3:14-15; 6:40; Galatians 3:1; Jeremiah 31:31-34).
  • According to Acts 9:4-5 even living human beings are one with Jesus Christ (see John 17:20-26). To persecute them is to persecute him. And to honor them is to honor him. Whoever honors him, God will honor John 12:26.
  • Most people regard the deliberate destruction or vandalism of a picture of their own mother or father or spouse as an insulting dishonor of their loved one.
  • The toppling of a statue of a famous person is not regarded as showing respect for that individual.
  • The burning of the American flag is regarded by American patriots and Christians as an act of contempt for all that it represents—to some it represents liberty and justice for all, to others it represents oppression and injustice, economic, social, racial and even presumptuously dominating arrogance toward the rest of the international community.
  • Christians are horrified when anyone or any group rips up, destroys and burns Bibles (see Worshiping the Bible is Idolatry, “Bibliolatry”, by Scott J Shifferd (godsbreath.net) and Bibliolatry - Wikipedia).
In none of these instances is the presence of idolatry implied or involved. And while each of these things is loved and perhaps even emotionally reverenced in an ordinary way as representations of realities worthy of respect, they are not worshiped as gods and idols (except perhaps by mentally deranged individuals). This represents the Catholic and Orthodox view. Compare Genesis 12:3 and commentaries.
The interpretation of any of these scriptures and the acceptance or rejection of any one of these arguments based on them as proof texts is dependent on the acceptance or rejection of the interpretation of a particular denominational tradition or doctrine as being authoritatively and authentically Christian.

"When a man takes a wife and marries her"

Deuteronomy 24:1a
This indicates the two phases of the betrothal of a wife:
  • the man's taking for himself a wife as her husband,
  • and then after the year of betrothal, marrying her by taking her into his home and consummating their union.
The period of one year waiting establishes the legitimacy of children born to the couple's union. The law of Moses does not explicitly establish the period of betrothal for one year. It is an ancient custom considered to be "decent form", which is intended to establish the couple's moral self-control and decency, and to eliminate unpleasant gossip.
See Exodus 21:8-9; 22:16; Leviticus 19:20; Deuteronomy 20:7; 22:23-29; 28:15 and 28:30. Compare Hosea 2:19-20.
Another way of expressing this in more modern terms is to say the couple first legally got married, and then waited a full year before consummating their marriage by having legitimate sexual intercourse.
See the following articles:

"But when he thought about these things"

Matthew 1:20
No text of the New Testament says that Joseph consulted anyone about the matter. Matthew indicates that he pondered the situation on his own. The fact that he is "a just man" and that he did not want to bring Mary into disrepute, "unwilling to put her to shame" (RSVCE), "not willing to make her a public example" (KJV), strongly suggests that Joseph confided his doubts to no one.
Modern writers of books and screen plays portraying Joseph as consulting his rabbi about what to do are offering their own eisegetical interpretations, most probably to increase the sense of drama for their audiences, interpretations which have no basis in scripture, but only reinforce ignorance of what the Bible actually says. These could just have easily shown Joseph reading the Torah instead, although as a devout Jew of mature years (hearing the yearly cycle of the daily reading of the Torah every year in the synagogue) he would have already known what Moses had written about what a man is to do when he "discovers some impropriety", "some unseemly thing in her" (WEB), "some indecency in her" (RSVCE), "some uncleanness in her" (KJV).
Joseph's dilemma is not how to obey the law of Moses without also condemning Mary to death by stoning, since no one had caught her committing fornication, or, more precisely, no one had caught her in the act of adultery, since she was already betrothed as his wife, but how best to dismiss her with the least possible decree of blame, without shaming her and causing her to be expelled from the synagogue
See Leviticus 20:10-21; Deuteronomy 22:13-29
in particular Deuteronomy 22:25-27 "But to the young woman you shall do nothing..."

"Jesus (which means, “God saves”)."

Matthew 1:21 amplified
The Latin form "Jesus" is from Greek "Iesous" from Aramaic "Yeshua" from Hebrew "Yehoshua" to the Latin form "Joshua" meaning "LORD-saved" (Yeho-shua)—see
Strong's number 3091
Strong's number 2424.

"Behold, the virgin shall conceive..."

Matthew 1:23
Matthew quotes the Septuagint text of Isaiah 7:14.

"at any time before"

Matthew 1:25
(rendered less emphatically as simply "before").
"Before" is the archaic meaning of "till", "until"
Greek ἕως heos
see Strong's number 2193
even (until, unto), (hither-, un-, up) to
The word here signifies nothing about what occurs afterward, which is utterly unlike the meaning it has in modern American English usage, a meaning which does signify what occurs afterward.
compare:
Matthew 5:18
Matthew 10:23 RSV "before"
Matthew 16:28
Matthew 22:44 Will the Lord then no longer sit at his right hand?
Matthew 1:25 is a statement about both the virginal conception of Jesus in Mary's womb, without any human sexual intercourse, and the chastity of Joseph and Mary during the entire period of her pregnancy from the very moment of conception. It is not a statement about what Joseph did immediately after Jesus was born.
Many have suggested that Joseph was a widower of mature years with adult children in Nazareth who were themselves married with children and partners as carpenters with Joseph as chief carpenter of the family business.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, which names Joseph's first wife as Salome, holds that Joseph was a widower and merely betrothed, but never married, to Mary, and that references to Jesus' "brothers" are to children of Joseph and Salome (The Life of the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, by Holy Apostles Convent, Holy Apostles Convent and Dormition Skete, publisher, page 64. ISBN 0-944359-03-5).
The position of the Catholic Church, derived from the writings of Saint Jerome, is that Joseph was the husband of Mary, but that references to Jesus' "brothers" should be understood to mean cousins or step-brothers. Such usage is prevalent throughout history, and occurs elsewhere in the Bible. Abraham's nephew Lot (Genesis 11:26-28) was referred to as his brother (Genesis 14:14), as was Jacob's uncle Laban (Genesis 29:15). Jesus himself frequently used the word "brother" as a generic term for one's fellow man (Matthew 5:21-22; 7:3-5; 18:15-17, 21, 35; John 20:17-18). This suggestion that Joseph was a widower with children by a first wife parallels the Old Testament account of Joseph as youngest brother and son of Jacob/Israel and firstborn son of his mother Rachel, who was disrespected by his older brothers, as Jesus was disrespected and counselled by his brethren in John 7:2-5 (compare Genesis 37). Apologists rejecting the proposition that brothers and sisters were born to Joseph from the womb of Mary subsequent to the birth of Jesus from her have pointed out the substantial objection that, in Jewish culture especially, younger siblings, however much they disapprove of the eldest brother's activities, would never dare to counsel him as his brethren counselled him in John 7:2-5. For this reason older uncles and cousins as brethren and relatives senior to him in years have been proposed.
Regarding Joseph as a widower with children: Jewish culture expected a man from the age of 13-15 years to fulfill his duty in Israel to become a husband and father (if possible), and maintain a respectable vocation and lifestyle within the community. Marriages were often arranged. For a man to choose to remain celibate was not regarded with favor (although Jeremiah had been commanded by God to take no wife, Jeremiah 16:1-4). Joseph was regarded as "a just" (Matthew 1:19), which meant that he was a just and righteous man obedient to the law of Moses and Israel and was respected in his community. If, as suggested by this Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version), Joseph was indeed "a full generation" older than Mary, and she was about 12 or 13 years old when she was betrothed to him, then allowing a "full generation" to be the traditional 25 years for a biblical generation (see Matthew 1:12-17 from "Babylon to the Christ fourteen generations"), Joseph would have been about 37, 38, even 40 years old when Mary was betrothed to him, and his children by his first wife would therefore have already attained adulthood in Israel (from the age of 13) and most likely have also become married, with households and children of their own. Speculation that Nazareth was not populous enough to sustain a family carpentry business including several partners with children of their own can most probably be countered by statements in the Gospels that they were "with" the citizens of Nazareth as their neighbors (Matthew 13:54-56; Mark 6:2-3; John 7:2-9).
The possibility (unattested in scripture) that Joseph was a widower and father of adult independent children with children of their own is the reasoned proposition of one of the traditional Orthodox and Catholic answers to the objection that when Joseph "took the child and his mother" to Egypt no other children are mentioned, and that he certainly would not have left his own (underage dependent) children behind, an objection that assumes that he had no children before Mary was betrothed to him and that therefore the brothers and sisters of the Lord were born afterward, after he and Mary had returned from Egypt and set up housekeeping in Nazareth again. The text of Luke 2:42-51, when Jesus was twelve years old, does not indicate younger children either present with them, or left behind with babysitters in Nazareth (unheard of and highly unlikely!)—they had taken Jesus with them every year at the feast of Passover after their return to Nazareth, and would therefore have taken younger siblings along with him as well—which indicates that if younger brothers and sisters were born of Mary and Joseph after the birth of Jesus and the return to Nazareth they would have been much younger than Jesus by 12 years and more. Younger adult brothers and sisters, however much they might have been provoked, would never have dared to violate Jewish social convention and custom by giving counsel to a man so much more their senior in years. If according to tradition Jesus was at least 31-32 years of age in John 7:2-5, the oldest of his younger siblings would have been at most 19-20 years old and his other younger brothers teenagers.
In A.D. 382/3 St. Jerome complained that Helvidius interpreted Matthew 1:25 ἕως heos to mean that Mary had other children, noting especially that this was an entirely "novel" interpretation, a new idea that had never been suggested before the fourth century.
The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary: Against Helvidius, by St. Jerome (cin.org)
Moreover, it is utterly inappropriate to suggest from this text (Matthew 1:25) that Joseph "a just man", was eagerly awaiting an opportunity to have sex with Mary as soon as possible after Jesus was born.
In the sixteenth century the chief Protestant Reformers, Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, defended the traditional claim that Mary had only one child, Jesus.
  • Martin Luther wrote that Mary was "a virgin before the conception and birth, she remained a virgin also at the birth and after it." (February 2, 1546 - Luther, Martin. Luther's Works. The American Edition. Jaroslav J. Pelikan & Helmut Lehmann, eds. 55 vols. St. Louis & Philadelphia: CPH & Fortress Press, 1955-1986. Vol. 22:214-215)
  • Ulrich Zwingli wrote: "I speak of this in the holy Church of Zurich and in all my writings: I recognize Mary as ever virgin and holy." (January of 1528 - Disputation of Bern (Switzerland). The acts of the synod were officially printed at Basel, 1532, again in 1728 and 1778. Both the original and a modernized text were issued by Lauener, Basel, 1830. Consult M. Kirchhofer, Berthold Haller, pp. 169 sqq., Zurich, 1828; Billeter, in the Berner Beitrge, ed. F. Nippold, Bern, 1884 (especially useful); E. Bloesch, Geschichte der schweizerisch-reformierten Kirchen, i, 74-81, Bern, 1898.
  • John Calvin, in his Commentary on Matthew called them "pig-headed and stupid" who insistently interpret the gospel of Matthew 1:25 to imply that Mary had other children—"no man will obstinately keep up the argument, except from an extreme fondness for disputation." (Calvin's Commentary on Matthew 1:1-25).
The Greek word for "brother" adelphos and for "brothers" adelphoi all through the New Testament is always the same word, and it is used broadly
  • in reference to male siblings born from the same womb, having the same mother,
  • in reference to male relatives having different mothers but the same father who had married again, either a widower or a man who had dismissed a previous wife who had borne him a son or sons or a man who legally has more than one wife, men who are half-brothers (like the twelve patriarchs, sons of the four wives of Jacob/Israel, or the sons of David, and the sons of Solomon's 500 wives),
  • in reference to male relatives having different sets of parents, both mothers and fathers, couples who are related by marriage, men who are close cousins,
  • in reference to male members of the same family group or members of a larger clan,
  • to male members of the same tribe in Israel,
  • to all descendants of Jacob (who was given the name Israel),
  • and in reference to men who, while physically unrelated, share a common bond of mutual affection, struggle, dedication, political affiliation, or religion.
Paul's letters to the men and women of the congregations of the churches also includes women as "brothers" in Christ, believers, using the same word adelphoi, making them equally heirs of salvation as sons of God by the adoption of saving grace through the blood of Jesus Christ. See
Romans 1:13; 7:1, 4; 8:12, 29; 10:1; 11:25; 12:1; 15:14-15, 30; 16:17;
1 Corinthians 1:10-11, 26; 2:1; 3:1, 3; 4:6; 10:1; 11:2, 33; 12:1; 14:6, 20, 26, 39; 15:1, 6, 50, 58; 16:15, 20;
2 Corinthians 1:8; 8:1; 13:11;
Galatians 1:2, 11; 3:15; 4:12, 28, 31; 5:11, 13; 6:18;
Ephesians 6:10, 23;
Philippians 1:12, 14; 3:1, 13, 17; 4:1, 8, 21-22;
Colossians 1:2; 4:15;
1 Thessalonians 1:4; 2:1, 9, 14, 17; 3:7; 4:1, 10, 13; 5:1, 4, 12, 14, 25-27;
2 Thessalonians 1:3; 2:1, 13, 15; 3:1, 6, 13;
1 Timothy 4:6
2 Timothy 4:21;
Titus 2:1-5, 11-13; 3:1-2.
See also
Hebrews 2:11-13, 17-18; 3:1, 12; 7:5; 10:19-25; 13:22;
James 1:2, 16, 19-22; 2:1, 5, 14; 3:10-13; 4:11; 5:7, 9-10, 12, 19-20;
1 Peter 1:22; 3:8-9; 5:9;
2 Peter 1:10-11;
1 John 2:7; 3:13-14, 16;
Revelation 6:9-11; 12:10; 19:9-10.
See article The Translation of Αδελφος and Αδελφοι: A Response to Mark Strauss and I. Howard Marshall, by Michael D. Marlowe, 2004 (bible-researcher.com)
Compare especially Galatians 3:25-29. See multiple commentaries on Galatians 3:26
Public worship readings of the Epistles of the New Testament often amplify the intended meaning of the sacred author by reading "brothers and sisters" for the implicitly inclusive adelphoi "brothers". This is for the benefit of those who are unaware of this fact, to correct any impression in the minds and hearts of the hearers that the teachings in the Epistles were addressed exclusively to men, except where women are explicitly mentioned and addressed.
Literally, the Greek adelphos and adelphoi both mean "of the womb"—"[males] of the [same] womb" (see Strong's number 80). However, the one hundred twenty "brothers", adelphoi, of Acts 1:15-16, "brethren" in Catholic Bibles and in the King James Version, could not all have been born from the same woman. The same applies to those entire bodies of the assemblies or congregations of the churches to whom Paul and James and Peter and John addressed their epistles, both men and women.
On this basis, according to the text of the Bible, Protestant Evangelical and Fundamentalist Christians using the principle of sola scriptura cannot disprove the tradition and the dogmatic assertion of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches:
the dogmatic assertion that the brothers and sisters of Jesus were not born of Mary's womb—cannot disprove the assertion that the brothers of Jesus, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas (and his sisters), that the brothers of Jesus, James, Joseph, Simon, and Jude (and his sisters), were not born of Mary's womb—but were nevertheless closely related to him "according to the flesh" (Romans 1:3).
See discussion of both sides of the controversy based on scripture proof texts:
The word in Colossians is actually the singular form ἀνεψιὸς anepsios, and it occurs only once in the entire Bible: it is not "one example" ("e.g.") among many. The linked article above by Michael D. Marlowe, "The Translation of Αδελφος and Αδελφοι", also clearly demonstrates on the basis of Greek linguistics and cultural usage, and from the Bible, that these words adelphos and adelphoi do normally include the meaning of "cousin/s" and "relative/s".
"In the Bauer-Arndt-Gingrich Lexicon (2nd ed., 1979) the evidence is stated thus: … In PMich. 214, 12 [296 AD] οι αδελφοι σου seems to be even more general='your relatives'. So in Lk 21:16 there is no doubt that αδελφοι= brothers and sisters."
(boldface emphasis added)
Moreover, against the contention of Miller that ἀνεψιὸς, ἀνεψιὸι is "a separate and distinct", specifically explicit Greek term for "cousins, kindred", it should be noted unequivocally that anepsios, anepsioi is not the only Greek term that can be specifically and distinctly translated "cousins", "kindred"—συγγενεῖς syggeneis syngeneis (γγ = gg = "ng") also translates as "cousin, kinsman/woman". These points (among others) demonstrate that Dave Miller, PhD. ("Did Jesus Have Fleshly Half-Brothers?") is not being entirely honest with his readers.
See interlinear texts:
Colossians 4:10 ἀνεψιὸς anepsios
"Aristarchus my fellow-prisoner saluteth you, and Marcus, sister's son to Barnabas" KJV —"and Mark, the cousin of Barnabas" RSVCE
Luke 1:36 συγγενίς syngenis
"And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age" KJV —"And behold, your kinswoman Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son" RSVCE
Luke 1:58 συγγενεῖς syngeneis
"And her neighbors and her cousins heard" KJV —"And her neighbors and kinsfolk heard" RSVCE

Jacob and Heli

These two were half-brothers
They were both sons of the same mother, and sons of different fathers descended from David, according to Eusebius.
see Genealogy of Jesus

"And this is the genealogy of Joseph, son of David."

see Matthew 1:1-15 and Luke 3:23-31
Genealogies, such as those given by St. Matthew and St. Luke, were common in almost every Jewish family. The books of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, compiled after the return from Babylon (538 B.C.), show that they existed even then (1 Chronicles 1–9; Ezra 2; 7:1-6; 10:16-43; Nehemiah 7:5-65).
See Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers: Luke 3:5 (one of multiple commentaries on Luke 3:5)

Jechoniah

The father of Shealtiel the son of Neri.

Shealtiel

The father of Zerubbabel, and Zerubbabel was the father of Abiud the brother of Rhesa the son of Zerubbabel.

Abiud

The father of Eliakim, and Eliakim was the cousin of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the brother of Abiud.

"Behold, the virgin shall conceive..."

"Behold, the virgin shall be with child..." WEB version
Literally, "the virgin shall conceive"
Matthew 1:23
—Matthew quotes Isaiah 7:14
Quotation from the Septuagint, not Hebrew
See LXX Esias 7:14
The LXX text reads "conceive in the womb". The Hebrew text does not have this phrase.
While Matthew does not include this phrase, "in the womb", many of the Church fathers saw in the LXX text an implication that "the conception did not occur as introduced from a source outside the womb", but that Mary herself by the power given her by the Holy Spirit coming upon her and the power of the Most High, the Word, overshadowing her, still remaining a virgin, without any penetration of her womb from outside, uniquely conceived the child by faith "within her womb" when she uttered her "fiat" (Latin, "let it be so")—"and the Word became flesh".
A parallel example of the divine creative power bestowed on a human being together with the authority to exercise it is found in Exodus 14:15-16, where God says to Moses,
"Why do you cry out to me? Tell the people of Israel to go forward. Lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it".
God told Moses to divide the sea. And he did.
"Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and upon their horsemen.' So Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its wonted flow". Exodus 14:26-27
See also 1 Kings 17:1, where Elijah says,
"As the LORD the God of Israel lives, before whom I stand, there shall be neither dew nor rain these years, except by my word."
Compare Joshua 10:12-14. "...the LORD hearkened to the voice of a man."
See What if Mary said, "No"? Gary Zimak (catholicexchange.com)
This is also relevant to Matthew 18:15-20 and 16:18-19.

"Now in those days, a decree went out from Caesar Augustus"

Luke 2:1
See the following articles:

"all the world should be enrolled"

Luke 2:1 ἀπογράφεσθαι apographesthai (register regularly).
The Greek word ἀπογράφεσθαι refers to a census. The capitation tax (poll-tax) that was part of it was incidental to it. Furthermore, this word is a present infinitive, indicating not a one-of-a-kind event but a regular schedule, equivalent to the provision in the United States Constitution for a regular census.
The actual decree did not explicitly state that the "whole world" was to be enrolled, but that the sole remaining exemption granted to Judea under Herod was now rescinded. With this done away, the virtual effect was to subject all of the Roman world to direct taxation, without exception, whenever a census was to be conducted. Luke is expressing the arrogance of increasing Roman dominance and oppression of the whole world subject to Rome, by characterizing the imperial decree—that all citizens of Judaea under Herod's jurisdiction will henceforth be counted directly by Roman census-takers—as a virtual decree of intent that now the whole world under Roman jurisdiction is to be enrolled, taxed, without exception.
See Luke and the Census.
Judaea was not formally annexed to the Roman province of Syria before the death of Herod's son, Archelaus; for some years after this time (of the decree) Herod occupied the position of a rex socius. In the event of such an imperial registration being imposed on Judaea during his reign, it was most unlikely that Herod would have claimed exemption for his only nominally independent states. Herod was an attached dependent of the emperor, and in such a matter he would never have opposed the imperial will of his great imperial patron.
See the following:
Some of the names in the genealogies of Matthew and Luke are variously translated and therefore do not appear the same in comparative parallel readings of the different versions. The genealogy presented here represents the recent World English Bible translation, because it is in the public domain.
Compare multiple translations of Matthew 1:3, 7-8, 10-12, and of Luke 3:27, 30, 32-33, 38.

"from his own city, the city of Nazareth"

Luke 2:4 amplified.
See Luke 2:39 "they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth".
This internal textual evidence indicates that while all others went to their own cities, that is, to the cities and towns where they normally resided, to be enrolled, Joseph instead ("moreover also" Greek δὲ καὶ ) departed from his own city, Nazareth, to go to Bethlehem, to willingly do his part to insure and establish beyond any doubt, as a documented legal fact, that the child descended from David according to the flesh from the virgin Mary, would be born in Bethlehem, in fulfillment of the prophesy of Micah 5:2-4.
See interlinear text of Luke 2:4.

"to be enrolled"

Luke 2:5 απογραψασθαι apographasthai (register).
Here the aorist infinitive απογραψασθαι (a difference of one Greek letter, α instead of ε in the middle of the word) clearly marks this as a one-of-a-kind event, not the regular event that the previous verse (Luke 2:1) describes.
Herod was king of Judea under the authority of the Roman empire and the emperor. As a client king he paid tribute to Rome, and levied his own taxes on the people in his kingdom; and the people also paid taxes to support the temple; they did not pay Roman tax-gatherers directly. But at the time of Jesus a decree of Augustus Caesar changed somewhat the system of tax-gathering by officially having the taxes in Judea levied by publicans and paid directly to the Roman government. This particular revision of the tax code exempting no people from paying taxes directly to Roman officials was empire-wide.
However, implementation of the decree altering the method of taxation of the inhabitants of the empire was not in every place immediate. According to the prudence of the local rulers and governors the actual payment of taxes directly to Roman tax-gatherers could be delayed. A preliminary census meanwhile established the number of citizens. In many cases considerable time may have elapsed between the enrollment and the subsequent collection of taxes based on the count. It is not improbable that years may have passed before the edict was carried fully into effect, to avoid uprisings. Augustus issued the decree, and the population was enrolled and counted, but the actual payment of taxes directly to Roman publicans did not take place until later, under Quirinius (Cyrenius).
Neither the first century historian Josephus in Antiquities 18.1.1 and Wars 7.8.1, nor the fourth century historian Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History Book 1, chapters 6 through 8, say anywhere in their histories that multitudes, forced by the required enrollment or tax, responded by moving to their "ancestral places of origin" or to their families' "ancient capitals" in order to be enrolled. They say no such thing. Medieval dramas and "pilgimmage plays" from the 12th century and afterward, as performed in European towns and villages even to this day, also have no such scenes. This baseless perception of the shifting of whole populations is an example of eisegesis, of "reading into the text" of Luke 2:3-5 a very recent and totally fictitious interpretation popularized by 20th century novelists, dramatists and screenwriters.
See the following articles:
See also Luke and the Census.

"while they were there"

Luke 2:6
Greek Ἐγένετο Egeneto "It came to pass".
ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ en to einai autous ekei "in the [time] were they there".
The text does not say "the very hour/day/night when they arrived" (a popular image, based on fictitious dramatic exaggerations by commentators, artists, dramatists, and screenwriters of films); it says "while they were there", which indicates a period of time, days, weeks, even months "while they were there", Greek ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, "And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered".
See interlinear text of Luke 2:6.

"her firstborn son"

(which openeth the womb)
The fullest meaning of this term includes both the fact that this child "opened the womb" and the formal legal designation of him as Mary's heir by law, and by implication herself as legal heiress and holder by right of the title to her parents' property.
An only child is also called the "firstborn".
Compare Exodus 13:1-2, Deuteronomy 21:15-17; 25:6; Numbers 36:1-9.

"unclean".

Israelites who became unclean separated themselves and dwelt apart from others, usually in a place set apart for them to dwell in during the period of their uncleanness. Orthodox Jews observe this commandment even now.
See Leviticus 11 through 15.
The English word "unclean" normally denotes something "filthy, soiled, unsanitary". However, the biblical and Jewish understanding of ritual "uncleanness" generically denotes "separated", and means in general "that which should not be touched carelessly". Touching something diseased renders one "unclean". Touching something holy (such as the Torah scroll) renders the hands "unclean". Giving birth to a living child, and committing murder, both rendered one "unclean".
See Leviticus 4–6, 11–12, 15, 17; Numbers 4, 18; also the discussions in the Talmud regarding what is clean and what is unclean.

"by night".

Luke 2:8
Usually shepherds in the Middle East keep watch at night in the open field when the ewes of the flock are birthing lambs, normally in the spring of the year, March/April.

"heavenly host".

Compare 2 Kings 6:15-17 and Luke 2:13-15.
The heavenly host, or "army", may have been visibly standing all around the shepherds on the ground as a vast armed force covering the fields and hills, the whole scene around them illuminated by brilliant light like daylight at noon. (See Isaiah 30:26, in the context of 30:18-26.)
If the word "heaven" means "the sky", then they vanished into the sky and the glorious light faded away.
If they simply vanished from where they were, they simply disappeared into the heavenly realm and the glorious light faded away.
Both readings of meaning are consistent with the Greek text.
An acquired cultural custom based on the imaginative representations of artists of more recent centuries shows the heavenly army as beardless feminine figures with long flowing hair dressed in flowing white robes with wings and sheet music and Irish harps and straight trumpets made of gold floating in the sky yards above the shepherds, and not rather as armored warriors standing in open ranks ready to serve and defend their king and Lord with swords drawn in salute and shouting their praise of acclamation to God. Appearing as a vast host (an "army") would be reassuring to the humble shepherds of a people oppressed by the armies of the Roman Empire under the Roman lord Caesar.
With the sole possible exception of Judges 13:20, and the cloud formations in 2 Maccabees 5:2-4, no passage of scripture in the Old or New Testaments represents angels as being seen up in the sky. The voices of angels have been heard from the heavens, but their visible manifestations were not seen on those occasions by persons awake, nor by persons who were not seeing a vision (no other witnesses), as either ascending to or descending from the sky or flying through the air. They stood on the ground, and they walked. Compare Genesis 18:1–19:23; 21:17; 22:11; 28:12; Isaiah 6:2; Ezekiel 1; Zechariah 5:9; 6:1-8; John 1:51; .

"When the angels went away from them into heaven"

Luke 2:15a—WEB: "When the angels went away from them into the sky" Luke 2:15a
Literally, "When the angels went away from them into heaven." RSV
They did not go "up" into heaven, or "ascend" into the sky. They vanished into heaven out of their sight. Only if the Greek word for "heaven" here strictly means only the visible sky, and it has no other meaning, only then would this passage suggest that they flew, rose, or floated up. But the word οὐρανὸν "heaven" has a much broader meaning.
See
Compare the wording of multiple versions of Acts 1:9 and 10, and 2 Corinthians 12:2-4.
Paul in 2 Corinthians is not referring to the visible sky. Christianity teaches that Paradise is not in the sky, or above the earth's atmosphere, but is a reality in the spiritual realm.
See commentaries on verses 2 and 3.
According to Paul, Christian believers are even now seated with God in heavenly places ἐπουρανίοις epouraniois in Christ Jesus.
The Greek text is by no means figurative.
The biblical meaning of being in heavenly places ἐπουρανίοις (from οὐρανὸν ouranon) is "occupying positions of authority, ruling power".
For example, "They set their mouths in heaven" Psalm 73:9 NET, ASV, WEB, Young's Literal Translation
(see commentaries on Psalm 73:9);
also "spiritual wickedness in heavenly places" KJV "high places" ἐπουρανίοις epouraniois Ephesians 6:12
(see commentaries on Ephesians 6:12 and interlinear text of Ephesians 6:12).
Compare Revelation 12:7-9Revelation 12:8 and commentaries on Revelation 12:8.
See also Luke 4:5-7Luke 4:6 and commentaries on Luke 4:6.
Christians are "seated with God in heavenly places in Christ Jesus"—Christians have a share in the divine authority of Jesus the Lord and Savior as adopted sons of God.
See commentaries on Ephesians 2:6
and interlinear text.
See also Strong's number 2032.
Compare Hebrews 12:18-28 and John 14:23.
This is also relevant to Matthew 18:15-20 and 16:18-19.

"gematria"

A traditional Hebrew system of assigning numerical values to letters of an alphabet, Hebrew or Greek. See also numerology.

"The son of Joram was Ahaziah..."

A portion of the genealogical record not in Matthew, supported by 1 Chronicles 3:11-12, in which Azariah corresponds to Uzziah. See 2 Chronicles 21:1-2, 21:16–22:1. Jehoram is Joram, whose youngest son, the only one left to him, was Jehoahaz. But instead of Jehoahaz, Joram's "youngest son" Ahaziah was made king in his place. This suggests that Ahaziah was Joram's son by levirate law according to Deuteronomy 25:5.
It is entirely possible that Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah were not directly descended from Joram by natural descent but instead are legally attributed to him as his descendants through levirate marriage, and that Joram was by nature in fact the actual father of Azariah/Uzziah, who became king after Amaziah; for 1 Chronicles lists "son", not "father"; and this would be an entirely reasonable answer to the objection that Matthew "seems to have omitted names" in the genealogy of fathers (not sons) set forth by him. In reality it is entirely possible that he was truthfully relating the actual patrilineal line of natural descent to Joseph while Luke relates the legal line of inheritance from Joseph back to Adam. This wholly reasonable speculation is entirely consistent with the conservative tradition that there is no error in the inspired scriptural record set down in Matthew's Gospel. Compare Genesis 38 in which Judah is the father of Perez and Zerah, who by the law of levirate marriage are accounted his grandsons, the legal heirs of his son Er, who was born to Judah by his wife Shua. As demonstated here in the text, including Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah in the numbering of the names does not alter the count of fourteen generations from David to the Babylonian captivity, since Manasseh was in fact carried away to Babylon, the first of four generations ending with Jechoniah and his brethren "about the time they were carried away to Babylon" (KJV). Matthew's summary account of the natural genealogical descent according to the flesh from David is numbered by names to an event as "from David to the carrying away into Babylon fourteen generations"; it is not numbered by name to name as "from David to Jechoniah fourteen generations".

"Behold the blood of the Lord!..."

Adapted from an ancient prayer of exorcism, and applied here to the holy circumcision of Jesus.

"His name in Israel..."

This line is added in celebratory imitation of the Jewish formal naming of a male child in the ceremony of the covenant of circumcision.

"ben Adonai"

Hebrew "son [of the] Lord" (God).

"Joseph became the husband of Mary, thirteen (a full generation younger than he)"

Matthew 1:16 amplified
The count of the generations excluding Mary is thirteen. Matthew says "fourteen generations".
Many commentators, reckoning only one generation from Joseph to Jesus, speculate either that all the extant texts of Matthew are defective, and reason that it is possible that very early scribal copyists inadvertently omitted a name from the list, and the error was preserved; or that Matthew himself made a mistake and was unaware that he had omitted a name; or they suggest that he knowingly asserted a count of fourteen, having only thirteen names of fathers, hoping that his readers and audience would not notice the discrepancy, or that they would simply dismiss it as unimportant. Thus, by excluding Mary as the thirteenth generation after the deportation to Babylon, many commentators present the reader with an apparent error in the Bible text. They propose that the intended audience would not have been seeking a precise exactitude of historical detail, but would receive it as a form of poetic, even mythic, affirmation of the claim that Jesus was descended from David. This would support the liberalist view that the Christian writers falsely "made the facts fit" their claim that Jesus must be the Messiah and that they unashamedly indulged in historical revisionism to make their point.
The conservative scholar, believing in the integrity of the text, on the basis of the very earliest extant biblical manuscripts and the internal textual evidence, takes Mary as representing the thirteenth generation, younger than Joseph by about 25 years (the traditional period of a biblical "generation"), being accorded by Matthew the dignity of a true descendant of the house of David according to the flesh (see Romans 1:3). If Mary were 16 or 17 years old when Jesus was born, and a full generation younger than Joseph, then he, chosen to be the husband and guardian of a consecrated virgin, as a man of maturity, a "just man", would have been about 35-40 years old (not 60-80 years old as some artists have represented him).

"she was of a great age, about one hundred and six years, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, about the age of fifteen, and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years"

See Luke 2:36-37
Taking the customary age that a young woman in Israel was married to a man, being betrothed by a solemn arrangement between their fathers, usually at the age of 13 or 14, and thus consummating the marriage after the betrothal period of 1 year at the age of 14 or 15, with the end of her virginity—then adding "7 years from her virginity", giving an age of 21 or 22, and adding "about" 84 years—the prophetess Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, was about 105 or 106 years old: 14 + 7 + 84 = 105; 15 + 7 + 84 = 106.
Since the text says Anna was "about" that age, she may have been at least 104 years old. If she was 12 years old at her betrothal—the age when she became a woman in Israel (today celebrated at the bat mitzvah, the ceremony when she is acknowledged to be a "daughter of the covenant")—in that case she would have been 13 years old at her marriage, and at least 104 years old when she saw Jesus, Mary and Joseph in the Temple.
See interlinear text of Luke 2:37. Literally, "she was a widow about eighty-four years".

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

The birth of Jesus Christ happened this way: His mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, but before they were married, she became pregnant with the child of the Holy Spirit. Her husband Joseph was a righteous man, and did not want to publicly shame her. So he decided to divorce her privately. While he thought about this, the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying "Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as a wife, because her pregnancy is due to God's will. And she shall bring forth a son, who you must name Jesus, for He will save his people from their sins." This entire affair happened in order to fulfill the spoken word from the Lord, through the prophet (Isaiah), which states: "A virgin shall be pregnant, and give birth to a son, who will be named Emmanuel," which means "God is with us." Therefore, when Joseph woke up, he did as the angel of the Lord had instructed him, and wed Mary. And did not consummate the marriage until she bore her son, who Joseph named Jesus.

And Jacob fathered Joseph,

Joseph, who was the son of Heli,

(Deuteronomy 25:5-6 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Conservative Bible, Deuteronomy 18-25 (Translated) Chapter 25. KJV)

(1 Chronicles 3:1-9a Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Conservative Bible, 1 Chronicles 1-10 (Translated) Chapter 3. KJV)

King David fathered Solomon (whose mother was the former wife of Uriah), And Solomon fathered Rehoboam, and Rehoboam fathered Abijah, and Abijah fathered Asa, And Asa fathered Jehoshaphat, and Jehoshaphat fathered Jehoram, and Jehoram fathered Uzziah, And Uzziah fathered Jotham, and Jotham fathered Ahaz, and Ahaz fathered Hezekiah, And Hezekiah fathered Manasseh, and Manasseh fathered Amon, and Amon fathered Josiah, And Josiah fathered Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time of the exile in Babylon, And after the exile in Babylon, Jeconiah fathered Salathiel, and Salathial fathered Zerubbabel, And Zerubbabel fathered Abihud, and Abihud fathered Eliakim, and Eliakim fathered Azor, And Azor fathered Zadoc, and Zadoc fathered Achim, and Achim fathered Eliud, And Eliud fathered Eleazar, and Eleazar fathered Matthan, and Matthan fathered Jacob, And Jacob fathered Joseph

Joseph, who was the son of Heli, Who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Janna, who was the son of Joseph, Who was the son of Mattathias, who was the son of Amos, who was the son of Naum, who was the son of Esli, who was the son of Nagge, Who was the son of Maath, who was the son of Mattathias, who was the son of Semei, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Juda, Who was the son of Joanna, who was the son of Rhesa, who was the son of Zorobabel, who was the son of Salathiel, who was the son of Neri, Who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Addi, who was the son of Cosam, who was the son of Elmodam, who was the son of Er, Who was the son of Jose, who was the son of Eliezer, who was the son of Jorim, who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, Who was the son of Simeon, who was the son of Juda, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Jonan, who was the son of Eliakim, Who was the son of Melea, who was the son of Menan, who was the son of Mattatha, who was the son of Nathan, who was the son of David,

And so it fell out in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, requiring that all the inhabited world should register regularly for a census. The census [of Judea] was first made while Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was in command in Syria. And everyone would go to register, each to his own [designated] city. So Joseph left Nazareth in Galilee and went into Judea, to the city of David, called Bethlehem, (because he belonged to the house and family of David) to register with his fiancée Mary, whose child was nearly ready for birth. And so it fell out that she came to term while they were there, and entered labor. She gave birth to her first child, a son, and wrapped him in soft blankets, and laid him in a feeding trough, because there was no room for them in the inn.

Tell the children of Israel that if a woman has given birth to a son, then she is unclean for seven days after her son's birth.

she must be separated for seven days: and whoever touches her is unclean until the evening. And every thing that she lies upon or sits upon during her separation is unclean. And whoever touches her bed must wash his clothes and bathe himself in water, and is unclean until the evening. And whoever touches any thing that she sat upon must wash his clothes and bathe himself in water, and is unclean until the evening. And if the menstruation is on her bed or anything upon which she sat, when he touches it, he is unclean until the evening.

Thus you must separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness so that they do not die, when they defile my tabernacle that is among them.

In the same region, there were shepherds tending their flocks in the field at night. The angel of the Lord appeared to them, and the glory of the Lord shined around them, and they became frightened. But the angel said to them, "Do not fear, for I bring good news, which shall bring great joy to all people. For this day a child has been born among you, in the city of David, a Savior, Christ the Lord. And you shall know him by this sign: you will find the infant wrapped in blankets lying in a feeding trough." And suddenly, there was with the angel an assembly of troops from heaven, praising God, and saying, "Glory to God, in the highest, and on Earth, peace to men of good will." And so it fell out, after the angels had gone away from them into heaven, that the shepherds talked among themselves. "Let us now go to Bethlehem and look at this thing that has happened, that the Lord has just told us about." And they hurried, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the infant lying in a feeding trough. And when they saw him, they made it known to all what the angel had told them in regard to the child. All who heard these things the shepherds said wondered at them. But Mary pondered these events silently. The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for everything they had heard and seen. Once eight days had passed and the time had come to circumcise the infant, they named him Jesus, as the angel had foretold before he had even been conceived.

The ancestry of Jesus Christ, descendant of David, descendant of Abraham: Abraham fathered Isaac; and Isaac fathered Jacob; and Jacob fathered Judah and his brothers; And Judah fathered Pharez and Zerah of Tamar, and Pharez fathered Hezron, and Esrom fathered Ram, And Ram fathered Amminadab, and Amminadab fathered Nahson, and Naason fathered Salmon, And Salmon fathered Boaz of Rahab, and Boaz fathered Obed of Ruth, and Obed fathered Jesse, And Jesse fathered King David, and King David fathered Solomon (whose mother was the former wife of Uriah), And Solomon fathered Rehoboam, and Rehoboam fathered Abijah, and Abijah fathered Asa, And Asa fathered Jehoshaphat, and Jehoshaphat fathered Jehoram, and Jehoram fathered Uzziah,

(1 Chronicles 3:11-12 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See 1 Chronicles 1-10 (Translated) Chapter 3. KJV)

And Uzziah fathered Jotham, and Jotham fathered Ahaz, and Ahaz fathered Hezekiah, And Hezekiah fathered Manasseh,

(2 Chronicles 33:11 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See 2 Chronicles 28-36 (Translated) Chapter 33.KJV)

but in the fourth generation they will come here again,

and Manasseh fathered Amon, and Amon fathered Josiah, And Josiah fathered Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time of the exile in Babylon, And after the exile in Babylon, Jeconiah fathered Salathiel, and Salathial fathered Zerubbabel, And Zerubbabel fathered Abihud, and Abihud fathered Eliakim, and Eliakim fathered Azor, And Azor fathered Zadoc, and Zadoc fathered Achim, and Achim fathered Eliud, And Eliud fathered Eleazar, and Eleazar fathered Matthan, and Matthan fathered Jacob, And Jacob fathered Joseph, the husband of Mary, whose child was Jesus Christ.

When the time finally came, God sent His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, to save those under the Law, so we could be adopted as His sons.

So it was fourteen generations from Abraham to King David, and fourteen generations from King David until the exile in Babylon, and fourteen generations from the exile until Jesus Christ.

And God said to Moses, Tell the children of Israel that if a woman has given birth to a son, then she is unclean for seven days after her son's birth. And on the eighth day the flesh of the son's foreskin should be circumcised. And the mother must then continue to heal for thirty-three more days; during this time, she must not touch any hallowed thing nor come into the sanctuary.

And once Mary had been purified according to the laws set forth by Moses, they brought Jesus to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord. (For the law of the Lord states that every firstborn male shall be holy to the Lord;) and to give thanks with a sacrifice as prescribed in the law of the Lord: "A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Fortunately there was a man named Simeon in Jerusalem who was just and devout as he awaited the Messiah for Israel; Simeon had divine guidance. And the Holy Ghost had revealed to him that he would not die until he had seen the Messiah sent by the Lord. The Spirit led Simeon into the temple. When Jesus's parents brought him in according to the religious custom, Simeon took Jesus in his arms, praised God and exclaimed, "Lord, now let your servant leave in peace, as You command. for my eyes have seen Your salvation, which you prepared for everyone to see; a light of revelation to all non-Jewish people, and the glory of your people Israel. Joseph and Mary marveled at what was said about Jesus. Simeon blessed them, telling Mary, "Listen: this child is destined for the fall and rise of many Israelites, and will become the object of scorn; causing your heart will ache with pain over it, and the hatred towards Him will expose the hearts of many. And a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Aser, was quite elderly, having been married for seven years after her virginity. She was an 84 year old widow, who had not strayed from her faith, and served God with fastings and prayers night and day. And she gave thanks to the Lord and spoke of him to everyone who looked for redemption in Jerusalem.

Four

Chapter 4 Bible texts
Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod, behold, two years later wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, “Where is he who is born King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him.”

When King Herod heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. Gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ, the Anointed One, would be born. They said to him, “In Bethlehem of Judea, for this is written through the prophet,

“ ‘You Bethlehem, land of Judah, are in no way least among the princes of Judah: for out of you shall come a Governor, who shall shepherd my people, Israel.’ ”

Then Herod secretly called the wise men, and learned from them exactly what time the star appeared. He sent them to Bethlehem, and said, “Go and search diligently for the young child. When you have found him, bring me word, so that I also may come and worship him.”

Having heard the king, they went their way; and behold, the star, which they saw in the east, went on ahead of them, and they did not see it before it came and stood over where the young child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. They came into the house and saw the young toddler-child with Mary, his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Opening their treasures, they offered to him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they went back to their own country another way.

Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, “Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there up to when I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.”

He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt, and was there up to the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying,

“Out of Egypt I called my Son.”

Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry, and sent out, and killed all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding countryside, from two years old and under, according to the exact time which he had learned from the wise men. Then that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying,

“A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children; she would not be comforted, because they are no more.”

But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying, “Arise and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel, for those who sought the young child’s life are dead.”

He arose and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of Galilee. When they had thus accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. He came and lived in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets:

“He will be called a Nazarene,”

which means “Branch”. As it is written in Isaiah,

“A Shoot will come out of the stock of Jesse, and a Branch out of his roots will bear fruit.”

And in Jeremiah,

“Behold, the days come,” says the LORD, “that I will raise to David a righteous Branch,”

and,

“In those days and at that time, I will cause a Branch of righteousness to grow up to David.”

And Zechariah:

“Behold, I will bring out my servant, the Branch”; “Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: and he shall grow up out of his place; and he shall build the LORD's Temple.”

The child was growing, and was becoming strong in spirit, being filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him. As it is written in the Psalms,

“Let your hand be on the man of your right hand, on the son of man whom you made strong for yourself.”

Matthew 2:1-22
Luke 2:39
Matthew 2:23
Isaiah 11:1
Jeremiah 23:5
Jeremiah 33:15
Zechariah 3:8c
Zechariah 6:12b
Luke 2:40
Psalm 80:17

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Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"his star in the east"

Both Jupiter and comet Halley (12 B.C.) have been proposed.
The following datings and notes are drawn from the table at Literalist Bible chronology: Aristobulus II 66–63 B.C.
  • Jesus is the 14th generation.
    The numerical value of the Hebrew letters of David DWD דוד is fourteen. Daleth ד = 4 Waw/Vau ו = 6 Daleth ד = 4 (4 + 6 + 4 = 14). Introduction to Hebrew numerics.
  • Critics of the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew point out that the numbers of the generations from David "until the carrying away into Babylon" as "14 generations", and from the "carrying away into Babylon unto Christ" as "14 generations", do not add up.
    These critics do not count Mary as the thirteenth generation, and they point to the 4 generations between Manasseh, the 14th from David, and Salathiel son of Jechoniah, as omitted: Amon (son of Manasseh) 1, Josiah 2, Jehoiakim 3, Jechoniah 4. A strictly literal count of these generations according to the most literal letter of the text as among the number of the generations from David to Jechoniah father of Salathiel gives a total of 18 generations, not 14. Also, a literalist count including these 4 unlisted generations in the lineage from Manasseh the 14th from David to Christ (and excluding Mary) gives a total of 17 generations, not 14.
  • However, the number of generations from David unto the carrying away of Manasseh son of Hezekiah into Babylon, as the first of Judah's generation to be "carried away to Babylon", is 14 generations: (after David) Solomon 1, Rehoboam 2, Abiah 3, Asa 4, Jehoshaphat 5, Joram 6, Ahaziah 7, Joash 8, Amaziah 9, Azariah 10, Jotham 11, Ahaz 12, Hezekiah 13, Manasseh 14. Then about that period of time in Israel's history, after the beginning of the "carrying away into Babylon", after Manasseh repented and returned to Jerusalem Manasseh begot Amon who begot Josiah who begot Johanan, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah and Jechoniah (Shallum), brothers, and Jehoiakim begot Jechoniah who begot Zedekiah and his brothers (and sons) "about the time they were carried away to Babylon". And after they were carried away into Babylon, Jechoniah begot Zedekiah and his brother Assir, and his sons Salathiel and Machiram and Pedaiah, Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and the sons of Pedaiah were Zerubbabel and Shimei (1 Chronicles 3). All these are "brothers" of Jechoniah in Israel of the house of David and clan of Jesse, and these are the whole generation of the "carrying away into Babylon", as represented by his name, from Amon through Jechoniah to his sons. Jechoniah is thus representative of the Exile. That entire generation from Manasseh through Jechoniah is not counted as one of the preceding or succeeding generations "from the carrying away into Babylon to the Christ.
  • The critics who fault Matthew's count of the generations after Jechoniah claim that Matthew lists only 13 generations from after the time of the carrying away into Babylon to the Christ. Apparently Mary is excluded from their reckoning of the generations because Joseph is "the husband of Mary", not her father, so they make her an uncounted member of Joseph's 12th generation from Jechoniah, and make Jesus the 13th generation to "prove" the text of every extant manuscript of the Gospel According to Matthew is "defective". For example, the footnote to Matthew 1:17 in the New Testament of The New American Bible (NAB) 1986, page 11, says, "...the hypothesis of a slip not on the part of Matthew but of a later scribe seems likely." The "slip" of a single scribe as being responsible for misleading all of the scribes among those who reproduced and distributed to the churches the text of Matthew's Gospel during the lifetime of Matthew seems to be a highly unlikely hypothesis. (Eusebius Pamphilus, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, XXIV. The Order of the Gospels, translated C. F. Cruse, 1874, George Bell and Sons; translated Kirsopp Lake, 1926, 1949...1998, Loeb Classical Library .)
  • Matthew does not count from Manasseh the 14th generation from David to the Christ. He counts from the time of Jechoniah "when they were brought to Babylon", and he includes Mary as a whole generation younger than Joseph: (after Jechoniah) Salathiel 1, Zerubbabel 2, Abiud 3, Eliakim 4, Azor 5, Sadoc 6, Achim 7, Eliud 8, Eleazar 9, Matthan 10, Jacob 11, Joseph 12, Mary 13, Jesus the Christ 14. The numbers do add up.
  • See John 8:57 "Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old." The plain explicit meaning of the literal letter of the text is "not yet fifty", it does not say "not yet forty". A strictly literalist reading of the literal letter of this text makes Jesus between forty-five and fifty years old when those words were said.
  • Luke 3:23 says that Jesus was "about" 30 years of age "when he began". The words "his ministry" (when he began his ministry) are not in the Greek text of the New Testament and the earliest Biblical manuscripts, but have been understood by many as implied according to what they take to be the ordinary meaning of the phrase, and the words have consequently been traditionally added to the text in various translations to "complete the meaning" (according to the traditional understanding of the translators).
    A strictly literalist reading of "when he began" (the son, as was supposed, of Joseph) recognizes in that phrase the same plain exact parallel phrase in the Old Testament of the official declaration of the age of the son who succeeded his father as king "when he began to reign". See
2 Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 14:21, 1 Kings 22:42, 2 Kings 8:17, 2 Kings 8:26, 2 Kings 11:21, 2 Kings 14:2, 2 Kings 15:2, 2 Kings 15:33, 2 Kings 16:2, 2 Kings 18:2, 2 Kings 21:1, 2 Kings 21:19, 2 Kings 22:1, 2 Kings 23:31, 2 Kings 23:36, 2 Kings 24:8, 2 Kings 24:18,Luke 3:23 WYC,Luke 3:23 DR,Luke 3:23 AMP,Luke 3:23 MSG,Luke 3:23 NKJV,Luke 3:23 LEB,Luke 3:23 MOUNCE, Luke 3 Interlinear Greek-English Biblehub.com, Luke 3 English/Greek Elpenor 23 Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα ἀρχόμενος, ὤν, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, υἱὸς Ἰωσήφ, τοῦ Ἡλί,. See the parallel passages in the Books of Chronicles.
  • This strictly literalist reading of the literal letter of the phrase "you are not yet fifty" and "thirty years [of age] when he began" (KJV "began to be about thirty years of age") sees Jesus as 30 years old when Joseph died (A.D. 18/19?), when Jesus began to succeed Joseph the son of David in the house of David according to the line of David as a lawful heir to the throne of David. 12 years later he would have been 42 years old (6 × 7 = 42) when he began his 3-year public ministry in A.D. 30. and 45 years old when the Jews said to him, "you are not yet fifty years old."
  • If Jesus died and rose again from the dead in the year A.D. 33 according to tradition (the Bible does not give the year), the following arithmetic is perfectly reasonable, according to the literal letter of the text:
    A.D. 33 – 45 years = 12 B.C.
    That was the year Halley's comet appeared without a tail, a po-h'sing, looking like a star with rays, according to Chinese records of the time.
    First sighting October 8, 12 B.C. in the eastern sky, after sunset. The observations of Halley's Comet in Chinese History, by W. S. Tsu. Harvard University, 1934. page 192
    The apparition of 12 B.C. was recorded in the Book of Han by Chinese astronomers of the Han Dynasty who tracked it from August through October. G. W. Kronk. "1P/Halley" Vol. 1, page 14. cometography.com..
    "po-h'sing". Mark Kidger, The Star of Bethlehem: an astronomer's view. (October 18, 1999) Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540. 300 pages. ISBN 0691058237 ISBN 978-0691058238. Chapter 4. Halley's Comet and Other Red Herrings. page 73 ff. Chapter 9. Is the Answer Written in Chinese? page 219 ff.
    Halley's Comet is observed to move retrograde from east to west across the sky night after night whenever it has appeared. It first appears rising in the eastern sky just after sunset, and about 6 months later it sets in the west just after sunset, and then, after moving around the sun, it begins to reappear in the east at dawn just before sunrise, and night after night it rises earlier and earlier (less later in the night), moving retrograde from east to west across the sky, until it is last sighted in the western sky at dawn just before sunrise.
    See Luke 2:2.Cyrenius/Quirinius was Consul of Rome in 12 B.C.
    See Historical Evidence for Quirinius (biblehistory.net).
    See also The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text, by I. Howard Marshall. The Birth of Jesus, page 103. (November 14, 1978) Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids/Cambridge. ISBN 0802835120 ISBN 978-0802835123.
  • Many scholars have objected that if the Star of Bethlehem had been a comet it would not have been regarded as a celestial sign presaging good, but only as a warning sign of dread foreboding only evil and sorrow and tragedy, usually assassination/s, civil and governmental upheavals, and war and devastation, such as the appearance of Halley's Comet "a star resembling a sword" shortly before the war that ended A.D. 70 with the destruction of the temple and then of the whole of Jerusalem under Titus (Josephus, Wars Book 6, Chapter 5.3 [289]). However, this dreadful signification applied to those appearances of comets styled "hairy stars", comets with tails. See Comets in Ancient Cultures, Noah Goldman, U. Maryland.
    The 12 B.C. appearance of Halley's Comet was a notable exception—it was noted by Chinese astronomers as a star with rays, not as a "hairy star". In contrast, a hui-hsing ("broom star") was usually a comet that displayed a tail as it swept through the sky; and a po-hsing ("bushy star") was applied to a comet or bright star without a tail that seemed to emit rays. It was regarded by the Magi who knew the prophesies of Israel as beautiful, and a sign of mystery and of celestial favor. See Numbers 24:17-18.
  • Jesus would have been 12 years old plus 1 day at his bar mitzvah, in A.D. 1, in anno domini one, The Year of the Lord, One, when in the Jewish community he was first accounted a full-grown Jewish man beginning his 13th year, with full legitimate authority in Israel as a son of Abraham to comment on the meaning of the Torah.
    The year A.D. 1 was not A.I. 1, in anno incarnationis one, The Year of the Incarnation, One, when the Word first became flesh and dwelt among us (meaning the numbers of years after the incarnation of the Lord at the Annunciation).
    The year A.D. 1 was not A.N. 1, in anno nativitatis one, The Year of the Birth, One (meaning the numbers of years after the birth of the Lord).
  • A.U.C. 754 is the same year A.D. 1. ab urbe condita--"from the foundation of the city [of Rome]"—or anno urbis conditae--"in the year of the foundation of the city".
    Many scholars have been puzzled that Dionysus Exiguus, the most brilliant scholar of his day, chose A.U.C. 753 as the year Jesus was "born" (most church and political leaders assumed that was his meaning), making January 1, A.U.C. 754 the first day of the first year of the Lord, January 1, A.D. 1.
    Many experts believe Dionysus made a mistake of at least 4 years, based on what most historians believe is the most probable date of the death of Herod before the year A.U.C. 753, around 4 B.C. (this is still debated).
    See the following articles:
  • History of Chronology (historyworld.net)
  • National Catholic Register blog: Jesus' birth and when Herod the Great *really* died, by Jimmy Akin 04/17/2013
  • Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH): Did Herod the "Great" Really Die In 4 B.C.? Juan Antonio Revilla and John D. Keyser
  • Astronomers Still Wondering about the Star of Wonder (based on John Mosley's book The Christmas Star (1987) (nbcnews.com). See also Astronomer John Mosley (astronomyoutreach.net)</ref>
    12 B.C. plus 2 years according to the time the wise men had said the star first appeared equals 10 B.C. (visit of the Magi), and 7 years in Egypt, 10 B.C. through 4 B.C. (Death of Herod?), plus 4 more years equals A.D. 1 "when he was twelve years old" Luke 2:42. (Between 1 B.C. and A.D. 1 no year "zero (0)" is inserted, so the countdown of 12 years from 12 B.C. ends not with zero but with A.D. 1.)
  • Pontius Pilate served as the prefect of Judaea from A.D. 26 to 36.
    If Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate in the year A.D. 33 according to tradition, less than a year after the Jews said to him "thou art not yet fifty years old" (John 8:57, see John 10:22-23; John 11:7-8 and 55-57), then he was between 45 and 50 years old when he died and rose again from the dead, according to a strictly literal reading of the literal letter of that text, so that he was born about 12 B.C. and was the one true "son of the covenant" in Israel for thirty-three years.

"When King Herod heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him."

When Herod was troubled people usually died.
See Josephus,
  • Antiquities of the Jews Book 14, Chapter 9 through Book 17, Chapter 8 (Ant. 14.9.2 [158]–17.8.1 [191]);
  • Wars of the Jews Book 1, Chapters 11 through 33 (Wars 1.11.1 [219]–1.33.8 [665])

"and they did not see it"

An amplification of the text of Matthew 2:9-11 based on a syntactical and semantic structure. This parallels the ancient practice of appointing a chief herald or minister who went ahead of a traveling king to select and secure a temporary place of residence, and then stood ready, waiting to appear and formally welcome the ruler to the place prepared for him when he arrived.
Compare Acts 20:4-5
"who went on ahead and waited for us at Troas."
verse 5 (NAB)
"These went on and were waiting for us at Troas."
verse 5 (RSVCE)
"These going before tarried for us at Troas."
verse 5 (KJV)
See parallel language:
interlinear text of Matthew 2:9
interlinear text of Acts 20:5.
The structure of the text of Matthew is as follows:
1 The star stood over the place
2 they rejoiced when they saw the star
3 and they went into the house.
The text does not say
when they had heard the king, they rejoiced when they saw the star they had seen in the east going before them, and they followed it till it came to rest over the place where the child was.
While this is the popular reading of the text, that is not what it says. This is an example of eisegesis, of reading into the text what is not there. It does say:
The star stood over the place, and they rejoiced when they saw the star.
The following facts inform a reasonable understanding of the text:
  • The star they had seen in the east was a sign to them that the king of Israel was born. (A star was not necessary to show them the way to Israel.)
  • They went to Jerusalem and asked where he was.
  • Rulers granted petition for an audience during the day, either in the morning or in the afternoon.
  • The chief priests and scribes of the people cited Micah 5:2: "Bethlehem, in the land of Judah".
  • The location of Bethlehem was known: the ancient road south out of Jerusalem was the way, also called "the Bethlehem road", a journey of about 3 miles. (A star was not necessary to show them the way.)
  • The road ran west of Bethlehem, and a turn to the left took the traveler a short distance east up into the village.
  • Travel at night in that region was and is still dangerous.
  • Stars are not visible in daylight.
  • The wise men never say that they follow a star.
If they left Jerusalem after midafternoon, and arrived just outside Bethlehem immediately after sunset, or if they had paused in their journey there outside the town to await a sign, when the stars appeared, the one they had seen in the east and would have instantly recognized also appeared, in the eastern sky, where it rested, positioned in line-of-sight just above the house where the child was, like a man standing on the roof. "When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And when they were come into the house they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down and worshiped him."

"house"

They found him with Mary in a house, not a stable.
The popular image of the shepherds and wise men together worshiping the new-born infant Jesus in a stable has no basis in scripture, and is another example of eisegesis. Christians need to guard against carelessly degrading historical reality into sentimental symbolic myth having no basis in fact. Liberal scholars fasten on such popular representations as false evidence that Christianity is a "fabric of lies". Christians, however, know better, and rather understand the symbolism of the Christmas creche in accordance with Psalms 148 and 117.

"toddler-child"

This is the meaning of the Greek word παιδίον paidion, not a baby.
See Strong's number 3813: "a childling, a half-grown boy, (little, young) child".
If the star seen in the east appeared when Jesus was born, he was about 2 years old and a toddler, according to the time which Herod had ascertained from the wise men. Matthew 2:16.

"Herod...and sent out, and killed"

Matthew 2:16
"sent forth, and slew" (KJV) in this context is seen as a parallel allusion to the text of Wisdom 11:17-19.
Catholic and Orthodox readers of Matthew 2:16 see in this text of the Book of Wisdom an allusion to King Herod who "did not lack the means to send upon them" merciless soldiers "full of rage" to "exterminate men", like the vicious beasts mentioned in the parallel language of this passage in Wisdom 11:17-19.

"Archelaus"

See Josephus, Antiquities, Book 17, Chapters 8 through 13 (sacred-texts.com); War, Book 2, Chapters 1 through 8 (sacred-texts.com).

"which means 'Branch' "

"Nazarene" is a paronomasia (biblical word-play) on "Nazareth", "netzer" (branch), and "nazirite" (separated one).
See Strong's numbers 3478, 3479, 3480; also 5342 netzer (branch), 6780 tsemach (Branch), 5139 naziyr, nazir
compare Numbers 6:1-8, Judges 13:5-7, Amos 2:11, Luke 22:18 (nazirite vow?)

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

When Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the reign of King Herod, a number of scholars came to Jerusalem from the east. They asked, "where is the child who was born as the King of the Jews? We saw his star in the eastern sky, and we came here to worship him."

When King Herod heard these things, he was agitated, as was all of Jerusalem. So he gathered all the leading priests and the scribes, and demanded that they tell him where Christ would be born. And they said to him, "He will be born in Bethlehem which is in Judea, in fulfillment of the prophecy, which states: "You, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are not the least of the provinces of Judah, for out of you shall come a King who shall rule all Israel."

Then Herod spoke privately with the scholars and carefully asked them when the star would appear which would announce Christ's birth. So he sent them to Bethlehem with the instructions, "Go, and search diligently for the baby, and when you have found him, tell me, so that I can come and worship him."

When they had heard the King's instructions, they departed. To their great surprise, the star which they saw in the east reversed direction, until it came to a standstill, seemingly directly over the location where the child was. When they saw the star, they felt the greatest joy. And when they went into the house, they saw the child with His mother Mary, and they fell down and worshiped Him. And they opened their bags and presented Him gifts of gold, incense, and oil of myrrh. God warned these men in a dream that they should not return to King Herod, so they went to their own country by an alternate route.

Once they had departed, the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Take the young child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and stay there until I tell you otherwise: for King Herod will be searching for the infant to kill him." When he woke up, he took the infant and His mother that night and fled to Egypt. There they stayed until the death of Herod, so that the words of the Lord's prophet would be fulfilled, which said "Out of Egypt have I beckoned my son."

Herod was very angry when he saw the scholars had deceived him. He gave orders that all infants two years old and younger in Bethlehem and the neighboring coastlines be killed, as this would assuredly kill any infant born at the time the scholars had told him. This is how the prophecy of Jeremy was fulfilled, which said, "In Rama a weeping and mourning voice was heard, for Rachel wept for her children, and could not be comforted, because they are not alive."

When Herod died, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph, who was in Egypt. And the angel said, "Rise, and take the infant and His mother, and go to Israel, for those who sought to kill Him are dead." So he rose, and took the infant and His mother, and went to Israel.

When he heard that Archelaus reigned in Judea as successor to his father Herod, Joseph was afraid to go there, but on God's instructions, he entered into the region around Galilee,

When they had done everything according to the Lord's laws, they returned home to Nazareth in Galilee.

and settled in a city called Nazareth. This fulfilled the prophecy, "He shall be called a Nazarene."

(Isaiah 11:1 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Isaiah 9-16 (Translated) Chapter 11. KJV)

(Jeremiah 23:5 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Jeremiah 19-26 (Translated) Chapter 23. KJV)

(Jeremiah 33:15 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Jeremiah 27-34 (Translated) Chapter 33. KJV)

(Zechariah 3:8 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Zechariah 1-7 (Translated) Chapter 3. KJV)

(Zechariah 6:12 Conservative Bible has not been translated.
See Zechariah 1-7 (Translated) Chapter 6. KJV)

The child grew and became strong in spirit and filled with wisdom; the grace of God was with him.

Five

Chapter 5 Bible texts
Now his parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover. When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast, and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. Joseph and his mother did not know it, but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day’s journey, and they looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances. When they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for him. After three days they found him in the Temple, sitting in the middle of the Teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. All who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. Jesus, from infancy having known the holy Scriptures, said to them:

“What man is there among you, who has one sheep, and if this one falls into a pit on the Sabbath day, will he not grab on to it, and lift it out? Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath day.”

“Have you not read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him; how he entered into God’s house, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? Or have you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath day, the priests in the Temple profane the Sabbath, and are guiltless?

“David himself says in the book of Psalms,

“ ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, up to the moment I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.” ’

"David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son?”

One of the scribes asked him, “Which commandment is the greatest of all?”

Jesus answered, “The greatest is,

“ ‘Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.’

"This is the first commandment. The second is like this,

“ ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’

"There is no other commandment greater than these.”

When they saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him, “Son, why have you treated us this way? Behold, your father and I were anxiously looking for you.”

He said to them, “Why were you looking for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?”

They did not understand the saying which he spoke to them. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth. He was subject to them, and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men, according to what is written,

“Do not let kindness and truth forsake you. Bind them around your neck. Write them on the tablet of your heart. So you will find favor, and good understanding in the sight of God and man.”

All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, “Is this not Joseph’s son?”

Now Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ, died. And Jesus himself, who was born of the offspring of David according to the flesh, when he began, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai, the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah, the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er, the son of Jose, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonan, the son of Eliakim, the son of Melea, the son of Menan, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalaleel, the son of Cainan, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

So all the generations from Adam to Jesus are seventy-seven generations: from Adam to Enoch seven generations, and from Enoch to Shelah seven generations, and from Shelah to Abraham seven generations, and from Abraham to Admin seven generations, and from Admin to David seven generations, and from David through Nathan to Joseph seven generations, and from Joseph to Joshua seven generations, and from Joshua to Shealtiel seven generations, and from Shealtiel through Rhesa son of Zerubbabel to Mattathias seven generations, and from Mattathias to Joseph seven generations, and from Joseph to Jesus seven generations.

Luke 2:1-47
2 Timothy 3:15a
Matthew 12:11-12
Matthew 12:3-5
Luke 20:42-44
Mark 12:28-31
Luke 2:48-52
Proverbs 3:3-4
Luke 4:22
Matthew 1:16b
Luke 3:23a
Romans 1:3b
Luke 3:23b-38

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
Conservative Bible text
multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

—in Gregorian Calendar click the cursor in the day, month, or year fields, to highlight selection,
then use [Backspace ←] and [←] [→] right and left arrow keys in the day and year fields,
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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Jesus, from infancy having known the holy Scriptures..."

This phrase explicitly attributes to Jesus, he being the incarnate Word of God, the same factual acknowledgement that Paul gave Timothy regarding his knowledge of the holy scriptures (2 Timothy 3:15a).

"All who heard him were amazed"
"What man among you..." Matthew 12:11-12
"Have you not read..." Matthew 12:3-6
"David himself says..." Luke 20:42-44
"One of the scribes..." Mark 12:28-30.

These passages are inserted here in the episode of the finding of Jesus in the temple in Luke as representative of Jesus' astonishing intelligence and self-understanding, and also in a more general sense as an illustrative example of the kind of brilliant insight and penetrating query characteristic of intelligent students who frequently astonish their instructors.
Every Jewish boy aged twelve was accounted a man in Israel with the inherent right to comment on the scriptures and to participate in debates with the rabbis, scribes and priests of his people over what is permitted by the law. This kind of debate over the meaning of the Tanakh is found represented all through the traditional teachings collected in the Talmud of the Jews.

"David himself says in the book of Psalms"

See Matthew 22:41-46, Mark 12:35-37a, Luke 20:41-44, Psalm 110:1.
Jesus said, "How can they say...", indicating this is a traditional teaching.

"Joseph...died."

Joseph, son of David, the carpenter and husband of Mary, is not found active in the canonical Gospels after the account of the finding of Jesus in the temple.
According to the constant tradition of Christianity, Joseph apparently died a peaceful death in the presence of his family and relatives and friends shortly before Jesus was baptized by John in the Jordan. Like Moses, the Lord buried him, and no one knows the place of his burial to this day. (Deuteronomy 34:5-6)
Compare Genesis 39:4, 49:26, Sirach 49:15. These verses have been seen as foreshadowing the honor God bestowed on Joseph, the husband of Mary, as the one out of all mankind to be chosen and entrusted by God as the steward of God's house with the care and protection of Jesus and Mary. See 1 Timothy 3:15.

"when he began"

The additional words "began his ministry" (RSV) "began his teaching" (WEB) are not found in the extant Greek manuscript texts, and are not included in the Douay-Rheims and King James versions, but have been inserted by translators of modern versions according to their interpretive eisegesis of the text, which is not a truly critical exegesis of its meaning. See interlinear text of Luke 3:23.
The phrase "when he began" as it appears in the apostolic Greek text—23 Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα ἀρχόμενος,—exactly parallels those formal OT statements of succession which give the age of the son on the death of his father.
compare:
2 Samuel 2:10 "forty years old when he began"
2 Samuel 5:4 "thirty years old when he began"
1 Kings 14:21 "forty-one years old when he began"
1 Kings 22:42 "thirty-five years old when he began"
2 Kings 8:17 "thirty-two years old when he began"
2 Kings 8:26 "twenty-two years old when he began"
2 Kings 11:21 "seven years old when he began"
2 Kings 14:2 "twenty-five years old when he began"
2 Kings 15:2 "sixteen years old when he began"
2 Kings 16:2 "twenty years old when he began"
2 Kings 18:2 "twenty-five years old when he began"
2 Kings 21:1 "twelve years old when he began"
2 Kings 21:19 "twenty-two years old when he began"
2 Kings 22:1 "eight years old when he began"
2 Kings 23:31 "twenty-three years old when he began"
2 Kings 22:36 "twenty-five years old when he began"
2 Kings 24:8 "eighteen years old when he began"
2 Kings 24:18 "twenty-one years old when he began"
Luke 3:23 (thirty years of age) "when he began".
David is represented in 2 Samuel as thirty-seven years old when "they anointed David king over Israel" and "he reigned over all Israel and Judah"; but it also says most explicitly that "David was thirty years old when he began to reign"—"At Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months; and at Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years." See 2 Samuel 2:1-11; 2 Samuel 5:1-5 and commentaries on 1 Kings 1:1 concluding that David was "seventy years old" when he died. The formal declaration in the narrative of David's age when he first began to rule over Judah is only stated after King David's anointing over all Israel and Judah.
Luke parallels the royal text of the fifth chapter of 2 Samuel by similarly declaring formally the thirty-year age of Jesus "when he began" only after he was anointed with the Holy Spirit and publicly proclaimed by God the Father as his Son at the Jordan River.
All of these textual indicators strongly suggest that Jesus was thirty years old when Joseph died and he legally began to succeed him in the line of King David. Only afterward was Jesus baptized by John in the Jordan and anointed by the Holy Spirit and acclaimed by God the Father as his beloved Son.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

His parents went to Jerusalem every year for passover. When he was twelve years old, they went to Jerusalem as was customary for the holiday. When they returned a few days later, the child Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. Mary and Joseph did not know about this. They thought he was traveling with the group, and at the end of the first day's journey, they looked for him. When they did not find him, they went back to Jerusalem to look for him. After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the priests, both listening to them and asking questions. Everyone that heard him was astonished at his understanding and answers.

You have known about the scriptures since you were a child;

"Is there anyone among you who, if he has one sheep, and it falls into a pit on the Sabbath day, will not take hold of it and lift it out? So how much better is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to behave well on Sabbath days."

"Haven't you read what David did, when he was hungry, and so were those who were with him, how he went into the Tabernacle and ate showbread, which was not proper for him to eat, nor for those who were with him, but only for the priests? Or haven't you read in the law, that on Sabbath days the priests in the Temple usually do things that desecrate the Sabbath and are held harmless for it?

David himself said in the book of Psalms, 'The LORD said unto my Lord, sit at my right side, Until I bring your enemies under your feet'. David therefore called Him Lord, so how is he then his son?"

One of the scribes came, who had heard them debating this issue, and realizing that He had given a good answer to the riddle. So he asked Him, "Which is the most important commandment of all?" Jesus replied, "The most important commandment is, "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is One." And you will love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and all your mind, and all your strength. This is the most important commandment. The second most important commandment is just like it: you shall love your neighbor as you love yourself. No other commandment is more important than these two."

When his parents found him they were amazed, his mother asking, "Son, why did you do this to us? Look at how your father and I have been worried sick in looking for you!" Jesus replied, "Why did you panic? Didn't you realize that I must be tending to my Father's work?" And they could not understand what He was saying. Jesus left with them, and came to Nazareth, where he obeyed them, as His mother stored in her heart all he said. Meanwhile Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, favored by both God and man.

Don't let mercy and truth leave you: keep them close to you write them on your heart: Then you will find favor and good understanding in the sight of God and men.

The congregation marveled at His eloquent words. But then they murmured, "Isn't He merely Joseph's son?"

Joseph, the husband of Mary, whose child was Jesus Christ.

Jesus himself reached the age of about thirty years,

who was formed after the seed of David in the flesh.

being known as the son of Joseph, who was the son of Heli, Who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Janna, who was the son of Joseph, Who was the son of Mattathias, who was the son of Amos, who was the son of Naum, who was the son of Esli, who was the son of Nagge, Who was the son of Maath, who was the son of Mattathias, who was the son of Semei, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Juda, Who was the son of Joanna, who was the son of Rhesa, who was the son of Zorobabel, who was the son of Salathiel, who was the son of Neri, Who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Addi, who was the son of Cosam, who was the son of Elmodam, who was the son of Er, Who was the son of Jose, who was the son of Eliezer, who was the son of Jorim, who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, Who was the son of Simeon, who was the son of Juda, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Jonan, who was the son of Eliakim, Who was the son of Melea, who was the son of Menan, who was the son of Mattatha, who was the son of Nathan, who was the son of David, Who was the son of Jesse, who was the son of Obed, who was the son of Booz, who was the son of Salmon, who was the son of Naasson, Who was the son of Aminadab, who was the son of Aram, who was the son of Esrom, who was the son of Phares, who was the son of Juda, Who was the son of Jacob, who was the son of Isaac, who was the son of Abraham, who was the son of Thara, who was the son of Nachor, Who was the son of Saruch, who was the son of Ragau, who was the son of Phalec, who was the son of Heber, who was the son of Sala, Who was the son of Cainan, who was the son of Arphaxad, who was the son of Sem, who was the son of Noe, who was the son of Lamech, Who was the son of Mathusala, who was the son of Enoch, who was the son of Jared, who was the son of Maleleel, who was the son of Cainan, Who was the son of Enos, who was the son of Seth, who was the son of Adam, who was the son of God.

Six

Chapter 6 Bible texts
And the child John, the son of Zecharias and Elizabeth, was growing, and becoming strong in spirit, and was in the desert to the day of his public appearance to Israel. He was by birth a priest descended from Aaron the priest, the brother of Moses, of the sons of Levi son of Jacob, called Israel.

In A.D. 20, Parthian generals conquered the regions of northern India and declared independence to form the “Indo-Parthian Kingdom.” Roman-Parthian relations had become increasingly centered on Armenia, which was geopolitically situated between the Roman Empire and Parthia, Rome’s implacable foe in the east, "the kings of the east". In both Crassus’s and Antony’s campaigns (ending 53 and 31 B.C., near the end of the Roman Republic in 27 B.C.), the Armenians had already played an influential role in the early history of Roman-Parthian relations; the Armenian king had a large role as a guide, and “betrayer,” as some sources state. Since the reign of Augustus Caesar, it had been Roman policy to appoint vassal kings there and so make Armenia a buffer state against Parthia and the kings of the east. An advance on Armenia from one side was often interpreted as a pretext for war by the other. Throughout the remaining history of Roman-Parthian relations, Armenia would have the role of a “buffer state” between the two powers.

Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. He who sent him to baptize with water said to him, “On whomever you will see the Spirit descending and remaining on him is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.”

In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, “Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!”

He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying,

“The voice of one crying in the wilderness, make the way of the Lord ready! Make his paths straight!”

As it is written in the Book of the Words of Isaiah the Prophet,

“The voice of one crying in the wilderness, ‘Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, and the rough ways smooth. All flesh will see God’s salvation.’ ”

John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins.

Now John himself wore clothing made of camel’s hair, John was clothed with camel’s hair, and with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey, he ate locusts and wild honey. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan, all the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins.

He preached, saying, “After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. I baptized you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.”

He said therefore to the multitudes who went out to be baptized by him, “You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore produce fruits worthy of repentance, and do not begin to say among yourselves, ‘We have Abraham for our father;’ for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! Even now the ax also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that does not produce good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire.”

The multitudes asked him, “What then must we do?”

He answered them, “He who has two coats, let him give to him who has none. He who has food, let him do likewise.”

Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, “Teacher, what must we do?”

He said to them, “Collect no more than that which is appointed to you.”

Soldiers also asked him, saying, “What about us? What must we do?”

He said to them, “Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages.”

As the people were in expectation, and all men reasoned in their hearts concerning John, whether perhaps he was the Christ, the Anointed One, John answered them all, “I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the strap of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire, whose winnowing-fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.”

Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people.

But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, “You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore produce fruit worthy of repentance! Do not think to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham for our father,’ for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore every tree that does not produce good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire.

“I indeed baptize you with water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire.”

If you are willing to receive it, John is Elijah, “who is to come.” As it is written in the book of the prophet Malachi,

“ ‘Behold, the day comes, it burns as a furnace; and all the proud, and all who work wickedness, will be stubble; and the day that comes will burn them up,’ says the LORD of hosts, ‘that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.’ ”

And,

“Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes. He will turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and strike the earth with a curse.”

It is as the angel Gabriel sent from God declared to Zacharias concerning John before he was conceived, “He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah,

“ ‘to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,’

“and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to prepare a people prepared for the Lord.”

Luke 1:80
Luke 3:1-2
John 1:33b
Matthew 3:1-2
Luke 3:3
Matthew 3:3
Luke 3:4-6
Mark 1:4
Matthew 3:4-6
Mark 1:5-8
Luke 3:7-18
Matthew 3:7-12
Matthew 11:14
Malachi 4:1, 5-6
Luke 1:19 adapted
Luke 1:13b adapted
Luke 2:21 adapted
Luke 1:17
(see Luke 1:11-19)

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
Conservative Bible text
multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

—in Gregorian Calendar click the cursor in the day, month, or year fields, to highlight selection,
then use [Backspace ←] and [←] [→] right and left arrow keys in the day and year fields,
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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"In A.D. 20, Parthian generals conquered the regions of northern India and declared independence to form the 'Indo-Parthian Kingdom.'"

See the following articles
Compare Revelation 16:12 and Matthew 24:6.
See Book of Revelation: The Parthian Attack.

"The fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius"

The most generally accepted view for the date of 15 Tiberius is A.D. 28-29.
Based on Luke's probable use of the Syro-Macedonian calendar it can be most probably established that John the Baptist began his ministry between 20 October of 27 and 9 October of 28 as the "fifteenth year of Tiberius." John began his ministry after the arrival of Pontius Pilate, by the fall of 27, and baptized Jesus soon thereafter. See the following three articles:
See also the following general articles:

"The voice of one crying in the wilderness"

Matthew 3:3
Matthew quotes Isaiah 40:3.
Quotation from the Septuagint text, not Hebrew.
See LXX Isaiah 40:3 scroll down the page to the text.
See multiple commentaries on Matthew 3:3

"Every valley will be filled ... All flesh will see God’s salvation."

Luke 3:5-6
Luke quotes Isaiah 40:4-5.
Quotation from the Septuagint text, not Hebrew.
See LXX Isaiah 40:4-5 scroll down the page to the text.
See multiple commentaries on Luke 3:5 and 6

"but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit"

John himself declares that his baptism and Christian Baptism are not the same.
See Matthew 28:19 and John 3:6.
John does not say that those he baptized are born again in baptism by the Holy Ghost (KJV). See Acts 19:3-4, Colossians 2:12, 1 Peter 3:21 "even baptism doth also now save us" (KJV), not by the washing of the body, but by washing away sin according to Acts 22:16: "And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins" (KJV).
See especially Ephesians 5:26-27 "sanctified and cleansed by the washing of water with the word".
"Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross completely washes away our sins, and we are raised to new life empowered by the Holy Spirit (2 Corinthians 5:17–21; Romans 6:1–11). With John’s baptism, a person repented of sin and was therefore ready to place his faith in Jesus Christ."

"whose fan is in his hand"

This reading is according to DR KJV RSV
"whose winnowing fork is in his hand" WEB
The fan or fork here is a winnowing fan, a broad flat blade or paddle at the end of a handle, like a flat shovel, or a long-handled metal or wooden fork, used on the open air threshing floor as a tool for scooping up the reaped stalks of grain and tossing it into the air. The breeze or wind blowing over the threshing floor blew away the chaff, separating it from the more substantial grain which fell back onto the threshing floor and remained. The accumulated grain was gathered up and stored, and the accumulated pile of blown and drifted chaff was swept away from the threshing floor and burned for fuel.

"threshing floor"

A reference to the temple, first built on the site of the threshing floor of Araunah the Jubusite, also called Ornan. See
2 Samuel 24:18-25
1 Chronicles 21:18-22:1

"You brood of vipers!"

What may appear to the reader to be an unnecessary duplicate repetition of the text here, first from Luke 3:7-8 and then from Matthew 3:7-12, is not an editorial error due to a failure to redact them into one, but are presented distinctly to represent the constant repetition of the urgent message of John, to the multitudes in general, and to the Pharisees and Sadducees in particular. And the subtle differences in narration between them are also preserved, so that nothing is omitted.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

The child grew into a man with strong spirit, and went into the desert until he again returned to Israel.

In the fifteenth year of the reign of Emperor Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod was the tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of Ituraea and the region known as Trachonitis. Lysanias was the tetrarch of Abilene. In the time when Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, the Living Word of God inspired John, the son of Zacharias, in the desert.

he who sent me to baptize, he said to me, 'The man whom you will see the Spirit descend upon, and remain on, that man is he who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.'"

In those times there was a man called John the Baptist, who preached in the deserts of Judea. He would say, "You must repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near!"

All through the Jordan valley he preached the baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins;

John the Baptist was the man prophesied by Isaiah, who spoke of "the voice of a man crying out in the desert, 'Prepare the path of the Lord!'"

As it is written in the Book of Isaiah, a voice cries out in the desert, 'Prepare a route for the Lord and straighten his path.' Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be leveled; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough paths shall be made smooth; And all flesh will see the salvation of God.

As it happened, John was baptizing in the desert, preaching repentance and the forgiveness of sins.

John the Baptist had a shirt made of camel's hair and a leather loincloth, and he ate grasshoppers and wild honey. And many citizens of Jerusalem, and of all the neighboring regions, went out to John the Baptist, and were baptized by him in the Jordan river as they confessed their sins.

Everyone from the country of Judea and Jerusalem went to him, confessing their sins and receiving baptism in the Jordan River. John was wearing a camel's hair habit with a leather loin wrap; his food consisted of locusts and wild honey; He preached to the crowd, "There will be someone so much greater that I am not even fit to stoop and untie his sandal straps for him. I have baptized you with water, but He shall baptize you with the Divine Guide."

Then he said to the crowd that came to be baptized, 'Oh you wicked people, who warned you to run away from the fury that will come?' Prepare a worthy token of your repentance, and do not make the excuse that we have Abraham as our forebear: for I will say to you, that God could make children from these stones. And now also the ax is laid into the root of the trees: every tree that does not produce good fruit is chopped down and cast into the fire. And the people asked him, 'what should we do then?' He answered them: 'he who has two coats, let him donate to he who has none; and he who has food should do the same.' Tax collectors asked to be baptized, saying, "Sir, what should we do?" And he told them, "Demand no more than the law requires." Soldiers likewise asked Him, "what should we do?" And he told them, "Do no violence to anyone, nor make false accusations; be satisfied with your wages." As the people were in anticipation, they wondered in their hearts whether or not John might be the Christ. John replied to them all, "I do baptize you with water, but a man mightier than I will come; I am unworthy to untie His sandal strap. He shall baptize you with fire and the Holy Spirit. Whose winnowing fan is in His hand. He will clean the threshing floor, gathering the wheat into his storehouse, but the chaff will be burnt with unquenchable fire." He admonished many things in his evangelizing to the people.

When John saw how many Pharisees and Sadducees came to be baptized by him, he said to them, "You jerks! Who has warned you to flee from the divine sentence that's coming to you? If you want to escape that fate, show in your lives fruits that deserve to be called fruits of repentance. Do not think to yourself, 'We have Abraham as our patriarch, and are saved on that account." For I tell you now that God could make these stones into children of Abraham if He wanted to. Already the ax is about to fall on the roots of the trees. So every tree that does not bring forth good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire. On the one hand, I baptize you with water, as you repent: but on the other hand he who will come after me is far mightier, and I don't deserve to carry his shoes. He will immerse you in God's will, and in fire. His winnowing shovel is in his hand, and he will rid his threshing-floor of all impure elements, and gather his wheat into his barn; and he will burn the chaff with a fire that cannot be quenched."

And if you are willing to take it, this is Elijah, who said he'd come back.

So behold, the day will come, burning as an oven; all the proud and evil doers will be straws, and the day that will come will set them on fire, said the LORD of armies, it will leave them neither root nor branch.

I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the day of the LORD, the great and the mighty. And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the sons, and the heart of the sons to their fathers, unless I come and punish the earth with a curse.

The angel answered him, saying, "I am Gabriel, who has stood before God, and have been sent to speak to you, and give you good news.

and your wife Elisabeth shall be pregnant with a son, and you shall name him John.

And He will go with him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to bring families together and bring the wisdom of justice to the unjust; to prepare the people for the coming of the Lord."

Seven

Chapter 7 Bible texts
Then in those days, Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. But John would have hindered him, saying, “I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me?”

But Jesus, answering, said to him, “Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness.”

Then he allowed him; and Jesus was baptized by John in the Jordan.

Now when all the people were baptized, and Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying; when Jesus was baptized, he went up directly from the water. Immediately on coming up from the water, the sky was opened. He saw the heavens parting, and behold, the heavens were opened to him! He saw the Spirit, the Spirit of God descending as a dove, descending like a dove and alighting on him. The Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him, and a voice came out of the sky, saying, "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased." Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.”

Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness of Judea west of the Jordan. And John cried out, saying, “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.’ ”

Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, westward. And then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And he was there in the wilderness for forty days. He fasted forty days and forty nights, being tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; tempted by the devil; and he ate nothing in those days.

When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, when they were completed, he was hungry; he was hungry afterward.

The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.”

Jesus answered him, saying, “It is written,

“ ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.’ ”

The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. The devil said to him, “I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours.”

Jesus answered him, “Get behind me Satan! For it is written,

“ ‘You shall worship the Lord your God,
and you shall serve him only.’ ”

He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the Temple, and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here, for it is written,

“ ‘He will put his angels in charge of you, to guard you;’

"and,

“ ‘On their hands they will bear you up, lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.’ ”

Jesus answering, said to him, “It has been said,

“ ‘You shall not test the Lord your God.’ ”

The tempter came close and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.”

But he answered, “It is written,

“ ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.’ ”

Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the Temple, and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written,

“ ‘He will command his angels concerning you.’

"and,

“ ‘On their hands they will bear you up, so that you do not dash your foot against a stone.’ ”

Jesus said to him, “Again, it is written,

“ ‘You shall not test the Lord, your God.’ ”

Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. He said to him, “I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me.”

Then Jesus said to him, “Get behind me, Satan! For it is written,

“ ‘You shall worship the Lord your God,
and you shall serve him only.’ ”

Then, when the devil had completed every temptation, the devil left him; he departed from him awaiting another time. And behold, angels came and served him; and the angels were serving him.

To which of the angels did he say at any time,

“You are my Son. Today I have become your father”?

and again,

“I will be to him a Father, and he will be to me a Son”?

When he again brings in the firstborn into the world he says,

“Let all the angels of God worship him.”

Of the angels he says,

“He makes his angels winds, and his servants a flame of fire.”

But of the Son he says,

“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever. The scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your Kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated iniquity; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows.”

And,

“You, Lord, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth. The heavens are the works of your hands. They will perish, but you continue. They all will grow old like a garment does. You will roll them up like a mantle, and they will be changed; but you are the same. Your years will not fail.”

But which of the angels has he told at any time,

“Sit at my right hand, to the day I make your enemies the footstool of your feet”?

Are they not all serving spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation?

And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee.

Mark 1:9a
Matthew 3:13-15
Mark 1:9b
Luke 3:21a
Matthew 3:16a
Mark 1:10a
Luke 3:21b
Mark 1:10b
Matthew 3:16b
Mark 1:10c
Matthew 3:16c
Luke 3:22a
Mark 1:11
Luke 3:22b
Matthew 3:17
Mark 1:12
John 1:15
Luke 4:1a
Matthew 4:1
Luke 4:1b-2a
Mark 1:13ab
Matthew 4:2a
Luke 4:2b
Matthew 4:2b
Luke 4:2c-12
Matthew 4:3-11a
Luke 4:13
Hebrews 1:5-14
Luke 4:14a

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Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
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multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)

Table of LXX quotes and allusions in the New Testament


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"drove him out into the wilderness"

compare 1 Kings 18:41-46. Elijah ran before Ahab's chariot from Carmel to Jezreel.

"tempted by the devil"

The word "tempt" is normally understood as "entice", but it also includes the meanings of "test" and "trial", to "prove" (true) and also even (to) "provoke".
Jesus could not be enticed, but he was frequently tested and provoked. Compare Exodus 17:2 and Malachi 3:15. Here he was proved true. The Devil's temptation of Jesus was not directed solely to his human nature, but more completely to God in his divine nature, to provoke the Almighty Lord to accede to Satan's demand to be recognized as equal to God, to be acknowledged as having a "legitimate" claim to worship, to have his own power respected and feared, to be independent of God's absolute, sovereign will.

"Get behind me Satan!"

Luke 4:8 (WEB).
This phrase, Ὑπαγε ὀπίσω μου, Σατανᾶ· (Σατανᾶ, Satana, Satan), not found in some ancient manuscripts, is according to the Greek Textus Receptus Luke 4:8b as translated into English by the World English Bible, the King James Version, and Young's Literal Translation (YLT). See multiple translations of Luke 4:8.

"came close and said to him"

(or "approached near") indicated by the Greek προσέρχομαι proserchomai "come".
See Strong's number 4334 "came to him"

"Again, it is written"

The word "again" is a key internal textual indication suggesting to the conservative redactor of these texts in Matthew and Luke that the devil had actually tried each temptation twice. See Strong's number 3825 palin (repeat, oscillating repetition) "again". Many scholars read it as simply meaning "moreover", as expressing an emphasis, a rebuttal, "but then again", rather than as a repetition.
The lesson here is one of persistent resistance to the devil. This would most simply explain the difference in sequence in each of the accounts of the temptation in the wilderness. (See Occam's razor.)
Compare the feeding of the five thousand and the feeding of the four thousand as similar accounts of different but similar events of the feeding of a multitude with loaves and fishes, with only some differences in detail distinguishing them.

"To which of the angels did he say at any time, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father?' and again, 'I will be to him a Father, and he will be to me a Son'? When he again brings in the firstborn into the world he says, 'Let all the angels of God worship him.'"

Hebrews 1:5-6
According to the doctrine of Jehovah's Witnesses, God made the Archangel Michael, one of the "sons of God", his incarnate Son, making him Jesus Christ. Then when his ministry was completed, he returned to heaven and resumed his position as Michael the Archangel, a son of God (Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7). See

"He makes his angels winds"

Greek αγγλος agglos, pronounced anglos (the double gamma γγ according to Greek grammar is articulated as νγ "ng", as if it were spelled ανγλος. English angel, means "messenger".
"
He makes his messengers winds, and his servants flames of fire".
This is
not the same as saying, "He makes winds his messengers, and flames of fire his servants". That is an eisegetical reading; it is not what the text says.
The word of the Gospel blows away the chaff of false teachings, and those who proclaim the Gospel handed down from the apostles are blazing with the truth that consumes the errors of the wicked, reducing them to nothing. Psalm 1:4-6; Malachi 4:1-3 / 3:19-24; Acts 6:10; 2 Corinthians 10:3-6.

"To which of the angels did he say at any time, ... Are they not all serving spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation?"

Text from Hebrews 1:5-14, quoting Psalm 2:7; 2 Samuel 7:14; [Deuteronomy 32:43 LXX]; Psalm 97:7; 104:4; 45:6-7; [Psalm 102:25-26 LXX] and 102:27; Psalm 110:1.
—The author of Hebrews quotes LXX Deuteronomy 32:43 and LXX Psalm 102:25-26.
Quotations from the Septuagint (LXX), not Hebrew.
See multiple commentaries on Deuteronomy 32:43, and multiple commentaries on Psalm 102:25 and 26.
See multiple commentaries on:
Hebrews 1:6 and 10, 11, 12, 13
See LXX Deuteronomy 32:43 scroll down to v. 43, and LXX Psalm 101:25-27 / 102:25-27 scroll down to text, and verses 25-27.
(Septuagint LXX text at biblestudytools.com does not include LXX Book of Psalms.)
See Septuagint.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

Jesus then came from Nazareth of Galilee,

Now Jesus came from Galilee to Jordan, to be baptized by John. But John begged Him to stop, saying, "No, I need to be baptized by you, not you by me." And Jesus in answer said to him, "Allow yourself to baptize me, for it is necessary and proper." So John allowed it.

and was baptized by John in the Jordan River.

And as soon as Jesus emerged from the water, he saw that the heavens opened and the Divine Guide descended like a dove upon Him:

And Jesus, once He was baptized, rose out of the water and the heavens opened for him, and the spirit of God descended like a dove upon Him.

When all the people were baptized, and Jesus was also being baptized and praying, the heaven was opened, And the Holy Ghost descended to him in the shape of a dove, and a voice came from heaven saying, You are my beloved Son and I am pleased with you.

A voice came from heaven declaring, "You are my beloved Son whom I value greatly."

And a voice spoke from heaven, saying, "This my beloved Son, with whom I am very pleased."

The Divine Guide then led Jesus into the desert.

John gave witness of Him, and cried, saying, "This was he of whom I spoke, He who comes after me, who is preferred before me, for he was before me."

Filled with the force of God, Jesus returned from Jordan

Then God's will led Jesus into the desert to be tested by the devil.

and was led by God's Spirit into the desert, for forty days of temptation by the devil. Jesus ate nothing, and was very hungry at the end.

And after having fasted for 40 days and nights, Jesus began to be hungry.

He remained in the desert for forty days, where Satan tested Him; and He was with wild animals The devil said to Him, "If you are the Son of God, turn this stone into bread." Jesus replied to him, "It is written that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God." Next the devil took Him up a high mountain, and showed Him all the civilizations at once. The devil said to Him, "I will grant You all this earthly power and glory, for it has been delivered to me and to whomever I may delegate it. If You shall worship me, then all this shall be Yours." Jesus replied, "Beat it, Satan, as it is written, one shall worship the Lord, and only Him shall one serve." Next the devil took Jesus to Jerusalem, seating Him on a pinnacle of the Temple, and told Him, "If You are the Son of God, jump off: for scriptures say, 'He shall let His angels protect Him, to save Him. And in their hands they shall catch and lift You, to ensure that You do not even touch the ground.'" Jesus replied, "It is said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.'

And the Tempter came to him and said, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread." But Jesus answered and said, It is written, "Man does not live by bread alone, but also by every word coming from the mouth of God." Then the devil took him into the holy city, and stood him up on the pinnacle of the Temple. The devil said to Him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down. Yes, it is written, "Concerning you, He will command His angels and they will bear you up in their hands so that not even your foot will hit rock." Jesus told him, "Scripture also says, 'Do not put the Lord your God to the test.'" Again the devil took Him up to an extremely tall mountain, and showed him all the nation-states of the world and all their glory, and told him, "I will give You all these things, if You will fall down and worship me." Then Jesus told him, "Get away from me, Satan. Scripture says, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him alone.'" Then,

After the devil exhausted his temptation, he left for a while.

when the devil left Him, the angels came and served him.

as the angels waited on Him.

Did He say, at any time, to an angel, "You are My Son, today I have become your father", or "I will be his Father and he shall be My Son," or, as happened when He brought the Firstborn into the world, "Let all the angels of God worship Him"? But, rather, of angels, He says, "He makes His angels spirits, and His servants a flaming fire." But to the Son, He says, "Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever, a scepter of righteousness, the scepter of Your Kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness. For this reason, God, Your God, has anointed You from among all your companions with the oil of joy." And, "You, Lord, in the beginning of all, set down earth's foundations. The universe is the work of Your hands. They shall perish; but You remain. As a garment they all wear out. And as a cloak, You will fold them up. They will be changed but You remain the same, Your years shall have no end." But to any angel, did He say at any time, "Sit at my right hand, until I make Your enemies a footstool for You?" Aren't they all spirits of service, sent out to serve those who will be heirs of salvation?

Jesus then returned with the power of God to Galilee,


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Original Conservapedia Edition revised and completed 5/19/2018 vigil of Pentecost—developed by Michael Paul Heart and the editors of Conservapedia.