Ishmael (Hebrew יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Yišmāʿêl; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismā'īl; "God will hear") (2094 AM–2231 AM, or 1910 BC-1774 BC) was the first, but illegitimate, son of Abraham, credited to Sarah but actually born to Hagar. He is the progenitor of many Arab tribes. Islamic tradition holds that he is the direct ancestor of Muhammad and also that he, not Isaac, was the son that Abraham nearly sacrificed on Mount Moriah.
Descendants and Death
12 Tribes of Ishmael
- Nabajoth: Nabataean Arabs.
- Kedar: Saudi Arabians and Iraqis.
- Adbeel: Sinai Bedouins.
- Mibsam: Eastern Saudi Arabians (merged with Mishma).
- Mishma: Mesha in Yemen. (merged with Mibsam).
- Dumah: Dumat al-Gandal.
- Massa: Jordanians and Northern Arabians.
- Hadar: Christian Jordanians, Syrians, and Hadramites in southern Arabia.
- Tema: Taima in northern Arabia.
- Jetur: Bahraini Arabs.
- Naphish: Tunisian/Libyan Arabs (originally from Central Arabia merged with Carthaginians/Berbers).
- Kedemah: Algerian/Moroccan Arabs (originally from Central and South Arabia merged with Berbers).
Paul mentioned, in writing to the Galatians, that Ishmael was a son "born after flesh," while Isaac was a "son of promise." Thus Ishmael, according to Paul, is a type of the original Abrahamic covenant, while Isaac is a type of the Christian covenant, the covenant of grace.
Ishmael in Islam
- Main Article: Qur'an
The name of Ishmael nowhere appears in the Qur'an. However, later generations of Muslims came to insist that Ishmael, not Isaac, was the son that Abraham almost sacrificed on Mount Moriah.
Ishmael in popular culture