|جمهوری اسلامی ايران|
Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
|Flag||Coat of Arms|
|Area||636,372 sq. mi.|
|GDP per capita||$5,357 (2020)|
Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is an Islamic theocratic dictatorship in southwest Asia. Its capital is Tehran and its official language is Farsi. A historical name for Iran was "Persia", which is also the name of the dominant ethnic group. Iran is believed by Israel and her western allies of pursuing nuclear weapons to gain a strategic advantage in a regional cold war against Sunni-majority Saudi Arabia. Israel also accuses Iran of pursuing nuclear weapons for use against Israel, which is officially "denied" by Iran's government propagating, that the program is to be used for "peaceful" purposes, requiring the enrichment of uranium. Israel's fear is especially in light of Iranian regime, repeatedly threatening to annihilate Israel.  Islamic Republic's "beef" with Israel is more transparent as being nothing more than pure radical Islamic bigotry. As even "land" excuses are not applicable, since Iran does not share any borders with Israel.
Iran has an extremely poor human rights record. Iranian brutality is infamous. A rare admission by Iranian authorities in Aug/2021 came about forcefully only due to hackers exposing images of brutal beating of political prisoners. Ethnic minorities are also persecuted by the racist Iranian regime, such as Ahwazi Arabs, Kurds, Azeris and Baloch.
- See also: History of Iran
In the Western world, Persia was historically the common name for Iran. In 1935, Reza Shah asked foreign delegates and the League of Nations to use the term Iran ("Land of the Aryans"). The suggestion for the change of the country’s official name to Iran is said to have come from the Iranian ambassador to Germany, who came under the influence of the Nazis. German friends of the ambassador convinced him that the name change would free his country from the past influences of Russia and the British Empire. It would be a new beginning as an Aryan nation. Many Persian elites and intellectuals nurtured the idea of Aryan superiority. Reza Shahsaid,
|“Germany was our age-old and natural ally, Love of Germany was synonymous with love for Iran. The sound of German officers’ footsteps was heard on the shores of the Nile. Swastika flags were flying from the outskirts of Moscow to the peaks of the Caucasus Mts. Iranian patriots eagerly awaited the arrival of their old allies. My friend and I would spin tales about the grandeur of the superior race. We considered Germany the chosen representative of this race in Europe and Iran its representative in Asia. The right to life and role was ours. Others had no choice but submission and slavery. We discarded the old maps and remade Iran into a country larger than what it was in Achaemenian times.”|
Reza Shah and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi legacies evoke consternation and controversy. Both were pro-Western modernizers, promoted science, Western education, women and minority rights, economic development, a judiciary more on a Western model as opposed to shariah and clerical rule. But the Carter administration viewed the Ayatollah Khomeini as a paragon of human rights, an expression of the will of the Iranian people for self-determination. One of the Ayatollah's first acts was to issue a fatwa promising paradise for children who joined the Iranian military during the Iran-Iraq war. By 1982, with Shi'a clergy in command, the government asked children, age 9 years old and up, to clear minefields so the regular Army could advance against the Iraqi Army.  About 100,000 died as Basij child soldiers building the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Iran today is 75 million people with a per capita income behind Mexico but ahead of Brazil. Female enrollment and graduation rates in higher education now outnumber males. But if political repression during the monarchy was troublesome, Iran's human rights record and coercive measures against dissidents under its religious rulers has been abysmal. That, and its active sponsorship of terrorism to further its foreign policy objectives abroad. Its non-cooperation with international conventions in pursuit of nuclear power status is particularly worrisome. Iran's Quds Force (Jerusalem Force), as its name implies, carries out external special operations worldwide to further Iran's foreign policy aims.
Iran's revolution in 1979 and the creation of an Islamic state based on Shariah law was a source of pride, inspiration and envy to Sunnis everywhere. The revolutionaries successfully deposed a Western leaning monarch and sent U.S. military personal and technicians packing. Initially Iran sought to export its revolution to the Gulf States and Lebanon. Iran was behind two U.S. Embassy truck bombings in Beirut and the Marine barracks bombing that killed 241 U.S. soldiers. As the Iran-Iraq war progressed, Iran concentrated its efforts to removing Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq. After the war Iran began providing assistance to the radical Sunni leader Hassan al Turabi who took power in Sudan in 1989, and to Hamas in Gaza. The 1990s marked a period of cooperation between Sunni groups such as al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood and the Shiite revolution of Iran. It organized and created Hezbollah al-Hejaz, based in Saudi Arabia, which in conjunction with al Qaeda staged the 1996 Khobar Towers attack killing 19 Americans and wounding another 372. The 9/11 Commission Report suggested and a U.S. Federal judge ruled in December 2011 Iran was a material accomplice with al Qaeda in the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Iran benefited greatly when the Sunni walls that had been erected around it - Afghanistan and Iraq - were torn down. Several analysts argue that since about 2005 Iran has evolved rapidly from a theocracy into a garrison state, in which the military dominates political, economic, and cultural life.
Unlike Sunnis who emphasize sectarian differences with minority Shiites, the Iranian regime emphasizes the Israeli bogeyman because they estimate this gains them Arab street cred and diverts attention from the Shia rise to power. They ultimately believe they have earned the right to speak on behalf of the whole Muslim world.
The December 1979 Iranian constitution defines the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic republic. The document establishes Shi'a Islam of the Twelver (Jaafari) sect as Iran's official religion. Sunni Islam, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity are the only other recognized, legal minority religions. But Iran is the eighth country on the World Watch List of Open Doors. The country is governed by secular and religious leaders through governing bodies, whose duties often overlap. (See also:Christians in Iran)
The Supreme Leader holds power for life unless removed by the Assembly of Experts. He has final say on all domestic, foreign, and security policies for Iran, though he establishes and supervises those policies in consultation with the Expediency Council. The Leader is the final arbiter on all differences or disputes among the various branches of government. He appoints officials to key positions including the head of judiciary and the 12 members of the Guardian Council (six directly, six indirectly). He has power to disqualify candidates or remove an elected official from office. The Supreme Leader and is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
The constitution stipulates that the Assembly of Experts, which currently consists of the 86 popularly-elected clerics elected to 8-year terms, chooses the Supreme Leader based on jurisprudent qualifications and commitment to the principles of the revolution. The Assembly of Experts reviews his performance periodically and has the power to depose and replace him. Pragmatic conservative candidates generally polled better than their hardline conservative opponents during the December 15, 2006 elections to the Assembly of Experts. (Turnout for this vote, which coincided with municipal council elections, was quite high, topping 60%.) Citizens will not vote for representatives to the Assembly again until 2014.
The Council of Guardians consists of 12 persons. The Supreme Leader appoints the six religious members of the Council of Guardians while the Iranian parliament, the Majles, selects the six lay members from candidates recommended by the judiciary, which is in turn selected by the Supreme Leader. The non-clerics play a role only in determining whether legislation before the Majles conforms to Iran's constitution. The religious members, on the other hand, take part in all deliberations, considering all bills for conformity to Islamic principles. The Council of Guardians can veto any law. This body also certifies the competence of candidates for the presidency, the Assembly of Experts, and the Majles.
The president of the Islamic Republic of Iran is elected by universal suffrage to a 4-year term. The president supervises the affairs of the executive branch, appointing and supervising the Council of Ministers (members of the cabinet), coordinating government decisions, and selecting government policies to be placed before the National Assembly.
The Majles, or National Assembly, consists of 290 members elected to 4-year terms. The members of the legislature are elected by direct and secret ballot from among the candidates approved by the Council of Guardians.
In 1988, Ayatollah Khomeini created the Council for Expediency, which resolves legislative issues on which the Majles and the Council of Guardians fail to reach an agreement. Since 1989, it has been used to advise the national religious leader on matters of national policy as well. It is composed of the president, the speaker of the Majles, the judiciary chief, the clerical members of the Council of Guardians, and other members appointed by the Supreme Leader for 3-year terms. Cabinet members and Majles committee chairs also serve as temporary members when issues under their jurisdictions are considered. In 2005, it was announced that the Expediency Council, which now has over 40 members, would have responsibility for general supervision of the system, though that has not resulted in any noticeable change in this institution's day-to-day authority or operations.
Judicial authority is constitutionally vested in the Supreme Court and the four-member High Council of the Judiciary; these are two separate groups with overlapping responsibilities and have one head. Together, they are responsible for supervising the enforcement of all laws and for establishing judicial and legal policies.
Iran has two military forces. The national military is charged with defending Iran's borders, while the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) is charged mainly with maintaining internal and external security. Iran also uses proxy militias and foreign terrorist organizations to execute its foreign policy designs throughout the world.
Iran has 30 provinces managed by an appointed governor general. The provinces are further divided into counties, districts, and villages. Sixty percent of eligible voters took part in the first ever municipal and local council elections in 1999, though a lower percentage went to the polls in the second round in 2003. Turnout during the December 15, 2006 elections, during which citizens also elected Assembly of Expert representatives, was over 60%. The local councils select mayors.
The March 2008 elections resulted in the conservatives getting a significant lead in the polls, with Conservative politician Shahabeddin Sadr saying that, during early counting, 70 per cent of winners were "principlists" - a label conservatives use to describe their loyalty to the Islamic Republic's ideals.
Iranian brutality is infamous. A rare admission by Iranian authorities in Aug/2021came about only due to hackers exposing inages of brutal beating of political prisoners.
Principal Government Officials
- Supreme Lead and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces—Ali Hosseini-Khamenei
- President—Ebrahim Raisi
- First Vice President—Eshaq Jahangiri
- Foreign Minister—Mohammad Javad Zarif
- Ambassador to the United Nations—Majid Takht-Ravanchi
In June, 2021, more radical (even amongst already radicals) Ebrahim Raisi, Butcher of Tehran responsible for some 30,000 deaths was (so-called) "elected" as head. Helped by the low turnout.  There are hortific tales of tortured pregnant women and threw people off cliffs, among countless other brutal acts of violence.
In 1980, at the age of just 20, Raisi was appointed prosecutor of the revolutionary court of Karaj, west of Tehran, and by 1988 he had been promoted deputy prosecutor of Tehran. Raisi was a member of the so-called “Death Commission”, which ordered thousands to be killed in the massacre of 1988. He then became one of four individuals selected to carry out the slaughter of imprisoned activists of the People’s Mojahedin Organisation of Iran (PMOI). Some 30,000 men, women and children held in prisons all over Iran were lined up against the wall and shot within just a few months, say those battling to oust the regime.On September 30, 2019, Raisi described his cruelty by saying:
“We will not cut the fingers of those who are corrupt; we will cut off their entire hand.”
Raisi was categorized as a "hardliner" Hinting of a supposed phenomenon of "moderate" existing anywhere in the cruel Mullahcracy.
"There are no moderates on the ballot in Iran. The ayatollah is a religious Nazi, he controls the place. Religious zealots run the place. Why in the world do you want to give massive enrichment capability to the largest state sponsor of terrorism in the world, I don’t know.”
There are no reformists in Iran.
In Aug. 2021, the butcher of Tehran, Raisi, presented a cabinet dominated by hardliners on Wednesday, state TV reported, among them a foreign minister known for close ties to Hezbollah and an interior minister wanted by Interpol over his alleged role in the 1994 bombing of a Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires.
New interior minister Ahmad Vahidi sought by Interpol; the president's pick for top diplomat, Hossein Amirabdollahian, is an avowed anti-Westerner with ties to IRGC, Hezbollah.
In Oct 2021, The lawmakers in Iran --who are even more extreme than mainstream radicals -- submitted a formal complaint was appended by a public petition that, among other allegations, accuses Rouhani of betraying Iranians through signing the nuclear deal with the world powers. 
Iran's post-revolution difficulties have included an 8-year war with Iraq, internal political struggles and unrest, and economic disorder. The early days of the regime were characterized by severe human rights violations and political turmoil, including the seizure of the U.S. Embassy compound and its occupants on 4 November 1979, by Iranian student militants. Iranian authorities released the 52 hostages only after 444 days of captivity, minutes after Ronald Reagan's inauguration as the 40th president of the United States.
By mid-1982, the clergy had won a succession of post-Revolution power struggles that eliminated first the center of the political spectrum and then the leftists, including the communist Tudeh party and the cult-like Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO). Assassinations, throwing acid in the faces of women who refused to wear the veil, and other acts of violence punctuated this period. There has been some moderation of excesses since the early days of the revolution, and the country experienced a partial "thaw" in terms of political and social freedoms during the tenure of former president Khatami, but serious problems remained. The administration of former President Ahmadi-Nejad had witnessed a crackdown on Iranian civil society, continued human rights violations, and worsening constraints on press freedom and civil liberties. Current president Hassan Rouhani did not changed anything.
The Islamic Republican Party (IRP) was Iran's sole political party until its dissolution in 1987. Iran now has a variety of groups engaged in political activity; some are oriented along ideological lines or based on an identity group, others are more akin to professional political parties seeking members and recommending candidates for office. Some have been active participants in the Revolution's political life while others reject the state. Conservatives consistently thwarted the efforts of reformists during the Khatami era and have consolidated their control on power since the flawed elections for the seventh Majles in 2004 and president Ahmadi-Nejad's victory in 2005. The party of Khamenei is the Combatant Clergy Association. President Hassan Rouhani is a member of it.
The Iranian Government has faced armed opposition from a number of groups, including the MEK (which the U.S. Government added to its list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations in 1999), the People's Fedayeen, and the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI).
Iranian state actors are intensifying their disinformation campaign on social media to spread discord and anti-Semitic tropes inside the U.S., two U.S. intelligence officials say.…But within days of the conflict beginning last month in Israel and Gaza Twitter accounts linked to Iran were amplifying anti-Semitic messages in English, including the phrases “hitler was [sic] right” and “kill all jews” at a rate of 175 times per minute, according to analysis by Network Contagion Research Institute.
In March 2022, Iran (via mouthpiece): "Israel's nuclear weapons will not prevent its destruction (sic)."
On Apr 29, 2022, what the Islamic Republic calls "Jerusalem Day", during which masses took to the streets and there were a series of demonstrations of rage and aggressive speeches, the head of the Revolutionary Guards (IRGC), Hossein Salami, said: "Israel is creating the conditions for its destruction..."
- Iran has organized Holocaust cartoons events to belittle and deny the Holocaust - 2006, 2016.
- In May 2020, Khamenei uttered his much publicized genocidal threat, implying to carry out ‘The Final Solution.’ Twitter, at the time why it banned Trump but allowed -dangerous genocidal- Khamenei go on.
- In 2021, Iranian Cartoonist Masoud Shojaei Tabatabaei on the Islamic Republic Holocaust denial event / Holocaust cartoon contests years earlier he organized:
"Our Contests Were Counterattacks for the P... Muhammad Cartoons."
- In Mar/2022, Iran unleashed an Antisemitic attack on Zelensky at its 'Fars News.'
- On Apr 27, 2022:
On Holocaust Remembrance Day & QudsDay2022 eve, Iran paper KAYHAN affiliated to Khamenei attacks Jews in a very Antisemitic article: "Jews killed [sic] the Shiite leaders" & praises Hitler "because he was wise [sic] so he tried to get rid of them"!
There has been a flow of 'Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial in Iran: by the State Narratives Since 1979.'
The July 12, 1994, AMIA attack on Jewish center AMIA in Argentina by Islamic Republic of Iran's backed Hezbollah Ansar Allah: 85 civilians dead and over 300 injured of multiple nationalities. The attack is considered the worst antisemitic attack in the world since World War II.
Racist defemation and inciting Arabs against Jews
Islamic Republic of Iran created a fake social network "Aduk", masquerading as if it was Ultra-religious Jewish and or "settler." The Islamic Republic posted anti-Arab racist posts in order to stoke violence and defame Jews.
Gradually since the 1980s, the Islamic Republic has been actively involved in its global spread.
In recent years it has become more emboldened.
Attacking the U.S
Pro-Iranian militants have been attacking U.S forces for years. Under Iranian general, Qasem Soleimani, use of IED's was common.
Recently, Iran has continued to attack U.S forces via missiles and drones.
Following Iran's Mar 12, 2022, attacking Erbil, via 12 missiles, reaching near US consulate and damaging Kurdish media offices, a journalist: 'I have not seen a united Iraq around anything for a long time... Condemnations all-over-the-map against Iran.'
It has then went back and forth, between cowardly appeasing the Iranians first then telling the truth.
Persecuting pro peace, pro Israel Iraqis
On Friday, September 24, 2021, conference in the Kurdistan region, Iraqi participants called on their country’s leaders to end the state of war and join the so-called Abraham Accords. It was organised by US think-tank Center for Peace Communications in Erbil, the capital of northern Iraq’s Kurdistan autonomous region.
Pro-Iran militia said that normalizers are 'legitimate targets.' After death threats, Iraqis who attended pro-Israel normalization summit recanted.
Al-Kadhimi assassination attempt
Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi addresses the nation following a drone strike that targeted his residence in Baghdad on November 7, 2021, amid Escalating Tensions With Iran-Backed Militias Iraqi Pundit:
The Middle East will never be cured until the #Iran regime is obliterated. All other analysis is just for crisis management.
It was later confirmed that Iran-backed militia was behind attack on Iraqi PM.
Secret Service plot
In March 2022, two Muslim men, (Iranian) Arian Taherzadeh, 40, and (Pakistani) Haider Ali, 35, were arrested for impersonating federal agents and giving actual Secret Service agents gifts and free apartments in Washington. The two fake Homeland agents - one 'with ties to Pakistani intelligence Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and multiple Iranian visas' - spent 18 months 'infiltrating and buying gifts for Jill Biden's Secret Service detail' in luxury DC building where they all lived and partied. Aim was to compromise and accessing information.
In Feb 2022, an Iranian attempt to assassinate Israeli businessman Yair Geller in Turkey was thwarted. The attempt came as revenge and in response to the assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Muhsin Fakhrizada in 2020.
In Apr 2022, it was reported that the Mossad thwarted Iran's triple plot: to kill an Israeli diplomat in Turkey, a US general in the US and a French journalist. Mansour Rassouli was interrogated by Mossad inside Iran.
The Quds Force of Iran's Revolutionary Guards has invited one of its agents to assassinate an employee of the Israeli consulate in Istanbul, the agent belongs to Unit 840 of the Quds Force, which deals with opponents of the Islamic Republic. He admitted that he received $ 150,000 for the preparations for the assassination, and was supposed to receive $ 1 million after he managed to eliminate the 3 targets. He was arrested in Europe.
Iran's Hezbollah has been hijacking the Lebanese and terrorize all who voice a slight criticism. It engaged in multiple assassinations. In its operations it has used its civilians as cannon fodders. Including storing large quantities of weapons. It has threatened the judge who investigate the August 2020 large explosion in Beirut killing over 200.
On Jan 22, 2022, during Gaza rally in support of Houthis in Yemen, chants of 'Death ro the Saud clan!' And 'America is the Great Satan!'
Iran's Hezbollah has been helping Assad regime and engaged in its brutal crimes against humanity in the Civil War.
It has conducted a large narco terror operation for decades especially along the Tri Border Area and in Maicao, Colombia.
Hugo Chavez has provided Iranian Islamists operatives with Venezuelan passports.
Venezuelan Vice–President Tareck El Aissami, a strong candidate to be the future leader of his country, facilitated the issue of hundreds of Venezuelan passports to suspected Hezbollah members.
Venezuela's dictator Nicolas Maduro's chief dirty money man, Arab Hezbollah guy, Alex Saab was finally arrested in 2021.
Alex “[Saab] was a key figure in the pillaging of the national reserves, profiting off the suffering of the people and increasingly criminalizing and providing those international networks for the Maduro regime.”
At the Maduro-Hezbollah Nexus: Iran-backed Networks Prop up the Venezuelan Regime. The minted oil minister, Tareck El Aissami, and the regime’s special envoy to Iran, Lebanese-Colombian businessman Alex Saab, seemingly worked out a gold-for-gas deal with Tehran. 
Apocalyptic motivation, goal in world domination
Their Islamic messianic creed is the raison d'être for the Islamic Republic of Iran according to its founders and leaders. 
They believe the Shia messiah known as the “Twelfth Imam” or the “Mahdi” will appear soon to establish a global Islamic kingdom. 
Shiite Iran (and its Hezbollah), and the Sunni ISIS, both believe that any moment now their "messiah", will appear. Iran and ISIS are both eager to hasten the coming of their Mahdi. 
Support for global terrorism
The Iranian government supports and funds Islamic terrorist organizations in various countries, doing so since the Islamic revolution in 1979. The U.S. Department of State labels Iran as a leading state sponsor of terror. The Islamic Republic works through its proxies: in the Middle East,  such as: Hezbollah, Houthis, "Palestinian" Islamic Jihad, it is strongly Hamas linked. Its bases of operations in South America works through Hezbollah network, via local Arab-Muslims in the community in: Venezuela, Maicao/ Colombian/Venzuelan border; Tri-Border area in Argentina/Brazil/Paraguay). In recent years it has even expanded its TV channel in Spanish.
According to a U.S. court record for the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings, Osama Bin Laden was living in Khartoum, Sudan when Sudanese religious scholar Ahmed Abdel Rahman Hamadabi brought Shekih Nomani an emissary of Iran to meet the Al-Qaeda leadership. Sheikh Nomani was described as having "had access to the highest echelons of power in Tehran. This meeting resulted in an informal agreement between Iran and Al-Qaeda to cooperate, with Iran providing critical explosives, intelligence and security training to Bin Laden's organization. Iran continued to provide support to Al-Qaeda even after they relocated to Afghanistan in 1996. Iranian officials helped Al-Qaeda members transit through Iran to Afghanistan. Iranian border guards were instructed not to stamp their passports, to prevent their home governments from suspecting that they had traveled to Afghanistan. A section of the 9/11 commission states that shortly after the meetings between Iran and Al-Qaeda in Sudan in 1991,"senior Al-Qaeda operatives and trainers traveled to Iran to receive training in explosives. In the fall of 1993, another such delegation went to the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon for further training in explosives as well as in intelligence and security. Bin Laden reportedly showed particular interest in learning how to use truck bombs such as the one that had killed 241 U.S Marines in Lebanon in 1983. The relationship between Al-Qaeda and Iran demonstrated that Sunni-Shia divisions did not necessarily pose an insurmountable barrier to cooperation in terrorist operations."
Iran and Al-Qaeda cooperation continues to this day. The State Department's Country Reports on terrorism has noted that, "Iran has allowed [Al-Qaeda] facilitators to operate a core facilitation pipeline through Iran since at least 2009, enabling [Al-Qaeda] to move funds and fighters to South Asia and Syria."
See: Guardian of walls - Iranian proxy war
Iranian nuclear deal
- See also: Iranian nuclear deal
The Iranian nuclear deal or the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was a failed diplomatic agreement by the Obama administration negotiated by John Kerry to help Iran get 150 billion dollars of U.S. taxpayer money and American banks. Iran then used this money for terrorism.
The deal supposedly limited Iran's uranium enrichment, but it did not stop Iranian support of terrorist groups like the Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas and Hezbollah. It also did not address Iran's expansionist ambitions in the Middle East.  President Donald J. Trump rescinded the executive order in May 2018.
Khomeini's revolutionary regime initiated sharp changes from the foreign policy pursued by the Shah, particularly in reversing the country's orientation toward the West. In the Middle East, Iran's only significant ally has been Syria. Within the U.N framework of the "New World Order", as some Islamists refer to it, Iran pursues its foreign policy objectives under the kufr Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations as it covertly promotes terrorism. Western governments have labeled Iran as the leading state sponsor of terrorism.
Iran's foreign policy and Shi'a brand of Islam promotes Muslim unity whereas Sunni Salafi-jihadists consider Shi'ism not as a dissident sect, but rather as treasonous to the people of God (ulema) and worthy of the death penalty (takfir).
Iran's foreign relations are based on sometimes competing objectives. Iran's pragmatic foreign policy goals include, not surprisingly, protecting itself from external threats and building trade ties. Iran has additionally been accused, however, of trying to export its fundamentalist revolution to other countries, supporting terrorist organizations, and its vehement anti-U.S. and anti-Israel stances are well-known. Senior Iranian officials directed Hezbollah to carry out the bombing of the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA, the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994, killing 85 people and wounding scores of others. Out of the eight individuals indicted by the Government of Argentina in October 2006, the Interpol Executive Committee has recommended the issuance of Red Notices (international arrest warrants) against six: five former or current Iranian officials and one Lebanese Hezbollah leader.
In September 1980, during the Carter-era Iranian hostage crisis, Iraq invaded Iran to take control of the waterway between the two countries, the Shatt al-Arab, although the conflict's underlying causes included each nation's overt desire for the overthrow of the other's government. Iran defended itself and demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab as established under the 1975 Algiers Agreement signed by Iraq and Iran. Khomeini's government turned down an Iraqi cease-fire proposal in 1982, making a new demand for Saddam Hussein's removal as well. After eight punishing years of war, in July 1988, Iran at last agreed to UN Security Council Resolution 598 and the cease-fire was implemented on August 20, 1988. Neither nation had made any real gains in the war.
Iran's relations with many of its Arab neighbors have been strained by Iranian attempts to spread its Islamic revolution, a strictly ideological goal. In 1981, Iran supported a plot to overthrow the Bahrain Government. In 1983, Iran expressed support for Shi'ites who bombed Western embassies in Kuwait, and in 1987, Iranian pilgrims rioted during the hajj (pilgrimage) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeria, also mistrust Iran. Iran backs Hezbollah (in Lebanon), Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, all of which are violently opposed to the Arab-Israeli peace process. In contrast, while relations with west European nations have been uneven, they have been driven primarily by pragmatic goals of trade and security. Iran has accepted stronger commercial ties but largely declined to deliver on key European political concerns such as human rights and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) acquisition efforts, particularly in the nuclear field, where the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been strongly critical of Iran.
An IAEA report in November 2003 provided evidence that Iran, a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), had concealed secret nuclear activities for 18 years. Under international pressure, Iran signed the Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement on December 18, 2003, agreeing to suspend all uranium-enrichment and reprocessing activities voluntarily, as well as cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in resolving questions regarding Iran's nuclear program. In June 2004, the IAEA rebuked Iran for failing to fully cooperate with an inquiry into its nuclear activities, and in November 2004, Iran agreed to suspend most of its uranium enrichment under a deal with the EU. That promise did not last, however, and since then concerns over Iran's nuclear activities have increased.
On June 6, 2006, the Peoples Republic of China, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and United Kingdom offered Iran a substantial package of economic cooperation and assistance. Tehran, however, was first required to come into compliance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines on its nuclear program, suspending its uranium enrichment program. On July 31, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1696 on the Iranian nuclear question, requiring Iran to suspend all activities related to enrichment and reprocessing, including research and development, as demanded by the IAEA, or else face possible sanctions. Tehran defied the UN Security Council (UNSC) deadline of August 31, leading to the passage of UNSC Resolution 1636 in December 2006 and, as Iran continued to balk, Resolution 1747 in March 2007.
Iran sparked an international controversy when its forces seized and held hostage 15 British sailors and marines, conducting routine anti-smuggling operations in Iraqi territorial waters under UN mandate, on March 23, 2007. Tehran released the U.K. service members on April 6.
Iran maintains regular diplomatic and commercial relations with Russia and the former Soviet republics. Both Iran and Russia believe they have important national interests at stake in developments in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus, particularly regarding energy resources from the Caspian Sea. Russian and other sales of military equipment and technology to Iran concern Iran's neighbors and the United States. Prior to the Obama administration, the United States was concerned about Russian assistance in building at nuclear facility at Bushehr.
Iran spends about 3.3% of its GDP on its military. Iran's military consists of both a national military held over from the shah's government and the IRGC, each with its own ground, naval and air branches. The Iran-Iraq war took a heavy toll on these military forces. Iran has modernized its military, including ballistic missile programs, and weapons of mass destruction; it continues to seek nuclear capabilities. On November 7, 2007, Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had 3,000 centrifuges operating in its uranium enrichment program, which would be enough to produce a nuclear weapon. However, a December, 2007 U.S. intelligence report stated that Iran halted its nuclear program in 2003, and remains on hold. According to the National Intelligence Estimate, "We do not know whether (Iran) currently intends to develop nuclear weapons."
Relations with the United States
The United States designated the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRCG) and Quds Force as a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) in 2019 based on the IRGC’s “continued support to and engagement in terrorist activity around the world.”
On November 4, 1979, militant Iranian students occupied the American Embassy in Tehran with the support of Ayatollah Khomeini. Fifty-two Americans were held hostage for 444 days, ending only with Ronald Reagan's first days in office. On April 7, 1980, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Iran, and on April 24, 1981, the Swiss Government assumed representation of U.S. interests in Tehran. Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the Government of Pakistan. The Islamic Republic of Iran does not have its own embassy in Washington, though it does have a permanent mission to the United Nations in New York City.
In accordance with the Algiers declaration of January 20, 1981, the Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal (located in The Hague, Netherlands) was established for the purpose of handling claims of U.S. nationals against Iran and of Iranian nationals against the United States. U.S. contact with Iran through The Hague covers only legal matters.
The U.S. Government, by Executive Orders issued by the President as well as by Congressional legislation, prohibits most trade with Iran. Some sanctions were imposed on Iran because Tehran is a state sponsor of terrorism, others because of the nuclear proliferation issues, and still more for human rights violations, including infringement of religious freedom. The commercial relations that do exist between the two countries consist mainly of Iranian purchases of food and medical products and U.S. imports of carpets and food. Some sanctions were temporarily waived in the wake of the devastating Bam earthquake of December 2003. U.S. officials and relief workers actively assisted in relief and reconstruction efforts.
There are serious obstacles to improved relations between the two countries. As a state sponsor of terrorism, Iran remains an impediment to international efforts to locate and prosecute terrorists. Recent attempts by Iran to form loose alliances with anti-U.S. governments in the Western Hemisphere, such as the Venezuelan Government, has further heightened concern about Iran's support for terrorism and nuclear ambitions. Operation Iraqi Freedom removed the Iranian Government's greatest security threat, but officially Iran remained neutral about U.S. policy, sometimes strongly condemning American policies and actions in Iraq. Iran has cultural ties to elements of the populations of both Iraq and Afghanistan. It has made some positive contributions to stability in both countries, but other actions have had the opposite effect. It remains to be seen whether Tehran will ultimately be a constructive force in the reconstruction of its two neighbors or not.
The U.S. Government defines its areas of objectionable Iranian behavior as the following:
- Iran's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction;
- Its support for and involvement in international terrorism;
- Its support for violent opposition to the Middle East peace process, as well as its harmful activities particularly in Lebanon, as well as in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere in the region; and
- Its dismal human rights record and lack of respect for its own people.
The United States has held discussions with Iranian representatives on particular issues of concern over the years. U.S. and Iranian envoys cooperated during operations to overthrow the Taliban in 2001 and during the Bonn Conference in 2002 that established a broad-based government for the Afghan people under President Karzai. U.S. Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice, her Iranian counterpart, and others met at talks on Iraq in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, on May 3, 2007. The American and Iranian ambassadors to Iraq took part in face-to-face discussions in Baghdad, with Iraqi officials in attendance, on May 28, 2007. The Bush administration believed, however, that normal relations were impossible until Iran's policies changed.
Nevertheless, the U.S. State Department continued then to support efforts to further the cause of democracy in Iran. In fiscal year (FY) 2006, the U.S. Congress allocated approximately $66 million to promote free media, personal freedom, and a better understanding of western values and culture. As part of those efforts, the Department supported efforts to develop civil society in Iran and exchange programs that would bring Iranian students, athletes, professionals and others to the United States.
Secretary Rice stated that Iranian agreement to abide by UNSC Resolutions 1696 and 1747, calling for Tehran to suspend uranium enrichment and comply with its international nuclear obligations, could lead to the direct negotiations between American and Iranian government officials, not only on Iran's nuclear case but on a wide range of issues.
In May 2007, the Iranian Government charged and in some cases imprisoned a handful of innocent Iranian-American scholars, civil society actors, and journalists, accused by the regime of jeopardizing the security of the state. The international community, academic institutions, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private citizens joined the U.S. Government in calling for the release of the detained dual nationals, as well as Iranian cooperation in the case of missing retired FBI agent Robert Levinson, last reported on Kish Island, Iran, on March 8, 2007.
Iran is not a pluralistic society, but does have some diversity. Persians are the largest predominant ethnic and cultural group in this country, though many are actually of mixed ancestry. The population of the country has important Turkic elements (e.g., Azeris) and Arabs predominate in the southwest. In addition, Iranian citizens include Kurds, Balochi, Bakhtyari, Lurs, and other smaller minorities, such as Armenians, Assyrians, Jews, and Brahuis (or Brohi).
- Population (2020): 84 million.
- Population growth rate (2007 est.): 0.663%.
- Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%.
- Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%; Sunni Muslim 9%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2%.
- Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic languages (besides Turkish) 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%.
- Education: Literacy (total population age 15 and over who can read and write, 2003)--79% (male: 86%, female: 73%).
- Health (2007 est.): Infant mortality rate—38.2 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth (2007)--total population: 70.56 yrs.
The 1979 Islamic revolution and the 1980-88 war with Iraq transformed Iran's class structure politically, socially, and economically. During this period, Shia clerics took a more dominant position in politics and nearly all aspects of Iranian life, both urban and rural. After the fall of the Pahlavi regime in 1979, much of the urban upper class of prominent merchants, industrialists, and professionals, favored by the former monarch, the shah, lost standing and influence to the senior clergy and their supporters. Bazaar merchants, who were allied with the clergy against the Pahlavi shahs, also have gained political and economic power since the revolution. The urban working class has enjoyed somewhat enhanced status and economic mobility, spurred in part by opportunities provided by revolutionary organizations and the government bureaucracy. Though the number of clergy holding senior positions in the parliament and elsewhere in government has declined since the 1979 revolution, Iran has nevertheless witnessed the rise of a post-revolutionary elite among lay people who are strongly committed to the preservation of the Islamic Republic.
Most Iranians are Muslims; 89% belong to the Shi'a branch of Islam, the official state religion, and about 9% belong to the Sunni branch, which predominates in neighboring Muslim countries. Non-Muslim minorities include Zoroastrians, Jews, Baha'is, and Christians.
Pre-revolutionary Iran's economic development was rapid. Traditionally an agricultural society, by the 1970s Iran had achieved significant industrialization and economic modernization. However, the pace of growth had slowed dramatically by 1978, just before the Islamic revolution. Since the fall of the shah, economic recovery has proven elusive thanks to a combination of factors, including fluctuations in the global energy market. Economic activity was severely disrupted additionally by years of upheaval and uncertainty surrounding the revolution and the introduction of statist economic policies. These conditions were worsened by the war with Iraq and the decline in world oil prices beginning in late 1985. After the war with Iraq ended, the situation began to improve: Iran's GDP grew for two years running, partly from an oil windfall in 1990, and there was a substantial increase in imports. However, Iran had suffered a brain drain throughout the previous decade and wartime policies had resulted in a demographic explosion.
A decrease in oil revenues in 1991 and growing external debt dampened optimism for recovery. In March 1989, the government instituted a new 5-year plan for economic development, which loosened state control and allowed Iran to seek greater latitude in accessing foreign capital. Mismanagement and inefficient bureaucracy, as well as political and ideological infighting, hampered the formulation and execution of a consolidated economic policy, and the Iran fell short of the plan's goals while economic inequality was aggravated. Today, Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. Former President Khatami followed the market reform plans of his predecessor, President Rafsanjani, and indicated that he would pursue diversification of Iran's oil-reliant economy, although he made little progress toward that goal. High inflation and expansive public transfer programs, as well as powerful economic-political vested interests created obstacles for rapid reform.
During the 2005 election campaign, President Ahmadi-Nejad promised to redistribute oil revenues to the impoverished, fund large infrastructure projects, and privatize Iranian state enterprises. He has been criticized within Iran for not carrying through on many of his promises. While establishment of the Imam Reza fund for cheap loans to youth has been popular, a law increasing the minimum was revoked because of the huge strain on employers. The "Shares of Justice" program—distributing shares of state-owned enterprises to the poor—faces a number of potential problems.
Unemployment was estimated to be 20% for 2007, according to the International Monetary Fund. Unemployment, a major problem even before the revolution, has many causes, including population growth, high minimum wage level and other restrictive labor policies. Farmers and peasants enjoyed a psychological boost from the attention given them by the Islamic regime but hardly appear to be better off in economic terms. The government has made progress on rural development, including electrification and road building, but Iran still faces inefficiencies related to agricultural land usage which are politically difficult to reconcile. Agriculture also has suffered from shortages of capital, raw materials, and equipment, problems dating back to the 1980-1988 war with Iraq. (See Foreign Relations above.)
Although Islam guarantees the right to private ownership, banks and some industries—including the petroleum, transportation, utilities, and mining sectors—were nationalized after the revolution under Marxist-influenced economic policies. Starting under President Rafsanjani, Iran has pursued some privatization through its nascent equities markets. However, the industrial sector remains plagued by low labor productivity and shortages of raw materials and spare parts, and is uncompetitive against foreign imports.
Increases in the price of oil starting in 2003 have increased state revenue enormously and permitted a much larger degree of spending on social programs than previously anticipated. However, this has not eased economic hardships such as high unemployment and inflation. The proportion of the economy devoted to the development of weapons of mass destruction and military spending overall remains a contentious issue with leading Western nations.
Earnings from Iranian oil exports, projected at $57-$87 billion for 2007–2008, are placed into the Oil Stabilization Fund (OSF), originally designed as a Treasury safety net if oil prices dropped below $20/barrel. In practice, the government has drawn upon the OSF to cover over expenditures. Iran relies on oil for 80% of its export revenue, and 40% of total revenues. (Note: Iran's refining capacity is limited, and Tehran is a net gasoline importer, spending $2.6 billion for foreign gas in 2005.)
- GDP (purchasing power parity, 2006 est.): $599.2 billion.
- GDP (official exchange rate, 2006 est.): $193.5 billion.
- GDP real growth rate (2007 est.): 4.6%.
- GDP composition by sector (2006): Agriculture 11.2%, industry 41.7%, services 47.1%.
- Per capita income (2006 est.): $8,700.
- Work force: 24.36 million.
- Work force - by occupation (2001 est.): Agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45%.
- Unemployment rate (2007 est.): 20%.
- Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead manganese, zinc, sulfur.
- Agriculture: Principal products—wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar. Note: Iran is not self-sufficient in terms of food.
- Industry: Types—petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (particularly steel and copper), armaments.
- Trade (2007 est.): Exports--$56.9 billion: petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, carpets, fruits, nuts. Major export partners (2006): Japan (17.3%), China (11.4%), Italy (6.2%), South Korea (5.2%), South Africa (5.5%), Turkey (5.7%), Netherlands (4.6%), France (4.1%), Taiwan (4.1%). Imports--$48.1 billion: industrial raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services, military supplies. Major import partners: Germany (14.2%), U.A.E. (6.7%), China (8.3%), Italy (7.5%), France (6.2%), South Korea (5.4%), Russia (4.9%).
Because of its Shi'ite character, the Islamic Republic of Iran is referred to as Rafida, or rejectionist of the orthodox Salafi traditions handed down thru Ibn Taymiyyah, Abd al-Wahhab, and others.  Iran has been ruled under the Shi'a interpretation of Shariah since 1979. Homosexuals get the death penalty in Iran.  However, in a speech at Columbia University, the president of Iran stated that homosexuality does not exist in his nation.
In Iran, production and consumption of alcohol by Muslims is prohibited. However, Iranian law makes an exception for minority groups, such as the Christian Armenians, who are allowed to produce and consume wine and distilled spirits. Naturally, these communities produce far more alcohol than they consume, "illegally" selling it to Muslims who drink in contradiction of Sharia law.
Prostitution is also prohibited in Iran, but there are allegations that نكاح المتعة (temporary marriage, legal in Usuli Shia jurisprudence) is exploited to solemnize marriages of such short duration (hours or days) that the activities thus permitted more resemble dating (if money is not exchanged) or prostitution (if a fee is charged for the marriage).
Iran has it own weapons industry and also relies upon its Chinese communist and Russian allies to supply the latest weapons technology and equipment which can be easily and cheaply duplicated in Iranian factories. In addition, it holds sizable stockpiles purchased from the United States in the Cold War era prior to 1979.
The Quds Force (Jerusalem Force) is the organization tasked with Iran's external covert, paramilitary, terrorist and intelligence functions. Quds Force also carries out some diplomatic functions. As the name implies, the Jerusalem Force was organized to capture Jerusalem from Israel. Its leader answers directly to the Iranian Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as of 2021.
For a more detailed treatment, see South Azerbaijan Independence Movement.
For a more detailed treatment, see Balochistan(Country).
West Balochistan was invaded and annexed by Iran in 1928. 
- Democracy in Iran
- Big government Welfare state leads to socialist Nanny state, leads to communist Police state - Don't think Communism is incompatible with Islam.
- Gun control - key element to create a police state
- Iranian nuke deal
- Press TV
- Islamic anti-Semitism
- Essay:Women's Rights in Iran
- Articles about Iran from previous "Breaking News"
- State Department Report 6: Iran's Human Rights Abuses The State Department, September 28, 2018
- Iran prisons head apologises after leaked pictures show abuse, Reuters, Aug 24, 2021.
- No country for minorities: The agony of Iran’s ethnic Arabs, Kurds, Balochis and Azeris, O. Shahbandar, Arab News, March 8, 2021. Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, ethnic Kurds, Arabs and Balochis have faced particularly harsh crackdowns by regime security forces.
- How Yasir Arafat Drove Christians from Bethlehem D. Weinberg, Mosaic Mag., Dec. 28, 2020.
It also highlights how states, and state-sponsored social media, incite hatred and publish propaganda against Christians, especially in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey.
- Persecution of Christians in Iran – Dr Sara Afshari – Article 18, Apr 8, 2019. In recent years, especially since 2010, the state has expanded their harassment and discrimination against Christians into the internet, social media, radio and television... Since October 2010 until December 2018 Rahpoyan produced 1,818 critical views and anti-Christian items, including hate speech and incitement.
- Iran Chamber Society: When "Persia" became "Iran", Iran Chamber
- JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vi. THE PAHLAVI ERA – Encyclopaedia Iranica
- Reza Shah and Adolf Hitler: Iran’s History with the Third Reich, Howard Blum, Feb. 6, 2020
- Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), Iraqi Retreats, 1982-84, Globalsecruity.org, retrieved 20 March 2007.
- Ahmadinejad's Demons: A Child of the Revolution Takes Over, Matthias Küntzel, The New Republic, 24 April 2006 .
- 60% of college enrollees are female, as contrasted with the Sunni Pakistan Taliban where Nobel Peace Prize winner Malala Yousafzai was shot in the head for advocating education for adolescent girls.
- Covert Terror Iran's Parallel Intelligence Apparatus (PDF)
- By 1970, Iran was the United States largest customer for weapons. Earnings from the oil boom after the 1953 coup were funneled into defense. Huge bases were built in the north to monitor the Soviets and along the southern coast to police the Persian Gulf. Higher paid technicians to operate the oil industry and maintain military hardware were mostly foreigners, leading to an obvious income disparity between the Shah's foreign allies and the indigenous population. This provided an opening for Soviet and Eastern bloc agitation amongst the Shi'a for revolutionary Marxist anti-Imperialist propaganda with a religious fervor. 
- The Sudanese regime harbored Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri in the early 1990s
- Bin Laden shared with Iran a desire to depose the House of Saud, and Zawahiri shared with Iran his contempt of the Egyptian regime which made peace with Israel.
- 9/11 COMMISSION REPORT at pp. 240-41.
- Iran's Revolutionary Guards Corps, Inc. Washington Institute, Mehdi Khalaji, Aug 17, 2007
- The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future, Carnegie Council, October 18, 2006
- Conservatives forge ahead in Iran parliament vote, ABC Online, 15 March 2008
- Iran prisons head apologises after leaked pictures show abuse, Reuters, Aug 24, 2021.
- Ultraconservative 'Butcher' Ebrahim Raisi who ordered thousands killed in mass executions and tortured pregnant women wins Iranian presidential election, Gemma Parry for MailOnLine
- Butcher' linked to 30000 deaths set to become new President of Iran, Express, UK, May 23, 2021. THE mastermind behind the massacre of 30000 dissidents has emerged as the regime's favourite to win next month's presidential .
- Iran's next president, set to be ruthless executioner Ebrahim Raisi after sham elections, could be the clerical regime's last – Struan Stevenson The presidential elections scheduled for June 18 in Iran will, as usual, be a sham. By Struan Stevenson, The Scotsman, May 30, 2021.
- The Times view on Ebrahim Raisi: The Butcher of Tehran The Times, June 21, 2021
- Low voter turnout sees 'Butcher of Tehran' named next Iranian president Amnesty International decries results in Iranian elections, says ultraconservative Chief Justice Ebrahim Raisi should be investigated for alleged crimes against humanity. FM Lapid: Raisi's election should prompt renewed determination to immediately halt Iran's nuclear program and put an end to its destructive regional ambitions. By Daniel Siryoti , Dean Shmuel Elmas and News Agencies, Israel Hayom, 06-20-2021
- Horror acts of Iran’s ‘next president’ Ebrahim ‘The Butcher’ Raisi J. Lockett, The Sun, June 19, 2021
- Sen. Graham slams Biden for wanting to rejoin Iran nuclear deal Mark Moore, NYPost, June 20, 2021
- Iran’s Raisi taps minister wanted for role in Buenos Aires Jewish Center bombing, AP and TOI Staff,11 August 2021. New interior minister Ahmad Vahidi sought by Interpol; the president's pick for top diplomat, Hossein Amirabdollahian, is an avowed anti-Westerner with ties to IRGC, Hezbollah.
- Iran's hard-liners push to prosecute Rouhani, Al-Monitor Staff, October 12, 2021
- Iran Hostage Crisis Ends, History.com
- COLUMN ONE: Hezbollah: The Latin Connection : Bombings in Argentina and Panama prompt concern over the radical group's growing presence in the region. Experts say lax security and porous borders create a prime base for terrorists, by Tracy Wilkinson, Times Staff Writer, Los Angeles Times, August 04, 1994.
The embassy's cultural affairs officer, Imam Mohsen Rabbani, rose. "Israel," he intoned in accented Spanish, "must disappear from the face of the Earth." He and a dozen speakers who followed quoted Iran's late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and called for unity in the fight against Zionism and the satanism of the West
- Iran's Strategic Penetration of Latin America. United States: Lexington Books, 2014. 15.
Mohsen Rabbani, who in 1991 stood before a group of Shi'ite Muslims and radical right-wing Argentine activists and stated openly, “Israel must disappear from the face of the Earth,” to universal applause.
- "Iran's Rafsanjani Suggests Nuclear Attack on Israel," World Tribune (London), December 17, 2001.
One of Iran’s most influential ruling clerics called on the Muslim states to use nuclear weapon against Israel, assuring them that while such an attack would annihilate Israel, it would cost them "damages only". The speech by former Iranian President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani failed to catch the attention of the western press but made waves in the Middle East. "If a day comes when the world of Islam is duly equipped with the arms Israel has in its possession, the strategy of colonialism would face a stalemate because application of an atomic bomb would not leave anything in Israel but the same thing would just produce damages in the Muslim world", Former Iranian President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani told the crowd at the traditional Friday prayers in Tehran. In Washington Sunday, administration officials said the United States does not plan to target Iran in the war against terrorism. "Iran is a situation where there are clearly some pressures from young people, there are pressures from women in that country," U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said. "Iran had a different history than Iraq. I don't know, if nothing else happened and one looked at those two countries, I would say the likelihood of Iraq reforming itself is zero. The possibility, the remote possibility of Iran reforming itself is considerably above zero." Dr. Assad Homayou, president of the Azadegan Foundation in Washington, D.C. agreed. "To me the issue is not nuclear weapons but the responsibility of the regime," he said. "This regime is not responsible and that is why I have always emphasized that the removal of this regime is imperative. As the U.S. secretary of defense said the situation with Iran is different from that of Iraq. People only need the moral support of the United States." Analysts told the Iranian Press Service that Rafsanjani's speech marks the first time a prominent leader of the Islamic Republic had openly suggested the use of nuclear weapon against the Jewish State. Rafsanjani advised Western states not to pin their hopes on Israel's violence because it will be "very dangerous". "We are not willing to see security in the world is harmed", he said, warning that a war "of the pious and martyrdom seeking forces against peaks of colonialism will be highly dangerous and might fan flames of World War III." Rafsanjani, who, as the Chairman of the Assembly to Discern the Interests of the State, is the Islamic Republic’s number two man after Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. He was speaking on "International Qods (Jerusalem) Day" which is celebrated in Iran only. The Pentagon, which has pressed for a second stage in the U.S. war against terrorism, does not support any military campaign against Iran. Instead, officials have urged that Washington target the regime of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. On Monday, Iranian President Mohammed Khatami said the stifling of dissent in the country could spark a new wave of student protests, Middle East Newsline reported. Over the last 20 months, officials said, 56 publications have been closed. This includes 24 daily newspapers.U.S. officials acknowledge that Iran is more advanced than Iraq in both missile development and weapons of mass destruction. They said that Iran, with Russian help, has succeeded in advancing its nuclear project and they could arrive at weapons capability as early as 2005.
- Rubenstein, R. L. (2010). Jihad and Genocide. United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 122.
An even more ominous threat was anuttered on January 31, 2002, by Ahmadinejad's superior, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who called for continued terrorism against the “cancerous tumor of Zionism . .,” a biological metaphor often used by political leaders to express genocidal intend.
- Ewen MacAskill and Chris McGreal, Israel should be wiped off map, says Iran's president, The Guardian, 26 Oct 2005.
- Top Commander Reiterates Iran's Commitment to Full Annihilation of Israel, FARS News Agency, May 20, 2012.
- Margaret Wente, Opinion: Cut off Iran? It’s about time, The Globe and Mail, Sep 11, 2012.
- Reza Kahlili, Iran committed to 'full annihilation of Israel,' says top Iranian military commander, The Daily Caller, via Yahoo News, May 20, 2012.
“The Iranian nation is standing for its cause and that is the full annihilation of Israel,” Maj. Gen. Hassan Firouzabadi said in a speech...
- Yoel Goldman, War with ‘cancerous tumor Israel’ will eventually happen, says Iranian general, TOI, 22 September 2012.
Commander of Revolutionary Guard Mohammad Ali Jafari claims Iran will ‘destroy the Jewish state’
- Iran’s Khamenei: We Will Arm Palestinians Until Israel is Wiped Off Map, Algemeiner July 25, 2014.
- ISRAEL MUST BE 'WIPED OFF MAP' AND IRAN HAS 'THE CAPACITY' - Iran Guards chief: Destroying Israel now not a dream but an ‘achievable goal’,
In claim prominently reported in Iran, Major General Hossein Salami declares Tehran able to annihilate 'the impostor Zionist regime'
By AFP and TOI STAFF, 30 September, 2019.
- Asher Stockler, Iran's Supreme Leader 'Echoing Hitler's Call for Genocide' With Palestine 'Resistance' Post, Mike Pompeo Says, Newsweek, 5/22/20. “Khamenei's threats to carry out ‘The Final Solution’ against Israel bring to mind the Nazi 'Final Solution' plan to annihilate the Jewish People,” the Israeli prime minister's office wrote on Twitter.
- Brian Bennet, "Exclusive: Iran Steps up Efforts to Sow Discord Inside the U.S., Time Magazine, June 7, 2021.
- Benjamin Weinthal, Iranian Brig.-Gen. urges destruction of Israel prior to nuke talks, JPost, Nov 28, 2021.
"We will not back off from the annihilation of Israel, even one millimeter..."
- Iran Rep. Urges Israel's 'annihilation' Before Nuclear Talks, i24news, Nov 28, 2021.
Brigadier General Abolfazl Shekarchi, a top-level spokesperson for Iran's armed forces, called for the destruction of Israel on Saturday.
- Lt. Col. M. Segal, (Iran:) "Israel's nuclear weapons will not prevent its destruction (sic)", JCPA, March 11, 2022.
Iran threatens retaliation for killing IRGC (Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps) men in attack on Syria ...The Iranian leader's mouthpiece, 'Kayhan', wrote in its editorial (March 10) that "the time has come to teach an unforgettable lesson to the Zionist entity during the few years left until its eventual eradication from Palestinian land. Israel is wrong if it thinks it has nuclear weapons, from which the International Atomic Energy Agency has hidden an eye, will save it from destruction." At the funeral, the words of the Iranian leader in 2015 were mentioned, according to which Israel will cease to exist for another 25 years, and it was emphasized that the action in Syria is approaching this date.
- Nir Dvori, The Mossad thwarted Iran's attempt to harm Israeli diplomats in Istanbul, N12, 30/04/22
The suspect in the assassination attempt is a member of the Revolutionary Guards. • He was arrested and taken for questioning in a European country.
The Quds Force of Iran's Revolutionary Guards has invited one of its agents to assassinate an employee of the Israeli consulate in Istanbul, according to a report by a US general and French diplomatic sources.
According to the report, the agent is currently under arrest in Europe. He belongs to Unit 840 of the Quds Force, which deals with opponents of the Islamic Republic. He admitted that he received $ 150,000 for the preparations for the assassination, and was supposed to receive $ 1 million after he managed to eliminate the 3 targets. Yesterday marked "Jerusalem Day" in Iran, during which masses took to the streets and there were a series of demonstrations of rage and aggressive speeches. The head of the Revolutionary Guards, Hossein Salami, said: "Israel is creating the conditions for its destruction..."Last February, an attempt to assassinate Israeli businessman Yair Geller in Turkey was thwarted. Israeli and Turkish intelligence forces worked together to thwart the assassination attempt, which came as revenge and in response to the assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Muhsin Fakhrizada in 2020.
- Iran’s Second International Holocaust Cartoon Exhibition Opens On May 14 ADL, May 11, 2016
- Asher Stockler, Iran's Supreme Leader 'Echoing Hitler's Call for Genocide' With Palestine 'Resistance' Post, Mike Pompeo Says, Newsweek, 5/22/20. “Khamenei's threats to carry out ‘The Final Solution’ against Israel bring to mind the Nazi 'Final Solution' plan to annihilate the Jewish People,” the Israeli prime minister's office wrote on Twitter.
- Twitter Must De-Platform Iran's Supreme Leader | Anti-Defamation League, ADL, Mar 19, 2021.
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei uses his social media accounts to spread hatred, violence, and dangerous disinformation.
- "Why won't Twitter ban Khamenei when it permanently suspended Trump?," Arab News, Mar 21, 2021.
DUBAI: Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei is notorious for using his Twitter accounts to incite hate, violence and disinformation.
- Benjamin Kerstein, Top Twitter Exec Declines to Tell Knesset Why Ayatollah’s Calls for Genocide Are Not Banned, Algemeiner, July 29, 2020.
A top Twitter executive who took part in a Knesset hearing on Wednesday declined to say why her company had not taken action against genocidal incitement by Iranian Ayatollah Ali Khamenei...
Arsen Ostrovsky @Ostrov_A:I kid you not! At Knesset hearing on Antisemitism, @Twitter rep tells me they flag @realDonaldTrump because it serves ‘public conversation’, but not Iran's @khamenei_ir call for GENOCIDE, which passes for acceptable 'commentary on political issues of the day'.
- [Iranian Cartoonist Masoud Shojaei Tabatabaei on the Holocaust Cartoon Contests He Organized: Our Contests Were Counterattacks for the P... Muhammad Cartoons https://www.memri.org/tv/iran-holocaust-cartoon-contest-organizer-masoud-shoujaei-tabtabaei], Memri, Sep 9, 2021
- Seth J. Frantzman, Iranian media slanders Zelensky with antisemitic article,” Jerusalem Post, March 10, 2022.
- BenSabti @BeniSabti Tweeted (Apr 27, 2022):
On Holocaust Remembrance Day & QudsDay2022 eve, Iran paper KAYHAN affiliated to Khamenei attacks Jews in a very Antisemitic article: "Jews killed [sic] the Shiite leaders" & praises Hitler "because he was wise [sic] so he tried to get rid of them"!
- Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial in Iran: A Review of State Narratives Since 1979. Iran Wire.
- Press Guide to Holocaust Denial in Iran, USHMM
- UN Assembly condemns Holocaust denial by consensus; Iran disassociates itself, UN, Jan 26, 2007
- Itamar Eichner, History in the United Nations: A decision has passed a Holocaust denial, Ynet, Jan 20, 2022.
A week before the International Holocaust Day, the UN rally adopted in consensus and despite Iran resistance, decision against Holocaust denial. The decision sets for the first time and gives practical tools - but it is only symbolic. Ambassador at UN Erdan: "The Internet becomes an increase of forgery and fraud. No one will distort our history."
Gilad Erdan at the General Rally of the United Nations Before the decision against Holocaust Holocaust President Historical Achievement to Israel a week before the International Holocaust Day and the 80th day to the conference The decision joined 112 countries. Iran opposed the offer ... But there was no voting, since the understanding that would lose in most overwhelming and the proposal would pass.
In the end the proposal went through a full consensus without voting. This is the second time in history that the UN efforts to decide that Israel initiated. The previous decision received 17 years ago, the international Holocaust stipulated today. The decision presents the definition for the Holocaust denial and assimilates responsibility for Internet companies to operate to remove contaminants or distort the Holocaust and reading to the United Nations Companies and the UN institutions to act against Holocaust denial and maintain programs The decision to first give practical tools to war in denial of the Holocaust and distorted.
... "When Adolf Eichmann, the "final solution" architect, was on trial in Israel, the Attorney General Open the prosecution in these moving words: 'At this place, where I stand before you - I do not stand alone; with me are here at this time six million prosecutors. But they can not get up on their feet or point a finger.' I'm here too with six million prosecutors today. But while this decision preserves the memory of six million victims of the past, its purpose is to protect the countless victims of the future."
Following the decision, Arden met with the UN Secretary-General, along with the German Ambassador and Holocaust survivors invited to the UN by the Ambassador. Arden said at the meeting that "this is a historic day and the decision we made today on our own initiative is of great importance.The fact that over 100 countries have joined us that have determined that Holocaust deniers and perversions must be fought - will give us real tools to act against them and also demand responsibility from Internet companies. I thank the UN Secretary-General for his commitment to the fight against anti-Semitism and the war on Holocaust denial, and I thank the German ambassador for joining our initiative and helping to pass it on."
- Udi Evental @UEvental Tweeted: (Feb 5, 2022):
Holocaust denial in which the Iranian regime is involved up to the neck is also related to the vision of the destruction of Israel, since the Holocaust provides legitimacy for its establishment and existence. Tehran supports Holocaust deniers (the best known of whom was Roger Garaudy) and organizes "academic" conferences on the subject. In January this year, Iran was the only country to oppose the UN resolution against Holocaust denial.
- Iran Alone Among 193 UN Members To Oppose Holocaust Resolution, Iran Intl, Jan 20, 2022.
The UN General Assembly on Thursday agreed on a definition of denial of the Holocaust and urged social media companies "to take active measures" to combat antisemitism.
"The General Assembly is sending a strong and unambiguous message against the denial or the distortion of these historical facts," said Germany's UN Ambassador Antje Leendertse. "Ignoring historical facts increases the risk that they will be repeated."
While the 193-member General Assembly adopted the resolution - drafted by Israel and Germany - without a vote, Iran disassociated itself from the text over Israel's "occupation of Palestine and parts of Syria and Lebanon."
Israel's UN mission did not immediately respond to a request for comment on Iran's statement.
The General Assembly resolution spelled out that distortion and denial of the Holocaust refers to Intentional efforts to excuse or minimize the impact of the Holocaust, gross minimization of the number of the victims in contradiction to reliable sources and attempts to blame the Jews for causing their own genocide.The resolution also said statements that cast the Holocaust as a positive historical event constitute denial, and "urges member states and social media companies to take active measures to combat antisemitism and Holocaust denial or distortion by means of information and communications technologies and to facilitate reporting of such content."
- Dina Siegel Vann, 25 Years since the AMIA Bombing: Hezbollah and Antisemitism, AJC, July 17, 2019
This piece originally appeared in El País . This year marks 25 years of impunity following the terrible terrorist attack against the headquarters of the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA) in Buenos Aires. On July 18, 1994, following multiple warnings about the possibility of a new attack at the hands of Iran and its Hezbollah henchmen, and after the bombing in 1992 of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, a van loaded with explosives detonated in front of the building that represented the institutional heart of Judaism in Argentina. The attack left 85 civilians dead and over 300 injured of multiple nationalities. The attack is considered the worst antisemitic attack in the world since World War II. It shook Argentine society to its core and created a deep sense of vulnerability in the Jewish world at large. Beyond the many surprising twists and turns in a case that is yet to be deciphered, and despite continuous declarations of commitment from governments that pledge to carry the investigation to its final conclusion, the Argentine government still comes up short. There have been low points, such as the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding with Iran by president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, which resulted in condemnation by the Jewish communities in Argentina and around the world, and more importantly, by the relatives of the victims. However, from the outset, evidence tampering, the slow pace with which evidence was processed, and extreme politicization have been obstacles to bringing the culprits to justice. There have been, however, some glimmers of light on a road marked mostly by darkness. One of the few concrete steps toward explaining the motives behind the attack,which singled out the international perpetrators of what is now known as a crime against humanity, was the investigation by Special Prosecutor Alberto Nisman. Nisman’s premature and regrettable death remains a mystery.Nisman concluded for the first time and beyond doubt that Iranian authorities at the highest levels were the masterminds behind the attack. In 2007, during an Interpol meeting in Morocco, Nisman presented his report. After months of debate and repeated attempts by the Iranian government to sabotage the process, “red notices” were issued against five Iranian government officials.
- 25 Years Since the AMIA Bombing, Wilson Center, Jul. 12, 2019.
It has been 25 years since the 1994 bombing of the AMIA Jewish community center in Buenos Aires. Eighty-five people were killed and hundreds wounded. Despite evidence of Iran and Hezbollah's roles in the attack, to date, no one has been held accountable. The Latin American Program's Argentina Project, in partnership with The Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD), hosted a public seminar discussing the anniversary of the bombing and implications for counterterrorism challenges globally.
- Bombing of Alas Chiricanas Airlines Flight 00901, FBI.
July 19, 1994, Panama.
Ali Hawa Jamal. He is suspected of carrying the bomb aboard the aircraft.According to reports, an unidentified Middle Eastern male used the stolen credit card of a US citizen to rent a Mazda 4x4 at a Vantage Rent-a-Car located in Panama City, Panama, on May 27, 1994...
- Joanna Paraszczuk, Palestinian jihadist group splits from Hezbollah, JPost,
Dec 6, 2012.
Sources tell Lebanese paper that Iran-backed Ansar Allah is cultivating ties with al-Qaida affiliates.
Ansar Allah was unknown until July 1994, when it issued a statement expressing support for the deadly bombing of the AMIA Jewish center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hezbollah and Iran are widely suspected to have been behind that attack, which killed 85 people.Ansar Allah and Hezbollah are also suspected of involvement in another terror attack, the bombing of a commuter aircraft, Alas Chiricanas Flight 00901, in Panama on the night of July 19, 1994 – a day after the AMIA bombing. A semtex plastic explosive charge, carried by a man calling himself Lya Jamal, went off killing 21 passengers, 12 of them Jewish.
- PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM, 1994: LATIN AMERICAN OVERVIEW.
PanamaOn 19 July a bomb aboard a commuter plane flying between Colon and Panama City detonated, killing all 21 persons aboard, including three American citizens. Twelve of the passengers were Jews. According to media reports, an organization using the name Ansar Allah, or Followers of God, issued a statement expressing support for the bombing, which appeared to be a suicide operation by a person with a Middle Eastern name. Panama has made no arrests in connection with the bombing, but it is cooperating closely with a US law enforcement investigation.
- [https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-44207991 Panama says new evidence shows 1994 plane crash 'terrorist' incident, BBC, May 22, 2018
[Image caption, The bombing of the Israeli-Argentine Mutual Association (Amia) Jewish community in Buenos Aires shocked the world].
A plane crash in Panama in 1994 that killed 21 people, many of them Jews, was the result of a terrorist incident, Panama's president has said.
Juan Carlos Varela said the evidence came from Israeli intelligence and he had asked for the case to be reopened.
Prominent Jewish businessmen were among those on board the plane that crashed shortly after take off on 19 July 1994.
The crash happened the day after a bombing at a Jewish centre in the Argentine capital, killing 85 people.
Speaking to reporters in Panama on Monday, President Varela said he would ask local and international authorities to reopen the investigation into the plane crash, "given intelligence reports that clearly show it was a terrorist attack".
He has just returned from Israel, where he met Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. At a joint news conference there, he referred to a letter he received from Mr Netanyahu last November "confirming that I lost my roommate and a senior member of the Panamanian Jewish community to a terrorist attack conducted by Hezbollah in Panama some years ago".
Nineteen passengers and three crew members were on board Alas Chiricanas Airlines Flight 901 to Panama City when it exploded shortly after take off from Enrique Jimenez airport in Colon. Twelve of the passengers were Jews.
At the time, the country's President-elect Ernesto Perez Balladares said it appeared that a bomb had exploded inside the cabin, but this was never confirmed.The FBI has previously said that a man named Ali Hawa Jamal was believed to have carried the bomb on to the plane and died in the explosion. He was described as being around 25-28 years old, of Middle Eastern appearance, and had previously travelled to Lebanon, Venezuela and Colombia.
- Juan José Rodríguez,Relatives In Panama Still Seek Justice For 1994 'Terror' Attack, Baarons, July 19, 2020
... In Panama, investigations have centered on a passenger named Ali Hawa Jamal, who is believed to have detonated a bomb concealed in a radio. An FBI statement said Jamal was the only person aboard whose body was never claimed.The FBI suspects Jamal belonged to the same Shiite Hezbollah group that, one day earlier, had detonated a car-bomb that killed 85 people and injured hundreds of people at the headquarters of a Jewish charity in Buenos Aires, the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association.
- "Iran set up fake social media network to stoke violence, tensions in Israel – report", TOI STAFF, 3 Feb 2022.
‘Aduk’ group, masquerading as a nationalist and ultra-Orthodox news outlet, redistributed extremist and anti-Muslim material to encourage attacks on Arab Israelis, BBC says.
Iran is suspected of setting up a social media network targeting Israeli nationalist and ultra-Orthodox Jews in order to encourage violence against Arab Israelis and stoke tensions in the country, according to a Thursday report by the BBC. According to the Israeli disinformation watchdog FakeReporter, which uncovered the group’s suspected Iranian origin, its goal was to help fuel “religious war” by amplifying “fear, hatred and chaos.”According to the report, the “Aduk” or “strictly religious” group presented itself as a “virtual religious union for the religious public.”
- Damian Pachter and ILH Staff, "Report: Iran behind on-line propaganda campaign to foment 'religious war' in Israel", ILH, Feb 4, 2022.
According to watchdog group FakeReporter, the on-line ultra-Orthodox group "Aduk" was, in fact, an Iranian unit that sought to amplify "fear, hatred, and chaos" in Israeli society.
- "Iran Tried To Incite Chareidim Against Arabs," YWN, February 6, 2022
- Iran Takes on the World Jamsheed K. Choksy, The Hudson inst.
- Missiles fired from Iran fall near US consulate in Erbil, Iraq - report, Jerusalem Post, Mar 12, 2022.
Some 12 missiles were fired from Iranian territory and fell near the US consulate in Erbil in northwestern Iraq on Saturday night.
The Kurdistan Counter-Terrorism Service announced that 12 ballistic missiles were fired from "outside the borders of Iraq and the Kurdistan region, specifically from the east," according to the Iraqi News Agency (INA).Independent open-source intelligence (OSINT) accounts shared videos reportedly shared by Iranian civilians showing missiles being fired from Iran at the time of the attack, with at least one of the videos being geolocated to a site in Khasabad in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran.
- roi kais • روعي كايس • רועי קייס (@kaisos1987) Tweeted (March 13, 2022):
Indeed, I have not seen a united Iraq around anything for a long time. Condemnations all-over-the-map [in Iraq] against Iran following the missile attack, from Erbil to Baghdad, including the "crowner" of kings Shiite preacher Muqtada al-Sadr. Why is this interesting? Because the shooting of the Iranians takes place on days when there is some breakthrough in the contacts for the formation of the government with the participation of factions affiliated with Iran.
- Fox News Sunday, Mar 13, 2022
- Farnaz Fassihi (@farnazfassihi) Tweeted (Mar 14, 2022):
Update from @EricSchmittNYT: A senior Biden administration official refuted the earlier comment by a US official, saying the administration believes that the building that was hit was a civilian residence only and did not also serve as an Israeli training site.-IntelOmarion (@IntelOmarion) Tweeted (Mar 14, 2022):
@farnazfassihi @EricSchmittNYT Seriously? This is extremely unprofessional and dangerous reporting. Your previous claims have only fuelled Iranian propaganda & will enable further attacks on Iraq.
- Bennett on Iraqis’ call for normalization: ‘Israel extends its hand in peace’ By TOI Staff, 25 September 2021.
PM praises gathering of hundreds of Sunni and Shiite notables, says 'recognition of the historical injustice done to the Jews of Iraq is especially important'.
Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said Saturday night that “Israel extends its hand back in peace” in response to a Friday meeting of over 300 prominent Iraqis calling for their country to normalize ties with the Jewish state.
“Hundreds of Iraqi public figures, Sunnis and Shiites, gathered yesterday to call for peace with Israel,” Bennett said in a tweet.
“This is a call that comes from below and not from above, from the people and not from the government, and the recognition of the historical injustice done to the Jews of Iraq is especially important.”
“The State of Israel extends its hand back in peace,” the prime minister added...
At Friday’s conference in the Kurdistan region, Iraqi participants called on their country’s leaders to end the state of war and join the so-called Abraham Accords.
The agreements, formulated by the administration of former United States president Donald Trump, were signed on the White House lawn in September 2020 between Israel, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. Morocco and Sudan signed normalization agreements with Israel in the ensuing months.
“We demand full diplomatic relations with the State of Israel… and a new policy of normalization based on people-to-people relations with the citizens of that country,” said Wisam al-Hardan, who commanded Sunni tribal militias that aligned with the US to fight al-Qaeda in 2005, in response to the power vacuum that followed the 2003 American invasion...
The gathering, which included Sunni and Shiite Muslim tribal leaders, social activists and former military commanders, took place in Iraqi Kurdistan’s capital of Erbil. It was organized by the Center for Peace Communications, a New York-based nonprofit that seeks to advance closer ties between Israelis and the Arab world.
Other attendees from around the region spoke virtually to the participants, including former UAE official Ali al-Na’imi and Chemi Peres, the son of former Israeli president Shimon Peres.
Calling the expulsion of Iraq’s Jews “the most infamous act” in the country’s decline, al-Hardan said that Iraq “must reconnect with the whole of our diaspora, including these Jews.”
Other Iraqis who participated in the conference urged their country to rebuild ties with those who arrived in Israel fleeing persecution, as well as their descendants..
A flourishing Iraqi Jewish community lived in the country for centuries, mostly in the central city of Baghdad. But as British colonial rule ended in Iraq and the State of Israel was born in Mandatory Palestine, everything began to change.
A vicious 1941 pogrom, known in Arabic as the Farhud, saw the deaths of hundreds of Iraqi Jews at the hands of their compatriots in Baghdad. The attacks were sparked by rumors that Jews had helped the British retake power in Iraq following a coup by pro-Nazi Iraqi generals.
After Israel was founded in 1948, Iraq began persecuting those Jews who remained. The government made Zionism a criminal offense and began firing Iraqi Jews from the civil service en masse. Other Jewish Iraqis were arrested and executed as suspected spies.Between 1950 and 1952, over 100,000 Iraqi Jews emigrated to Israel as part of Operation Ezra and Nehemiah. With others driven to emigrate by further decades of repression and war, only a handful of Jews remain.
- Aaron Boxerman, "After death threats, Iraqis who attended pro-Israel normalization summit recant", TOI, 30 September 2021.
Speaker says he didn’t mean to call for peace with Israel, others say they were misled about conference’s content; pro-Iran militia says normalizers are 'legitimate targets.'
- Iraqi PM Unharmed After Drone Attack Amid Escalating Tensions With Iran-Backed Militias RFE/RL, Nov 7, 2021.
Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi addresses the nation following a drone strike that targeted his residence in Baghdad on November 7. Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi addresses the nation following a drone strike that targeted his residence in Baghdad on November 7.
Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi survived an attack by an armed drone on his residence on November 7 amid escalating tensions over the refusal of Iran-backed militias to accept last month's parliamentary election results.
The Baghdad residence inside the city's fortified Green Zone was hit by a rocket attack early on November 7, the prime minister’s office said in a statement.Kadhimi was unharmed in the attack, which the statement said was a “failed assassination attempt.”
- Hussain Abdul-Hussain @hahussain Tweeted (Nov 6, 2021):
The Middle East will never be cured until the #Iran regime is obliterated. All other analysis is just for crisis management.
- Iran-backed militia behind attack on Iraqi PM - security officials, sources, Reuters, JPost, Nov 8, 2021
- Katelyn Caralle, How 'fake' DHS agents spent 18 MONTHS trying to 'infiltrate Secret Service and Jill Biden's detail', Daily Mail Online, Apr 7, 2022.
Two fake Homeland agents - one 'with ties to Pakistani intelligence and multiple Iranian visas' - spent 18 months 'infiltrating and buying gifts for Jill Biden's Secret Service detail' in luxury DC building where they all lived and partied.
- Michael Balsamo, "US: Man impersonated agent, claimed ties to Pakistani intel," AP, via WaPo, April 7, 2022.
WASHINGTON — One of two men accused of impersonating federal agents and giving actual Secret Service agents gifts and free apartments in Washington has claimed to have ties to Pakistani intelligence and had visas showing travel to Pakistan and Iran, federal prosecutors said Thursday.
The men, Arian Taherzadeh, 40, and Haider Ali, 35, were arrested Wednesday. The FBI raided a luxury apartment building in Southeast Washington, where the men were staying and had been offering free apartments and other gifts to U.S. Secret Service agents and officers.During a court appearance Thursday, Assistant U.S. Attorney Joshua Rothstein said Ali had told witnesses that he was affiliated with the Inter-Services Intelligence agency in Pakistan and that he had multiple visas from Pakistan and Iran in the months before prosecutors believe the men began impersonating U.S. law enforcement officials. Rothstein said the U.S. has not yet been able to verify the veracity of Ali’s claims to the witnesses.
- Mossad reportedly interrogated IRGC member in Iran over triple assassination plot, TOI, Apr 30, 2022.
- Staff, Mossad operates in Iran, foils IRGC plot to kill Israeli diplomat, US general, Jerusalem Post, April 30, 2022.
Iran's Quds Force reportedly also planned to assassinate a senior American military general in Germany and a journalist in France.The Mossad – operating in Iran – apprehended and interrogated an Iranian national who was leading a plot to kill an Israeli diplomat and a US general, sources have confirmed.
- Tal lev Ram @tallevram Tweeted:
(Apr 30, 2022):
No less interesting than the operation of the Mossad that arrested and released a few months ago after an investigation in Iran the Quds Force man Mansour Rassouli in connection with the planning of the assassination of one of the employees of the Israeli consulate in Turkey, is the decision to reveal the information and video. It is no coincidence that the guy probably survived. The battle for consciousness against the Iranians is part of the event.
- Chants Of 'Death To The Saud Clan!' And 'America Is The Great Satan!' During Gaza Rally In Support Of Houthis In Yemen, Memri, Jan 22, 2022. 
On January 22, 2022, videos were uploaded to several YouTube channels of demonstrations in Gaza in support of the Houthis in Yemen. The demonstrators waved Palestinian and Yemeni flags and posters with the images of IRGC Qods Force Commander General Qasem Soleimani, of Hizbullah Chief of Staff Imad Mughniyah, and Hizbullah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah. The demonstrators chanted: "Death to the Saud clan!... America is the Great Satan!" Leader: "Salutations from Gaza!"Crowd: "Salutations from Gaza!"
- Iran’s Strategic Penetration of Latin America: Consequences for U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security. By Magdalena Defort and William Preston McLaughlin. SWJ, Jan 20, 2020.
The Contemporary Islamic Threat
Two centuries later, history has come full circle. In 2017, Senator Marco Rubio spoke to the U.S. Senate about the threat to national and regional security posed by the extra–hemispheric power called the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI). According to Rubio, between 2008 and 2012, fraudulent passports, national IDs and birth certificates were issued by the Venezuelan Embassy in Baghdad to foreign nationals with ties to terrorist group, including 173 people from Iran, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Jordan. The individual who uncovered this information was Misael López Soto (lawyer and legal attaché in the Venezuelan Embassy in Baghdad), a Venezuelan national assigned to the Venezuelan Embassy in Iraq in 2015. Soto became a whistleblower and revealed the identity of several of these potential terrorists. He also discovered that Venezuelan Vice–President Tareck El Aissami, a strong candidate to be the future leader of his country, facilitated the issue of hundreds of Venezuelan passports to suspected Hezbollah members.
Despite the fact that these activities were revealed in a CNN documentary and a handful of Iranians using the fraudulent passports were arrested, there is no substantial evidence that the Venezuelan government intended to stop its Baghdad embassy’s wrongdoing. Senator Rubio’s exposure of how a Latin American country could facilitate the movement of terrorist groups throughout the Middle East and Latin America, and how these groups have allegedly interfered in Venezuela’s democratic process by influencing its elections, show how effectively Iran and its proxy forces have gained the cooperation of some Latin America governments.Although the Middle East presence in Latin America dates back to the early 1900s, the 1979 Iranian revolution that brought the Ayatollah Khomeini to power firmly established the Islamic Republic’s presence in the region. Since then, Iran has used every agency within its borders to help extend Iranian tentacles into the political, cultural, economic, and military life of Latin America. Iranian operatives have even infiltrated existing Latin American criminal networks and now operate freely within them. All of this activity follows the “Pattern of Penetration” model put forth by Ilan Berman and Joseph M. Humire.
- Corruption in Venezuela: The Alex Saab Case, CSIS, June 24, 2020
- Joseph M. Humire, The Maduro-Hezbollah Nexus: How Iran-backed Networks Prop up the Venezuelan Regime, Atlantic Council, October 7, 2020.
- Too often, Hezbollah in Venezuela is characterized as only a potential terrorist threat. In reality, the Lebanese terrorist group has helped to turn Venezuela into a hub for the convergence of transnational organized crime and international terrorism.
- Hezbollah's crime-terror network in Venezuela has facilitated Iran's cooperation with the Maduro regime.
- The United States, allies, and international institutions must ramp up regional counterterrorism collaboration, crack down on illicit financial networks, and build stronger ties with Lebanese and other Arab communities in Latin America.
- The fall of Qasem Soleimani and the Mahdi Doctrine, Jpost, Jan 29, 2020
- Why Iran's Top Leaders Believe That the End of Days Has Come, Fox News, Nov 7, 2011.
- Radical Islam? Apocalyptic Islam Poses the Greater Threat, NRO, Sep 11, 2015
- Nazarian, Adelle (October 13, 2017). A Brief Timeline of Iran-Sponsored Terrorism Since 1979. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Lee, Matthew (July 19, 2017). Iran still top state sponsor of terrorism, U.S. report says. PBS (from the Associated Press). Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Iran's Proxies Are More Powerful Than Ever, RAND, Oct. 16, 2019.
- War by Proxy: Iran’s Growing Footprint in the Middle East, CSIS Briefs, March 11, 2019
- Hezbollah: Revolutionary Iran's most successful export, Brookings Institution, Jan 17, 2019
- Designating Hezbollah As A Terrorist Group Is A Legal Tool, Joseph M. Humire. SFS, Jan 21, 2020
- Fighting Terror in the Tri-Border Area, Wilson Center, Dec 9, 2019
- Iran and Hezbollah's Presence Around the World, Lawfare, Jan 8, 2020
- Rohan Gunaratna, "Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror," (Columbia University Press, 2002), p.146
- The 9/11 Commission Report Page 257 (PDF)
- Iran’s Support for al-Qaeda is Incompatible with FATF Standards, FDD, Feb 6, 2019
- Elliot Gotkine, ISIS attack kills two and injures six in Israel, CNN, March 28, 2022.
(CNN) ISIS operatives killed two people and injured six in a shooting attack Sunday in the Israeli city of Hadera, some 31 miles north of Tel Aviv, Israeli officials said. The attack — the second of its kind in a week — coincided with a landmark regional summit in Israel's Negev desert, where top diplomats from the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco, Egypt, Israel and the United States are meeting to discuss security issues."We condemn today's terrorist attack in Hadera, Israel," US Secretary of State Antony Blinken tweeted on Sunday from Israel. "Such senseless acts of violence and murder have no place in society. We stand with our Israeli partners and send our condolences to the families of the victims."
- roi kais • روعي كايس • רועי קייס (@kaisos1987) Tweeted: (March 27, 2022):
ISIS also issued an official proclamation accepting responsibility for the attack in Hadera: "The "infidel" Jews must know that the promises (to harm them) will come to them sooner or later. With the help of Allah."
- roi kais • روعي كايس • רועי קייס @kaisos1987 Tweeted Mar 28, 2022):
Hezbollah welcomes the attack in Hadera yesterday. A statement from the organization said that the attack underscores the desire of the Palestinian people to fight ...and that it is a practical response to the normalization meetings held by some Arab regimes with the enemy entity.
- Seth J. Frantznam, Hezbollah praises Hadera terrorist attack as ‘response’ to Negev Summit - analysis, JPost, March 28, 2022.
The statement called this a heroic “confrontation” with Israel. The article noted that the perpetrators were from Umm el-Fahm, a large Arab-Israeli city.
Iran’s Fars News Agency also highlighted the attack. Fars is considered close to the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. The IRGC and Iran generally back Hezbollah. The statement at Fars called this a “martyrdom operation” and said Hezbollah had congratulated the perpetrators...
The context here is that the operation appears to be linked to ISIS, which is a jihadist group that generally is opposed to Shi’ites and Iran. That means that in this case, even though the perpetrators are apparently Islamist extremists, pro-Iranian groups nevertheless back the attack...
Iran backs Hamas, which is a Sunni group linked to the Muslim Brotherhood.This complexity of Sunni, Shi’ite, Hezbollah, Hamas, Iran and other countries sometimes being against each other, and sometimes on the same side, is one of the features of the region. In general, ISIS has not targeted Israel in recent years, and jihadist groups have focused their energies elsewhere. But Iranian-backed groups have focused their energies on fighting Israel.
- Kan News (@kann_news) Tweeted (Apr 10, 2022):
Sources in Cairo here News: Islamic Jihad, backed by Iran, is key to escalation - Jihad spokesman in Gaza: 'If Israeli "aggression" [sic] continues - all fronts will explode."'
- (Ghoraba, Hany). Why Egypt Supports U.S. Withdrawal From Iran Nuclear Deal. The Investigative Project On Terrorism. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
- "GOP lawmaker slams Biden after three of his team negotiating," Daily Mail, Jan 25, 2022.
- State Sponsors: Iran, Greg Bruno, Council on Foreign Relations, Updated: October 13, 2011. cfr.org
- Imams call People to Islamic Unity, Muhammad Rida al-Muzaffar. imamalinet.net
- IRGC General Gholamali Rashid: Hizbullah In Lebanon, Hamas And PIJ In Palestine, PMU In Iraq, And The Houthis In Yemen Are All Armies Ready To Defend The Iranian Regime, Memri, Sep 30, 2021.
- Ahmadinejad Announces Iran Uranium Enrichment Milestone Associated Press, Fox News, November 07, 2007
- Report contradicts Bush on Iran nuclean program
- Iran Acknowledges That FBI Agent Gone Missing Since 2007 Involved In Ongoing Court Case Ryan Saavedra, Nov 9, 2019, DailyWire.com
- "Country Reports on Terrorism 2019".
- Reagan deserves credit for 1981 hostage release, AEI, Jan 27, 2016
- Ahwazi: Ethnic Cleansing in Full Force in Iran - UNPO, Feb 28, 2006.
- Religious Apartheid in Iran, H.E. Chehabi, Mei, January 29, 2009
- Sunnis speak of the "Prophet and his companions" as the source of divine inspiration, whereas the Shi'a reject the companions (the first 3 "Rightly-Guided Caliphs") and follow the Prophet's bloodline (the "First Imam").
- Iran Does Far Worse Than Ignore Gays, Critics Say Fox News, September 25, 2007
- Iran has 10 military bases in Syria, two near Israel border, TOI, Feb 19, 2018. Up to 20,000 fighters from various militias throughout the war-torn country have been trained by Iranian military personnel, giving Tehran its “true muscle” in Syria, according to the Monday report in The New York Times...
- Iran Strengthens Military Presence in Eastern Syria, Voice of America, Nov 23, 2020.
Iranian forces continue to expand their military presence in parts of eastern Syria, a move, analysts say, that could undermine U.S.-led efforts in the fight against the remnants of the Islamic State (IS) terror group.
Iran, a major backer of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's regime, controls parts of the eastern Syrian province of Deir el-Zour, particularly areas along the border with Iraq. With the help of thousands of foreign and local militiamen, Iran's elite Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) has consolidated its hold over a large territory in Syria since the beginning of the country's civil war in 2011.The United States in 2019 designated the IRGC as a foreign terrorist organization for its destabilizing role in the Middle East.
- The Baluch insurgency: linking Iran to Pakistan, The Sistan and Baluchistan Province of Iran has long been associated with instability and armed conflict. NOREF (PDF)
- Iran leader calls for alliance against West.
- Purim, Haddasah Hospital in Jerusalem, and Iran's Nuclear Bomb
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