Template:Infobox Person Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC/BCE—26–36 AD/CE), also known as Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity and is revered by most Christian churches as the Son of God and the incarnation of God. Islam considers Jesus a prophet, and he is an important figure in certain other religions.
The principal sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical gospels though some scholars argue that other texts (such as the Gospel of Thomas) are as relevant as the canonical gospels to the historical Jesus. Most critical scholars in the fields of history and biblical studies believe that ancient texts on Jesus' life are at least partially accurate, agreeing that Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was regarded as a teacher and healer. They also generally accept that he was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on orders of the Roman Prefect of Judaea Pontius Pilate, on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire. Aside from these few conclusions, academic studies remain inconclusive about the chronology, the central message of Jesus' preaching, his social class, cultural environment, and religious orientation.
Christian views of Jesus (see also Christology) center on the belief that Jesus is divine, is the Messiah whose coming was prophesied in the Old Testament, and that he was resurrected after his crucifixion. Christians predominantly believe that Jesus is the "Son of God" (generally meaning that he is God the Son, the second person in the Trinity), who came to provide salvation and reconciliation with God by his death for their sins. Other Christian beliefs include Jesus' virgin birth, performance of miracles, ascension into Heaven, and future Second Coming. While the doctrine of the Trinity is widely accepted by Christians, a small minority instead hold various nontrinitarian beliefs concerning the divinity of Jesus.
In Islam, Jesus (Template:Lang-ar, commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets, a bringer of scripture, and a worker of miracles. Jesus is also called "Messiah," but Islam does not teach that he was divine. Islam denies the death and resurrection of Jesus, believing instead that he ascended bodily to heaven.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Chronology
- 3 Life and teachings, as told in the Gospels
- 4 Historical views
- 5 Religious perspectives
- 5.1 Christian views
- 5.2 Islamic views
- 5.3 Judaism's view
- 5.4 Bahá'í views
- 5.5 Hindu views
- 5.6 Buddhist views
- 5.7 Other views
- 6 Legacy
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The name “Jesus” is an Anglicisation of the Greek Template:Polytonic (Template:Lang), itself a Hellenisation of the Hebrew Template:Lang (Yehoshua) or Hebrew-Aramaic Template:Lang (Yeshua), meaning “YHWH rescues”. “Christ” is a title derived from the Greek Template:Polytonic (Template:Lang), meaning the “Anointed One”, which corresponds to the Hebrew-derived “Messiah”. Another common name for Jesus, Emmanuel or Immanuel is derived from the Aramaic "Imman-el", which translates as "God with us".
For a more detailed treatment, see Chronology of Jesus.
Scholars do not know the exact year or date of Jesus' birth or death. The Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke place Jesus' birth under the reign of Herod the Great, who died in 4 BC/BCE, although the Gospel of Luke also describes the birth as taking place during the first census of the Roman provinces of Syria and Iudaea in 6 AD/CE. Scholars generally assume a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC/BCE. Due to a fourth century arrangement to offset the pagan Roman Saturnalia festival, the birth of Jesus is celebrated on December 25. Since the thirteenth century, celebration of the Christmas ("Christ's Mass") has become an important Christian tradition. The common Western standard for numbering years, in which the current year is 2020, is based on an early medieval attempt to count the years from Jesus' birth.
Jesus' ministry followed that of John the Baptist. The Gospels, Josephus, and Tacitus name Pontius Pilate as the Roman prefect who had Jesus crucified, and Pilate was prefect of Judea between 26 and 36 AD/CE. According to Matthew, Mark and Luke, Jesus was executed after Passover (a Jewish holiday occurring in northern spring) but according to John he was executed earlier in the day of preparation for the passover. Most Christians commemorate Jesus' crucifixion on Good Friday and celebrate his resurrection on Easter Sunday.
Life and teachings, as told in the Gospels
For a more detailed treatment, see New Testament view on Jesus' life.
Template:Gospel Jesus The Bible's four canonical gospels are the principal sources for the traditional Christian biography of Jesus' life. Scholars, although considering the gospel accounts to be historically useful, differ widely as to their reliability.
The Gospels (especially Matthew) present Jesus' birth, life, death, and resurrection as fulfillments of prophecies found in the Hebrew Bible. See, for example, the virgin birth, the flight into Egypt, Immanuel (Isaiah 7:14), and the suffering servant.
Character of Jesus
Each gospel portrays Jesus' life and its meaning differently. The gospel of John is not a biography of Jesus but a theological presentation of him as the divine Logos. To combine these four stories into one story is tantamount to creating a fifth story, one different from each original.
Mark presents Jesus a heroic, charismatic man of action and mighty deeds. Matthew portrays him especially as the fulfillment of Hebrew prophecy and as a greater Moses. Luke emphasizes Jesus' miraculous powers and his support for the poor and for women. John views Jesus' earthly life as a manifestation of the eternal Word.
Genealogy and family
Of the four gospels, only Matthew and Luke give accounts of Jesus' genealogy. The accounts in the two gospels are substantially different. The genealogies cannot be harmonized and contemporary scholars generally view the genealogies as theological constructs. More specifically, some have suggested that Matthew wants to underscore birth of a messianic child of royal lineage (mentioning Solomon) whereas Luke's genealogy is priestly (mentioning Levi).. Both accounts trace his line back to King David and from there to Abraham. These lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ between David and Joseph. Matthew starts with Solomon and proceeds through the kings of Judah to the last king, Jeconiah. After Jeconiah, the line of kings terminated when Babylon conquered Judah. Thus, Matthew shows Jesus as a descendant of the kings of Israel. Luke's genealogy is longer than Matthew's; it goes back to Adam and provides more names between David and Jesus.
The New Testament books of Matthew, Mark, and Galatians tell of Jesus' relatives, including what may have been brothers and sisters. The Greek word adelphos in these verses, often translated as brother, can refer to any familial relation, and most Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians translate the word as kinsman or cousin in this context (see Perpetual virginity of Mary). Luke also mentions that Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, was a "cousin" or "relative" of Mary (Template:Niv), which would make John a distant cousin of Jesus.
Nativity and early life
According to Matthew and Luke, Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea to Mary, a virgin, by a miracle of the Holy Spirit. The Gospel of Luke gives an account of the angel Gabriel visiting Mary to tell her that she was chosen to bear the Son of God (Template:Niv). According to Luke, an order of Caesar Augustus had forced Mary and Joseph to leave their homes in Nazareth and come to the home of Joseph's ancestors, the house of David, for the Census of Quirinius.
After Jesus' birth, the couple was forced to use a manger in place of a crib because of a shortage of accommodation (Template:Niv). According to Luke, an angel announced Jesus' birth to shepherds who left their flocks to see the newborn child and who subsequently publicized what they had witnessed throughout the area (see The First Noël). Matthew tells of the "Wise Men" or "Magi" who brought gifts to the infant Jesus after following a star which they believed was a sign that the King of the Jews had been born (Template:Niv).
Jesus' childhood home is identified as the town of Nazareth in Galilee. Except for a journey to Egypt by his family in his infancy to escape Herod's Massacre of the Innocents and a short trip to Tyre and Sidon (in what is now Lebanon), the Gospels place all other events in Jesus' life in ancient Israel. According to Matthew, the family remained in Egypt until Herod's death, whereupon they settled in Nazareth to avoid living under the authority of Herod's son and successor Archelaus (Template:Niv).
Only Luke tells that Jesus was found teaching in the temple by his parents after being lost. The Finding in the Temple (Template:Niv) is the only event between Jesus' infancy and baptism mentioned in any of the canonical Gospels, however infancy gospels were popular in antiquity. According to Luke, Jesus was "about thirty years of age" when he was baptized (Template:Niv). In Mark, Jesus is called a carpenter. Matthew says he was a carpenter's son, however, the Greek word used in the Gospel is "tekton" meaning "builder," which suggests he could have been an artisan of some type as well.(Template:Niv, Template:Niv).
Baptism and Temptation
For more detailed treatments, see Baptism of Jesus and Temptation of Jesus.
All three synoptic Gospels describe the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist, an event which Biblical scholars describe as the beginning of Jesus' public ministry. According to these accounts, Jesus came to the Jordan River where John the Baptist had been preaching and baptizing people in the crowd. After Jesus was baptized and rose from the water, Mark states Jesus "saw the heavens parting and the Spirit descending upon Him like a dove. Then a voice came from heaven saying: 'You are My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased'" (Template:Nkjv).
Mark starts his narration with Jesus' baptism, specifying that it is a token of repentance and for forgiveness of sins. Why Jesus would need forgiveness of sins has long been a puzzle to the Church, and Matthew omits this reference, emphasizing Jesus' superiority to John. Matthew describes John as initially hesitant to comply with Jesus' request for John to baptize him, stating that it was Jesus who should baptize him. Jesus persisted, "It is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness" (Template:Niv). In Matthew, God's public dedication informs the reader that Jesus has become God's anointed ("Christ"). The Gospel of John does not describe the baptism nor refer to John as the "Baptist," but it does attest that Jesus is the very one about whom John had been preaching — the Son of God. John also emphasizes Jesus' superiority over John.
Following his baptism, Jesus was led into the desert by God where he fasted for forty days and forty nights (Template:Niv). During this time, the devil appeared to him and tempted Jesus three times. Each time, Jesus refused temptation with a quotation of scripture from the Book of Deuteronomy. The devil departed and angels came and brought nourishment to Jesus (Template:Niv, Template:Niv, Template:Niv).
For more detailed treatments, see Ministry of Jesus and Sermon on the Mount.
Mark says that Jesus came to "give his life as a ransom for many,"  Luke that he was sent to "preach the good news of the Kingdom of God,", and John that he came so that those who believed in him would have eternal life. Over the course of his ministry, Jesus is said to have performed various miracles, including healings, exorcisms, walking on water, turning water into wine, and raising several people, such as Lazarus, from the dead (Template:Niv, Template:Niv, and Template:Niv).
John describes three different passover feasts over the course of Jesus' ministry, implying that Jesus preached for at least "two years plus a month or two." The Synoptic Gospels suggest a span of only one year. In the synoptics, Jesus' ministry takes place mainly in Galilee, until he travels to Jerusalem, where he cleanses the Temple and is executed. In John, Jesus spends most of his ministry in and around Jerusalem, cleansing the temple at his ministry's beginning.
Jesus called Jewish peasants to be his Twelve Apostles, though many of his followers were considered disciples. Jesus directs the apostles' mission only to those of the house of Israel (Template:Niv, Template:Niv). Three apostles, Peter, James, and John, are accorded a special status. In Mathhew, Jesus confers authority on Peter in particular and on the apostles in general, founding the Christian church.
Jesus led an apocalyptic following. He preached that the end of the current world would come unexpectedly, and that he would return to judge the world, especially according to how they treated the vulnerable; for this reason, he called on his followers to be ever alert and faithful. Jesus also taught that repentance was necessary to escape hell, and promised to give those who believe in him eternal life (Template:Niv).
In Mark, Jesus' identity as the Messiah is obscured (see Messianic secret). Mark states that "this generation" will be given no sign, while Matthew and Luke say they will be given no sign but the sign of Jonah. In John, and not in the synoptics, Jesus is outspoken about his divine identity and mission. Here he punctuates his ministry with several miraculous signs of his authority.
At the height of his ministry, Jesus is said to have attracted huge crowds numbering in the thousands, primarily in the areas of Galilee and Perea (in modern-day Israel and Jordan respectively). Some of Jesus' most famous teachings come from the Sermon on the Mount, which contained the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer. Jesus often employed parables, such as the Parable of the Prodigal Son and the Parable of the Sower. His teachings encouraged unconditional self-sacrificing God-like love for God and for all people. During his sermons, he preached about service and humility, the forgiveness of sin, faith, turning the other cheek, love for one's enemies as well as friends, and the need to follow the spirit of the law in addition to the letter.
Table fellowship is central to Jesus' ministry in the Gospels. He and his disciples eat with sinners (who neglect purity rules) and tax collectors (imperial publicani, despised as extortionists). The apostle Matthew is a tax collector. When the Pharisees object to Jesus eating with sinners and tax collectors, Jesus replies that it is the sick who need a physician, not the healthy. Jesus also defends his disciples against charges that they do not follow purity laws when eating. Jesus himself is also accused of being a drunk and a glutton. Jesus' miracles and teachings often involve food and feasting. He instructs his missionaries to eat with the people that they preach to and heal. In the synoptics, Jesus institutes a new covenant with a ritual meal before he is crucified.
Jesus' outreach to outsiders includes the Samaritans, who followed a different form of the Israelite religion, as reflected in his preaching to the Samaritans of Sychar (Template:Niv) and in the Good Samaritan.
According to the synoptic gospels, Jesus led three of his apostles — Peter, John, and James — to the top of a mountain to pray. While there, he was transfigured before them, his face shining like the sun and his clothes brilliant white; Elijah and Moses appeared adjacent to him. A bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the sky said, "This is my beloved son, with whom I am well pleased." The gospels also state that toward the end of his ministry, Jesus began to warn his disciples of his future death and resurrection (Template:Niv).
In the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus speaks primarily about the Kingdom of God (or Heaven). In John, he speaks at length about himself and his divine role. Here Jesus uses the phrase "I am" in talking of himselfTemplate:Niv in ways which designates God in the Hebrew Bible Template:Niv, a statement taken by some writers as claiming identity with God.
Arrest, trial, and death
In the account given by the synoptic gospels, Jesus came with his followers to Jerusalem during the Passover festival where a large crowd came to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the King of Israel!" Following his triumphal entry, Jesus created a disturbance at Herod's Temple by overturning the tables of the moneychangers who set up shop there, and claiming that they had made the Temple a "den of robbers." (Template:Niv). Later that week, Jesus celebrated the Passover meal with his disciples — an event subsequently known as the Last Supper — in which he prophesied that he would be betrayed by one of his disciples, and would then be executed. In this ritual he took bread and wine in hand, saying: "this is my body which is given for you" and "this cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood," and instructed them to "do this in remembrance of me" (Template:Niv). Following the supper, Jesus and his disciples went to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane.
While in the Garden, Jesus was arrested by temple guards on the orders of the Sanhedrin and the high priest, Caiaphas (Template:Niv, Template:Niv). The arrest took place clandestinely at night to avoid a riot, as Jesus was popular with the people at large (Template:Niv). Judas Iscariot, one of his apostles, betrayed Jesus by identifying him to the guards with a kiss. Simon Peter, another one of Jesus' apostles, used a sword to attack one of Jesus' captors, cutting off his ear, which, according to Luke, Jesus immediately healed miraculously. Jesus rebuked the apostle, stating "all they that take the sword shall perish by the sword" (Template:Niv). After his arrest, Jesus' apostles went into hiding.
During the Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus, the high priests and elders asked Jesus, "Are you the Son of God?" When he replied, "You are right in saying I am," they condemned Jesus for blasphemy (Template:Niv). The high priests then turned him over to the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate, based on an accusation of sedition for forbidding the payment of taxes Luke 23:1-2 and claiming to be King of the Jews. When Jesus came before Pilate, Pilate asked him, "Are you the king of the Jews?" to which he replied, "It is as you say." According to the Gospels, Pilate personally felt that Jesus was not guilty of any crime against the Romans, and since there was a custom at Passover for the Roman governor to free a prisoner (a custom not recorded outside the Gospels), Pilate offered the crowd a choice between Jesus of Nazareth and an insurrectionist named Barabbas. The crowd chose to have Barabbas freed and Jesus crucified. Pilate washed his hands to indicate that he was innocent of the injustice of the decision (Template:Niv).
According to all four Gospels, Jesus died before late afternoon at Calvary, which was also called Golgotha. The wealthy Judean Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin according to Mark and Luke, received Pilate's permission to take possession of Jesus' body, placing it in a tomb. According to John, Joseph was aided by Nicodemus, who joined him to help bury Jesus, and who appears in other parts of John's gospel (Template:Niv). The three Synoptic Gospels tell of the darkening of the sky from twelve until three that afternoon; Matthew also mentions an earthquake (Template:Niv, the earth breaking open and a number of righteous dead people rising out of the grave and going into Jerusalem.
Resurrection and Ascension
The Gospels state that Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. In the Gospel of Matthew, an angel appeared near the tomb of Jesus and announced his resurrection to Mary Magdelene and "another Mary" who had arrived to anoint the body (Template:Niv). According to Luke there were two angels (Template:Niv), and according to Mark there was a youth dressed in white (Template:Niv). The "longer ending" to Mark states that on the morning of his resurrection, Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene (Template:Niv). John states that when Mary looked into the tomb, two angels asked her why she was crying; and as she turned round she initially failed to recognize Jesus until he spoke her name (Template:Niv).
The Gospels all recount appearances by Jesus to his disciples. In Matthew, Jesus proclaims the great commission to baptize the nations. In John, Jesus commissions Peter as the shepherd of the new community. Also in John, Jesus demonstrates his physical presence to "doubting Thomas."
The Acts of the Apostles state that Jesus appeared to various people in various places over the next forty days. Hours after his resurrection, he appeared to two travelers on the road to Emmaus (Template:Niv). To his assembled disciples he showed himself on the evening after his resurrection (Template:Niv). Although his own ministry had been specifically to Jews, Jesus is said to have sent his apostles to the Gentiles with the Great Commission and ascended to heaven while a cloud concealed him from their sight. According to Acts, Paul of Tarsus had a vision of Jesus during his Road to Damascus experience. Jesus promised to come again to fulfill the remainder of Messianic prophecy.
For more detailed treatments, see Historical Jesus and Quest for the historical Jesus.
Scholars have used the historical method to develop probable reconstructions of Jesus' life. Over the past two hundred years, the image of Jesus among historical scholars has come to be very different from the common image of Jesus that was based on the gospels. Some scholars draw a distinction between Jesus as reconstructed through historical methods and Jesus as understood through a theological point of view, while other scholars hold that a theological Jesus represents a historical figure. The principal sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the gospels, especially the synoptic gospels: Mark, Matthew, and Luke. Biblical scholars and historians accept the historical existence of Jesus.
The English title of Albert Schweitzer's 1906 book, The Quest of the Historical Jesus, is a label for the post-Enlightenment effort to describe Jesus using critical historical methods. Since the end of the 18th century, scholars have examined the gospels and tried to formulate historical biographies of Jesus. Contemporary efforts benefit from a better understanding of 1st-century Judaism, renewed Roman Catholic biblical scholarship, broad acceptance of critical historical methods, sociological insights, and literary analysis of Jesus' sayings.
Constructing a historical view
For more detailed treatments, see Historical Jesus and Cultural and historical background of Jesus.
Historians analyze the gospels to try to discern the historical man on whom these stories are based. They compare what the gospels say to historical events relevant to the times and places where the gospels were written. They try to answer historical questions about Jesus, such as why he was crucified.
Most scholars agree the Gospel of Mark was written about the time of the destruction of the Jewish Temple by the Romans under Titus in the year 70, and that the other gospels were written between 70–100. The historical outlook on Jesus relies on critical analysis of the Bible, especially the gospels. Many scholars have sought to reconstruct Jesus' life in terms of contemporaneous political, cultural, and religious currents in Israel, including differences between Galilee and Judea, and between different sects such as the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes and Zealots, and in terms of conflicts among Jews in the context of Roman occupation.
Historians generally describe Jesus as a healer who preached the restoration of God's kingdom. Most historians agree he was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified by the Romans.
John the Baptist led a large apocalyptic movement. He demanded repentance and baptism. Jesus was baptized and later began his ministry. After John was executed, some of his followers apparently took Jesus as their new leader. Historians are nearly unanimous in accepting Jesus' baptism as a historical event.
According to Robert Funk, Jesus taught in pithy parables and with striking images. He likened the Kingdom of Heaven to small and lowly things, such as yeast or a mustard seed, that have great effects.
Jesus placed a special emphasis on God as one's heavenly father.
Names and titles
For a more detailed treatment, see Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament.
Jesus probably lived in Galilee for most of his life and he probably spoke Aramaic and Hebrew. The name "Jesus" comes from an alternate spelling of the Latin (Iēsus) which in turn comes from the Greek name Iesous (Template:Polytonic). The name has also been translated into English as "Joshua." Further examination of the Septuagint finds that the Greek, in turn, is a transliteration of the Hebrew/Aramaic Yeshua (Template:Lang) (Yeshua — he will save) a contraction of Hebrew name Yehoshua (Template:Lang Yeho — Yahweh [is] shua` — deliverance/rescue, usually Romanized as Joshua). Scholars believe that one of these was likely the name that Jesus was known by during his lifetime by his peers.
Christ (which is a title and not a part of his name) is an Anglicization of the Greek term for Messiah (χριστός, from the verb χρίω "to anoint"), and literally means "anointed one." Historians have debated what this title might have meant at the time Jesus lived; some historians have suggested that other titles applied to Jesus in the New Testament had meanings in the first century quite different from those meanings ascribed today.
The titles "Divine," "Son of God," "God," "God from God," "Lord," "Redeemer," "Liberator,", "The Prince of Peace", "The Wonder Counsellor" and "Saviour of the World" were each applied to the Roman emperors. John Dominic Crossan considers that the application of them to Jesus by the early Christians would have been regarded as denying them to the emperor(s). "They were taking the identity of the Roman emperor and giving it to a Jewish peasant. Either that was a peculiar joke and a very low lampoon, or it was what the Romans called majestas and we call high treason."
Many New Testament scholars argue that Jesus himself made no claims to being God. Most Christians identified Jesus as divine from a very early period, although holding a variety of views as to what exactly this implied.
Scholars refer to the religious background of the early 1st century to better reconstruct Jesus' life. Some scholars identify him with one or another group.
Pharisees were a powerful force in 1st-century Judea. Early Christians shared several beliefs of the Pharisees, such as resurrection, retribution in the next world, angels, human freedom, and Divine Providence. After the fall of the Temple, the Pharisee outlook was established in Rabbinic Judaism. Some scholars speculate that Jesus was himself a Pharisee. In Jesus' day, the two main schools of thought among the Pharisees were the House of Hillel, which had been founded by the eminent Tanna, Hillel the Elder, and the House of Shammai. Jesus' assertion of hypocrisy may have been directed against the stricter members of the House of Shammai, although he also agreed with their teachings on divorce (Template:Niv). Jesus also commented on the House of Hillel's teachings (Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 31a) concerning the greatest commandment (Template:Niv) and the Golden Rule (Template:Niv).
Historians do not know whether there were Pharisees in Galilee during Jesus' life, or what they would be like if there were.
The Sadducee sect was particularly powerful in Jerusalem. They accepted the written Law only, rejecting the traditional interpretations accepted by the Pharisees, such as belief in retribution in an afterlife, resurrection of the body, angels, and spirits. After Jesus caused a disturbance at the Temple, it seemsTemplate:Weasel-inline to have been the Sadducees who had him arrested and turned over to the Romans for execution. After the fall of Jerusalem, they disappeared from history.
Essenes were apocalyptic ascetics, one of the three (or four) major Jewish schools of the time, though they were not mentioned in the New Testament. Some scholars theorize that Jesus was an Essene, or close to them. Among these scholars is Pope Benedict XVI, who supposes in his book on Jesus that "it appears that not only John the Baptist, but possibly Jesus and his family as well, were close to the Qumran community."
Most scholars hold that the movement Jesus led was apocalyptic, expecting God to intervene imminently to restore Israel. John the Baptist's movement was apocalyptic, and Jesus began his public career as one of his followers. Scholars commonly surmise that Jesus' eschatology was apocalyptic, like John's.
The Zealots were a revolutionary party opposed to Roman rule, one of those parties that, according to Josephus inspired the fanatical stand in Jerusalem that led to its destruction in the year 70. Luke identifies Simon, a disciple, as a "zealot," which might mean a member of the Zealot party (which would therefore have been already in existence in the lifetime of Jesus) or a zealous person. The notion that Jesus himself was a Zealot does not do justice to the earliest Synoptic material describing him.
Christian scripture as historical texts
For a more detailed treatment, see Higher criticism.
Historians examine Christian scripture for important clues about the historical Jesus. They sort out sayings and events that are more likely to be genuine and use those to construct their portraits of Jesus. The Gospel tradition has certainly preserved several authentic fragments of Jesus' teaching.
The New Testament was at least substantially complete by AD 100, making its books, especially the synoptic gospels, historically relevant. The Gospel tradition certainly preserves several fragments of Jesus' teaching. The Gospel of Mark is believed to have been written c. 70 AD/CE. Matthew is placed at being sometime after this date and Luke is thought by some scholars to have been written as early as 60 AD/CE, although others argue for a later date ranging from 70 to 100 AD/CE.
Biblical scholars hold that the works describing Jesus were initially communicated by oral tradition, and were not committed to writing until several decades after Jesus' crucifixion. After the original oral stories were written down in Greek, they were transcribed, and later translated into other languages. Contemporary textual critic Bart D. Ehrman cites numerous places where the gospels, and other New Testament books, were apparently altered by Christian scribes.
Critical scholars consider scriptural accounts more likely when they are attested in multiple texts, plausible in Jesus' historical environment, and potentially embarrassing to the author's Christian community. The "criterion of embarrassment" holds that stories about events with aspects embarassing to Christians (such as the denial of Jesus by Peter, or the fleeing of Jesus' followers after his arrest) would likely not have been included if those accounts were fictional. Sayings attributed to Jesus are deemed more likely to reflect his character when they are distinctive, vivid, paradoxical, surprising, and contrary to social and religious expectations, such as "Blessed are the poor." Short, memorable parables and aphorisms capable of being transmitted orally are also thought more likely to be authentic.
The earliest extant texts which refer to Jesus are Paul's letters (mid-1st century), which affirm Jesus' crucifixion. Some scholars hold that the Gospel of Thomas, a collection of 114 sayings of Jesus, predates the four orthodox gospels, and was composed around mid-first century.
For a more detailed treatment, see Jesus myth hypothesis.
Template:See A few scholars have questioned the existence of Jesus as an actual historical figure. Among the proponents of non-historicity was Bruno Bauer in the 19th century. Non-historicity was somewhat influential in biblical studies during the early 20th century. (The views of scholars who entirely rejected Jesus' historicity then were summarized in the chapter on Jesus in Will Durant's Caesar and Christ (in 1944); they were based on a suggested lack of eyewitness, a lack of direct archaeological evidence, the failure of certain ancient works to mention Jesus, and similarities early Christianity shares with then-contemporary religion and mythology.)
More recently, arguments for non-historicity have been discussed by authors such as George Albert Wells and Robert M. Price. Additionally, The Jesus Puzzle and The Jesus Mysteries are examples of popular works promoting the non-historical hypothesis.
Nevertheless, non-historicity has been rejected by almost all Biblical scholars and historians. In Jesus Outside the New Testament (2000), Robert E. Van Voorst a Professor of New Testament Studies at Western Theological Seminary wrote, "The theory of Jesus' nonexistence is now effectively dead as a scholarly question....Biblical scholars and classical historians now regard it as effectively refuted."</blockquote> Author Michael Grant stated that standard historical criteria prevent one from rejecting Jesus' existence.
For a more detailed treatment, see Religious perspectives on Jesus.
For more detailed treatments, see Christian views of Jesus and Christology.
Though Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to describe a general majority Christian view by examining the similarities between specific Western Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and many Protestant doctrines found in their catechetical or confessional texts. This view, given below, does not encompass all groups which describe themselves as Christian, with alternative views immediately following.
Savior and Redeemer
Christians profess that Jesus is the Messiah (Greek: Christos; English: Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament, who, through his life, death, and resurrection, restored humanity's communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as the redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.
The satisfaction view of atonement for sin, first articulated by Anselm of Canterbury, is that humanity owes God a debt of honor. This debt creates essentially an imbalance in the moral universe; it could not be satisfied by God's simply ignoring it. In this view, the only possible way of repaying the debt was for a being of infinite greatness, acting as a man on behalf of men, to repay the debt of honor owed to God. Therefore, when Jesus died, he paid a debt to God, his father. Thomas Aquinas consider atonement and articulated that rather than seeing the debt as one of honor, he sees the debt as a moral injustice to be righted. Aquinas concludes that punishment is a morally good response to sin, "Christ bore a satisfactory punishment, not for His, but for our sins," and substitution for another's sin is entirely possible.
Christians also profess that Jesus suffered death by crucifixion, and rose bodily from the dead in the definitive miracle that foreshadows the resurrection of humanity at the end of time, when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead, resulting in either entrance into heaven or damnation. The resurrection is perhaps the most controversial aspect of the life of Jesus. Christianity hinges on this point of Christology, both as a response to a particular history and as a confessional response. Christians believe that Jesus' resurrection brings reconciliation with God (II Corinthians 5:18), the destruction of death (I Corinthians 15:26), and forgiveness of sins for followers of Jesus.
Fully man and fully God
For a more detailed treatment, see Trinity.
Christians profess Jesus to be the only Son of God, the Lord, and the eternal Word (which is a translation of the Greek Logos), who became man in the incarnation, so that those who believe in him might have eternal life. They further hold that he was born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit in an event described as the miraculous virgin birth or Incarnation.
The Gospels of Matthew and Luke suggest the virgin birth of Jesus. Barth speaks of the virgin birth as the divine sign "which accompanies and indicates the mystery of the incarnation of the Son." Donald MacLeod gives several Christological implications of a virgin birth: it highlights salvation as a supernatural act of God rather than an act of human initiative, avoids adoptionism (which is virtually required if a normal birth), and reinforces the sinlessness of Christ, especially as it relates to Christ being outside the sin of Adam (original sin).
Between 325 and 681, Christians theologically articulated and refined their view of the nature of Jesus by a series of seven ecumenical councils (see Christology). These councils described Jesus as one of the three divine hypostases or persons of the Holy Trinity: the Son is defined as constituting, together with God the Father and the Holy Spirit, the single substance of the One God (see Communicatio idiomatum). Furthermore, Jesus is defined to be one person with a fully human and a fully divine nature, a doctrine known as the Hypostatic union.
In his life Jesus proclaimed the "good news" (Middle English: gospel; Greek: euangelion) that the coming Kingdom of Heaven was at hand, and established the Christian Church, which is the seed of the kingdom, into which Jesus calls the poor in spirit. Jesus' actions at the Last Supper, where he instituted the Eucharist, are understood as central to communion with God and remembrance of Jesus' sacrifice.
Prophet, priest, and king
Jesus Christ, the Mediator of humankind, fulfills the three offices of Prophet, Priest, and King. Eusebius of the early church worked out this threefold classification, which John Calvin developed and John Wesley discussed.
Template:Seealso Current religious groups that do not accept the doctrine of the Trinity include the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Jehovah's Witnesses and the Christadelphians.
Latter-day Saints theology maintains that Heavenly Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are three separate and distinct beings, though all eternal and equally divine, who together constitute the Godhead. Though described as "one God" and "one in purpose," each plays a distinct role: the Holy Ghost is a spirit without a physical body, the Father and Son possess distinct and perfected bodies of flesh and bone. The Book of Mormon records that the resurrected Jesus visited and taught some of the inhabitants of the early Americas after he had appeared to his apostles in Jerusalem. Mormons also believe that an apostasy occurred after the deaths of Christ's apostles. They believe that Christ and Heavenly Father appeared to Joseph Smith in 1820 as part of a series of heavenly visits to restore the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ. They believe Jesus (not the Father) is the same as Jehovah or Yahweh of the Old Testament, acting under the direction of the Father. See Jesus in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Based on a claimed divine revelation of Smith, they state that Jesus was born on April 06.
Jehovah's Witnesses believe Jesus to be God's (or Jehovah's) son, rather than being God himself. Jehovah's Witnesses believe he was the same divine created being as Michael the Archangel, and that God made him a perfect human by transferring his life to the womb of Mary. During the time Jesus was on earth he was simply a man, not a god-man. They also believe that he is "the word" of John 1:1. This is understood to mean that he is God's spokesman, likely the one speaking in God's name to Adam, and to the Israelites in the wilderness. In line with this, they point out that the Bible presents him as the only way humans can approach God. They include words like 'in Jesus name' in every prayer. They view the term "Son of God" as an indication of Jesus' importance to the creator and his status as God's "only-begotten (unique) Son," the "firstborn of all creation," the one "of whom, and through whom, and to whom, are all things." They believe that Jesus died on a single-piece torture stake, not a cross. They believe that he is currently ruling in heaven as king of God's heavenly Kingdom, and will soon extend his rule to earth for a reign of peace. They also believe he is now immortal and can never die again.
The Unity Church considers Jesus the master teacher and "way show-er," citing Jesus' frequent calls to emulate him rather than worship him, and the ability of others to be like him, such as in John 10:34 and John 14:12. Jesus is not worshiped as God, but regarded as someone who had achieved a complete connection with God the Father.
Christadelphians believe that Jesus is literally God's son, hence the Biblical title son of God, not God the Son. They believe that Jesus was in God's plan right from the beginning of creation, but that he came into existence at his birth. Quoting Biblical passages such as Template:Niv, they maintain that Jesus was fully human, and that Jesus' total humanity was vital in saving people from their sins. This, Christadelphians believe, would not have been possible had Jesus actually been God. They believe that Jesus is now in heaven, at God's right hand, waiting to return to the Earth to establish God's kingdom here forever.
Others believe that the one God, who revealed himself in the Old Testament as Jehovah, came to earth, taking on the human form of Jesus Christ. They believe Jesus is Jehovah, is the Holy Spirit, and is the one Person who is God. Examples of such churches today are Oneness Pentecostals and the New Church.
Other early views
Various early Christian groups and theologians held differing views of Jesus. The Ebionites, an early Jewish Christian community, believed that Jesus was the last of the prophets and the Messiah. They believed that Jesus was the natural-born son of Mary and Joseph, and thus they rejected the Virgin Birth. The Ebionites were adoptionists, believing that Jesus was not divine, but became the son of God at his baptism. They rejected the Epistles of Paul, believing that Jesus kept the Mosaic Law perfectly and wanted his followers to do the same. However, they felt that Jesus' crucifixion was the ultimate sacrifice, and thus animal sacrifices were no longer necessary. Therefore, some Ebionites were vegetarian and considered both Jesus and John the Baptist to have been vegetarians.
The Apologists of the 2nd century, such as Justin Martyr, saw Jesus as the Logos or Word of God united with a human being. They viewed the Logos, in line with Middle Platonism, as the source of order and rationality, but distinct from God.
In Gnosticism, Jesus is said to have brought the secret knowledge (gnosis) of the spiritual world necessary for salvation. Their secret teachings were paths to gnosis, and not gnosis itself. While some Gnostics were docetics, other Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of Christ during his baptism. Many Gnostics believed that Christ was an Aeon sent by a higher deity than the evil demiurge who created the material world. Some Gnostics believed that Christ had a syzygy named Sophia. The Gnostics tended to interpret the books that were included in the New Testament as allegory, and some Gnostics interpreted Jesus himself as an allegory. The Gnostics also used a number of other texts that did not become part of the New Testament canon.
Marcionites were 2nd century Gentile followers of the Christian theologian Marcion of Sinope. They believed that Jesus rejected the Jewish Scriptures, or at least the parts that were incompatible with his teachings. Seeing a stark contrast between the vengeful God of the Old Testament and the loving God of Jesus, Marcionites, like some Gnostics, came to the conclusion that the Jewish God was the evil creator of the world and Jesus was the savior from the material world. They also believed Jesus was not human, but instead a completely divine spiritual being whose material body, and thus his crucifixion and death, were divine illusions. Marcionism was declared a heresy by proto-orthodox Christianity.
For a more detailed treatment, see Jesus in Islam.
Islam holds Jesus (Template:Lang-ar `Īsā) to have been a messenger of God and the messiah who had been sent to guide the Children of Israel (banī isrā'īl) with a new scripture, the Injīl (gospel). According to the Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be God's final revelation, Jesus was born to Mary (Arabic: Maryam) as the result of virginal conception, a miraculous event which occurred by the decree of God (Arabic: Allah). To aid him in his quest, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles. These included speaking from the cradle, curing the blind and the lepers, as well as raising the dead; all by the permission of God. Furthermore, Jesus was helped by a band of disciples (the ḥawāriyūn). Islam states that Jesus was not killed nor crucified, but that he had been raised alive up to heaven. Islamic traditions narrate that he will return to earth near the day of judgement to restore justice and defeat al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl (lit. "the false messiah," also known as the Antichrist) and the enemies of Islam. As a just ruler, Jesus will then die.
Like all prophets in Islam, Jesus is considered to have been a Muslim, as he preached for people to adopt the straight path in submission to God's will. Islam denies that Jesus was God or the son of God, stating that he was an ordinary man who, like other prophets, had been divinely chosen to spread God's message. Islamic texts forbid the association of partners with God (shirk), emphasizing the notion of God's divine oneness (tawhīd). As such, Jesus is referred to in the Qur'an frequently as the "son of Mary" ("Ibn Maryam"). Numerous titles are given to Jesus in the Qur'an, such as mubārak (blessed) and `abd-Allāh (servant of God). Another title is al-Masīḥ ("the messiah; the anointed one" i.e. by means of blessings), although it does not correspond with the meaning accrued in Christian belief. Jesus is seen in Islam as a precursor to Muhammad, and is believed by Muslims to have foretold the latter's coming.
For a more detailed treatment, see Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam.
According to the early 20th century teachings of the Ahmadi Muslims of Kashmir and Punjab, Jesus did not die on the cross, but after his apparent death and resurrection he journeyed east to Kashmir to further teach the gospel until his natural death (The general notion of Jesus in Kashmir is older than the Ahmadi tradition, and is discussed at length by Grönbold and Klatt).
Following Jesus' death of natural causes (so the Ahmadi tradition) "at a ripe old age of roughly 120 years," Jesus according to Ahmadi doctrine was then laid to rest in Srinagar, and that the tomb of a sage known locally as Yuz Asaf (which in Kashmiri means "Son of Yuz," i.e. Joseph) is really the tomb of Jesus of Nazareth.
Further, according to this movement, the second coming predicted in the Muslim tradition is not actually that of Jesus, but that of a person "similar to Jesus" (mathīl-i ʿIsā), i.e. the founder of the movement himself.
According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, Ahmadi Christological beliefs are one of the three primary characteristics that distinguish Ahmadi teachings from general Islamic ones, and that it had provoked a fatwa against the founder of the sect, "purporting that this doctrine disagreed with the Koran and therefore had to be looked upon as a heresy."
For a more detailed treatment, see Judaism's view of Jesus.
Judaism holds the idea of Jesus being God, or part of a Trinity, or a mediator to God, to be heresy. Judaism also holds that Jesus is not the Messiah, arguing that he had not fulfilled the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah. According to Jewish tradition, there were no more prophets after Malachi, who lived centuries before Jesus and delivered his prophesies about 420 BC/BCE. Judaism states that Jesus did not fulfill the requirements set by the Torah to prove that he was a prophet. Even if Jesus had produced such a sign that Judaism recognized, Judaism states that no prophet or dreamer can contradict the laws already stated in the Torah, which Jesus did.
The Mishneh Torah (an authoritative work of Jewish law) states in Hilkhot Melakhim 11:10–12 that Jesus is a "stumbling block" who makes "the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God." According to Conservative Judaism, Jews who believe Jesus is the Messiah have "crossed the line out of the Jewish community." Reform Judaism, the modern progressive movement, states "For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate."
The Bahá'í Faith, founded in 19th-century Persia, considers Jesus, along with Muhammad, the Buddha, Krishna, and Zoroaster, and other messengers of the great religions of the world to be Manifestations of God (or prophets), with both human and divine stations.
The Hindu beliefs about Jesus vary. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) considers Jesus to be the beloved son of Krishna who came down to Earth to preach God Consciousness. Contemporary Sant Mat movements regard Jesus as a Satguru. Ramakrishna believed that Jesus was an Incarnation of God. Swami Vivekananda has praised Jesus and cited him as a source of strength and the epitome of perfection. Paramahansa Yogananda taught that Jesus was the reincarnation of Elisha and a student of John the Baptist, the reincarnation of Elijah. Mahatma Gandhi considered Jesus one of his main teachers and inspirations for nonviolent resistance.[Citation Needed]
Template:See Buddhists' views of Jesus differ. Some Buddhists, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama regard Jesus as a bodhisattva who dedicated his life to the welfare of human beings. The 14th century Zen master Gasan Jōseki indicated that the Gospels were written by an enlightened being.
Mandaeanism, a very small Mideastern, Gnostic sect that reveres John the Baptist as God's greatest prophet, regards Jesus as a false prophet of the false Jewish god of the Old Testament, Adonai, and likewise rejects Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad. Manichaeism accepted Jesus as a prophet, along with Gautama Buddha and Zoroaster.
The New Age movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus. The creators of A Course In Miracles claim to trance-channel his spirit. However, the New Age movement generally teaches that Christhood is something that all may attain. Theosophists, from whom many New Age teachings originated (a Theosophist named Alice A. Bailey invented the term New Age), refer to Jesus of Nazareth as the Master Jesus and believe he had previous incarnations.
Many writers emphasize Jesus' moral teachings. Garry Wills argues that Jesus' ethics are distinct from those usually taught by Christianity. The Jesus Seminar portrays Jesus as an itinerant preacher who taught peace and love, rights for women and respect for children, and who spoke out against the hypocrisy of religious leaders and the rich. Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a deist, created the Jefferson Bible entitled "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" that included only Jesus' ethical teachings because he did not believe in Jesus' divinity or any of the other supernatural aspects of the Bible.
- Further: [[:Images of Jesus, Cultural depictions of Jesus, and Anno Domini|Images of Jesus, Cultural depictions of Jesus, and Anno Domini]]
According to most Christian interpretations of the Bible, the theme of Jesus' teachings was that of repentance, unconditional love, forgiveness of sin, grace, and the coming of the Kingdom of God. Starting as a small Jewish sect, it developed into a religion clearly distinct from Judaism several decades after Jesus death. Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire under a version known as Nicene Christianity and became the state religion under Theodosius I. Over the centuries, it spread to most of Europe, and around the world.
Jesus has been drawn, painted, sculpted and portrayed on stage and in films in many different ways, both serious and humorous. The figure of Jesus features prominently in art and literature. A number of popular novels, such as The Da Vinci Code, have also portrayed various ideas about Jesus, and a number of films, such as The Passion of the Christ, have portrayed his life, death, and resurrection. Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have become part of the culture of Western civilization. There are many items purported to be relics of Jesus, of which the most famous are the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo.
Other legacies include a view of God as more lovingly parental, merciful, and more forgiving, and the growth of a belief in a blissful afterlife and in the resurrection of the dead. His teaching promoted the value of those who had commonly been regarded as inferior: women, the poor, ethnic outsiders, children, prostitutes, the sick, prisoners, etc. For over a thousand years, countless hospitals, orphanages, and schools have been founded explicitly in Jesus' name. Jesus and his message have been interpreted, explained and understood by many people. Jesus has been explained notably by Paul of Tarsus, the Church Fathers, including Augustine of Hippo, Martin Luther, and more recently by C. S. Lewis and Pope John Paul II. Thomas Jefferson considered Jesus' teaching to be "the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man."
For some Jews, the legacy of Jesus has been a history of Christian antisemitism, although in the wake of the Holocaust many Christian groups have gone to considerable lengths to reconcile with Jews and to promote interfaith dialog and mutual respect. For others, Christianity has often been linked to European colonialism. Conversely, some have argued that through Bartolomé de las Casas' defense of the indigenous inhabitants of Spain's New World empire, one of the legacies of Jesus has been the notion of universal human rights.
- General topics
- Jesus and history
- New Testament Jesus
- Views on Jesus
- Related topics
- Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992, 54, 56
- Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner's, 1977, p. 71; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, Doubleday, 1991–, vol. 1:214; E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin Books, 1993, pp. 10–11, and Ben Witherington III, "Primary Sources," Christian History 17 (1998) No. 3:12–20.
- Amy-Jill Levine, The Oxford History of the Biblical World, New York, Oxford University Press, 1999, p 371, Chapter 10: Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt (63 BCE-70 CE)." M. Coogan et al. (eds.)
- Strobel, Lee. The Case for Christ: A Journalist's Personal Investigation of the Evidence for Jesus. Zondervan, 1998. ISBN 0310209307; Wright, N.T. The Challenge of Jesus: Rediscovering Who Jesus Was and Is. InterVarsity Press, 1999. ISBN 0830822003; Dunn, James D.G. The Evidence for Jesus." Westminster John Knox Press, 1985. ISBN 0664246982
- Examples of authors who argue the Jesus myth hypothesis: Thomas L. Thompson The Messiah Myth: The Near Eastern Roots of Jesus and David (Jonathan Cape, Publisher, 2006); Michael Martin, The Case Against Christianity (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 36–72; John Mackinnon Robertson
- Raymond E. Brown, The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave (New York: Doubleday, Anchor Bible Reference Library 1994), p. 964; D. A. Carson, et al., p. 50–56; Shaye J.D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, Westminster Press, 1987, p. 78, 93, 105, 108; John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperCollins, 1991, p. xi – xiii; Michael Grant, p. 34–35, 78, 166, 200; Paula Fredriksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Alfred B. Knopf, 1999, p. 6–7, 105–110, 232–234, 266; John P. Meier, vol. 1:68, 146, 199, 278, 386, 2:726; E.P. Sanders, pp. 12–13; Geza Vermes, Jesus the Jew (Philadelphia: Fortress Press 1973), p. 37.; Paul L. Maier, In the Fullness of Time, Kregel, 1991, pp. 1, 99, 121, 171; N. T. Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions, HarperCollins, 1998, pp. 32, 83, 100–102, 222; Ben Witherington III, pp. 12–20.
- Though many historians may have certain reservations about the use of the Gospels for writing history, "even the most hesitant, however, will concede that we are probably on safe historical footing" concerning certain basic facts about the life of Jesus; Jo Ann H. Moran Cruz and Richard Gerberding, Medieval Worlds: An Introduction to European History Houghton Mifflin Company 2004, pp. 44–45.
- Irving, Amy-Jill (1999). M. Coogan et al.:The Oxford History of the Biblical World p 370, Chapter 10: Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt (63 BCE-70 CE). Oxford University Press.
- Template:Cite encyclopedia
- James Leslie Houlden, "Jesus: The Complete Guide," Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005, ISBN 082648011X
- Prof. Dr. Şaban Ali Düzgün, "Uncovering Islam: Questions and Answers about Islamic Beliefs and Teachings," Ankara: The Presidency of Religious Affairs Publishing, 2004
- Compendium of Muslim Texts
- per The Catholic Encyclopedia 
- Edwin D. Freed, Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 119.
- Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, page 22.
- James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans Publishing (2003), page 324.
- Howard Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and its readers, Indiana University Press, p.13
- Luke states that John's ministry began in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas.
- Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke, (Eerdmans, 1997), page 168.
- Amy-Jill Levine, The Oxford Dictionary of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press, p.373
- "What the Old Testament Prophesied About the Messiah". Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
- Ehrman, Bart D.. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4
- Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972
- Joseph A. Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke I-IX. Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday, 1981, pp. 499–500; I. Howard Marshall, The Gospel of Luke (The New International Greek Testament Commentary). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978, p. 158;
- Howard W. Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and Its Readers, Indiana University Press, 2003, p.1
- Template:Niv, Template:Niv, and Template:Niv
- For Egypt: Template:Niv; For Tyre and sometimes Sidon:Template:Niv and Template:Niv
- Early Christian accounts reflect some perplexity at Jesus being baptized, especially by a subordinate figure. See "Baptism of Christ." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Meier 1991 vol. 1:405
- Introduction. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
- "The Thompson Chain-Reference Study Bible NIV," published December 1999, B.B. Kirkbride Bible Co., Inc.; William Adler & Paul Tuffin, "The Chronography of George Synkellos: A Byzantine Chronicle of Universal History from the Creation," Oxford University Press (2002), p. 466
- Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998.
- "Messianic Secret." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. pages 72-73.
- "John, Gospel of St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- In John, Jesus' ministry takes place in and around Jerusalem.
- Sermon on the Mount: Template:Niv; Prodigal Son: Template:Niv; Parable of the Sower: Template:Niv; Agape: Template:Niv.
- Crossan, John Dominic. The essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books. 1998.
- Template:Niv, Template:Niv, Template:Niv
- Introduction. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
- Introduction. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
- "Jesus was claiming for himself the title "I AM" by which God designates himself... he was claiming to be God." - Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, page 546, Zondervan.
- The crowd was quoting Template:Niv; found in Template:Niv.
- John puts the cleansing of the temple at the start of Jesus' ministry.
- The apostle is identified as Simon Peter in Template:Niv; the healing of the ear is found in Template:Niv.
- Template:Niv; Template:Niv.
- Template:Niv; Template:Niv.
- Template:Sourcetext; Template:Niv; Template:Niv; Template:Niv; Template:Niv; Template:Niv
- Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. p. 491
- Ministering to Israel: Template:Niv; ascension: Template:Niv; Template:NivTemplate:Niv; Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus: Template:Niv, Template:Bibleverse-nb; Template:Bibleverse-nb; Second coming: Template:Niv
- Borg, Marcus J. in Borg, Marcus J. and N. T. Wright. The Meaning of Jesus: Two visions. New York: HarperCollins. 2007.
- See, for an example of the latter, Pope Benedict XVI, Jesus of Nazareth. Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 978-0-385-52341-7
- "The nonhistoricity thesis has always been controversial, and it has consistently failed to convince scholars of many disciplines and religious creeds. ... Biblical scholars and classical historians now regard it as effectively refuted." - Van Voorst, Robert E. Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000), p. 16.
- "The denial of Jesus' historicity has never convinced any large number of people, in or our of technical circless, nor did it in the first part of the century." Walter P. Weaver, The Historical Jesus in the Twentieth Century, 1900-1950, (Continuum International, 1999), page 71.
- "about once every generation someone reruns the thesis that Jesus never existed and that the Jesus tradition is a wholesale invention," J. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, (Eerdmans, 2003), page 142.
- "There is almost universal agreement that Jesus lived." Bernard L. Ramm, An Evangelical Christology: Ecumenic and Historic, (Regent College Publishing, 1993), page 19.
- "some judgements are so probable as to be certain; for example, Jesus really existed," Marcus Borg, 'A Vision of the Christian Life', in Marcus J. Borg and N T Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions, (HarperCollins, 1999), page 236.
- Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 - article "Historical Jesus, Quest of the"
- Meier (1991), pp.43–4
- For a comparison of the Jesus movement to the Zealots, see S. G. F. Brandon, Jesus and the Zealots: a study of the political factor in primitive Christianity, Manchester University Press (1967) ISBN 0–684–31010–4
- For a general comparison of Jesus' teachings to other schools of first century Judaism, see John P. Meier, Companions and Competitors (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Volume 3) Anchor Bible, 2001. ISBN 0–385–46993–4.
- Shaye J.D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, Westminster Press, 1987, p. 78, 93, 105, 108; John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperCollins, 1991, p. xi – xiii; Michael Grant, p. 34–35, 78, 166, 200; Paula Fredriksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Alfred B. Knopf, 1999, p. 6–7, 105–110, 232–234, 266; John P. Meier, vol. 1:68, 146, 199, 278, 386, 2:726; E.P. Sanders, pp. 12–13; Geza Vermes, Jesus the Jew (Philadelphia: Fortress Press 1973), p. 37.;
- Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987; Vermes, Geza. Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1981; Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
- Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
- Brian Knowles: Which Language Did Jesus Speak – Aramaic or Hebrew?.
- "Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. p. 558; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew. New York: Doubleday, 1991 vol. 1:205–7;
- Vermes, "Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels"
- Crossan, John Dominic, God and Empire, 2007, p. 28
- "A further point of broad agreement among New Testament scholars is ... that the historical Jesus did not make the claim to deity that later Christian thought was to make for him: he did not understand himself to be God, or God the Son, incarnate. " - John Hick, The Metaphor of God Incarnate: Christology in a Pluralistic Age, Westminster John Knox Press, page 27.
- Michael Ramsey, Jesus and the Living Past (Oxford University Press, 1980), page 39: 'Jesus did not claim deity for himself'
- C. F. D. Moule, The Origin of Christology : 'Any case for a "high" Christology that depended on the authenticity of the alleged claims of Jesus about himself, especially in the Fourth Gospel, would indeed be precarious'
- James Dunn (theologian), Christology in the Making, (SCM Press 1980), page 254: 'We cannot claim that Jesus believed himself to be the incarnate Son of God' and 'There is no question in my mind that the doctrine of incarnation comes to clear expression within the NT…John 1.14 ranks as a classic formulation of the Christian belief in Jesus as incarnate God.' Page xiii. .
- Brian Hebblethwaite, The Incarnation (Cambridge University Press, 1987), page 74: 'it is no longer possible to defend the divinity of Jesus by reference to the claims of Jesus' .
- John A. T. Robinson, Honest to God, Westminster Press (1963), Page 47: 'It is, indeed, an open question whether Jesus ever claimed to be the Son of God, let alone God.'
- Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, page 5, describes the view that Jesus made 'both his messiahship and his divinity clear to his disciples during his ministry' as 'naive and ahistorical'.
- Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, (Eerdmans, 2005), page 650.
- "Pharisees." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Talmud and other Jewish literature. Maccoby, Hyam Jesus the Pharisee, Scm Press, 2003. ISBN 0–334–02914–7; Falk, Harvey Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, Wipf & Stock Publishers (2003). ISBN 1–59244–313–3.
- Neusner, Jacob A Rabbi Talks With Jesus, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2000. ISBN 0–7735–2046–5. Rabbi Neusner contends that Jesus' teachings were closer to the House of Shammai than the House of Hillel.
- "Sadducees." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Dead Sea Scrolls, especially the Teacher of Righteousness and Pierced Messiah. Eisenman, Robert James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Penguin (Non-Classics), 1998. ISBN 0–14–025773-X; Stegemann, Hartmut The Library of Qumran: On the Essenes, Qumran, John the Baptist, and Jesus. Grand Rapids MI, 1998. See also Broshi, Magen, "What Jesus Learned from the Essenes," Biblical Archaeology Review, 30:1, pg. 32–37, 64. Magen notes similarities between Jesus' teachings on the virtue of poverty and divorce, and Essene teachings as related in Josephus' The Jewish Wars and in the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls, respectively. See also Akers, Keith The Lost Religion of Jesus. Lantern, 2000. ISBN 1-930051-26-3.
- Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, Jesus of Nazareth, p. 14
- Crossan, John Dominic. The essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books. 1998. p. 146
- See Schwietzer, Albert The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede, pp. 370–371, 402. Scribner (1968), ISBN 0–02–089240–3; Ehrman, Bart Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press USA, 1999. ISBN 0–19–512474-X. Crossan, however, makes a distinction between John's apocalyptic ministry and Jesus' ethical ministry. See Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, pp. 305–344. Harper Collins, 1998. ISBN 0–06–061659–8.
- "Zealots." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- "Jesus Christ." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- "The New Testament was complete, or substantially complete, about AD 100, the majority of the writings being in existence twenty to forty years before this ...the situation is encouraging from the historian's point of view, for the first three Gospels were written at a time when many were alive who could remember the things that Jesus said and did... At any rate, the time elapsing between the evangelic events and the writing of most of the New Testament books was, from the standpoint of historical research, satisfactorily short." Bruce, F. F.: The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?, pp. 12-14, InterVarsity Press, USA, 1997.
- "There is no reason to doubt that we have in the Gospel tradition several authentic fragments of His [Jesus Christ's] teaching (albeit in Greek translation)." "Jesus Christ." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Peter, Kirby (2001-2007). Early Christian Writings: Gospel of Mark. Retrieved on 2008-01-15.
- Template:Cite encyclopedia
- Meier, John P. (1991). A Marginal Jew. New York, New York: Doubleday, v.2 955-6. ISBN 0385469934.
- A. Harnack, The Date of Acts and the Synoptic Gospels (1911), p. 90; J. A. T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament, pp. 86-92; I. H. Marshall, Luke, p. 35; A. J. Mattill Jr., ‘The Date and Purpose of Luke-Acts: Rackham reconsidered, in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 40 (1978), pp. 335-350.
- "Matthew, Gospel acc. to St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Doubleday: 1991. vol 1: p. 168–171.
- Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. Introduction, p. 1-38
- Kenneth Keulman, Critical Moments in Religious History, Mercer University Press, p.56
- Andrew F. Gregory, Christopher Mark Tuckett, The Reception of the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford University Press, p.178
- Durant 1944:553-7
- Bruce, FF (1982). New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? InterVarsity Press, ISBN 087784691X
- Herzog II, WR (2005). Prophet and Teacher. WJK, ISBN 0664225284
- Komoszewski, JE; Sawyer, MJ & Wallace, DB (2006). Reinventing Jesus. Kregel Publications, 195f. ISBN 978-0825429828.
- Robert E. Van Voorst (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, quotation pp. 9-16. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9.
- "…if we apply to the New Testament, as we should, the same sort of criteria as we should apply to other ancient writings containing historical material, we can no more reject Jesus' existence than we can reject the existence of a mass of pagan personages whose reality as historical figures is never questioned. ... To sum up, modern critical methods fail to support the Christ myth theory. It has 'again and again been answered and annihilated by first rank scholars.' In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary." M. Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review, pp. 199-200. 1977
- This section draws on a number of sources to determine the doctrines of these groups, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book of Concord, and others.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §436–40; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Irenaeus Adversus Haereses in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 7/1, 93; Template:Niv; Template:Niv
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §606–618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529;Template:Niv
- Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; Template:Niv; Template:Niv.
- Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, First Part of the Second Part, Question 87, Article 7, Reply to Objection 3, available here
- Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed;Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §638–655; Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion of Easter; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 4 and 17; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9.
- Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §668–675, 678–679; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; Template:Niv
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §1021-1022
- Fuller 1965, p. 15
- Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §441–451; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Luther's Small Catechism, commentary on Apostles' Creed; Template:Niv; Template:Niv
- Augsburg Confession, article 3; Template:Niv
- Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §461–463;Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; Template:Niv; Template:Niv
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §456–460; Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech. 15 in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 45, 48B; St. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.19.1 in ibid. 7/1, 939; St. Athanasius, De inc., 54.3 in ibid. 25, 192B. St. Thomas Aquinas, Opusc. in ibid. 57: 1–4; Template:Niv
- Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §484–489, 494–507; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed
- Barth 1956, p. 207
- MacLeod 1998, p. 37-41
- Nicene Creed; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 1; Augsburg Confession, article 1; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 3; Council of Nicaea I (325) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Template:Lang (1965) §126; Council of Constantinople II (553) in ibid. §424 and 424; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §255; Template:Niv; Template:Niv; Template:Niv
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §464–469; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2 and 3 Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Council of Ephesus (431) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Template:Lang (1965) §250; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §251; Council of Chalcedon (451) in ibid. §301 and 302; Template:Niv.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church §541–546
- Apostles' Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §551–553; Augsburg Confession, article 8; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Leo the Great, Sermo 4.3 in Patrologia Latina ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1841–1855); Template:Niv
- Catechism of the Catholic Church"§1322–1419; Martin Luther, Augsburg Confession, article 10; Luther's Small Catechism: the Sacrament of the Altar
- John Calvin, Calvins Calvinism BOOK II Chapter 15 Centers for Reformed Theology and Apologetics [resource online] (1996-2002, accessed June 03, 2006); available here
- H. Orton Wiley, Christian Theology Chapter 22 [resource online] (Nampa, Idah: 1993-2005, accessed June 03, 2006); available here
- Doctrine and Covenants 20.
- Aaronic Priesthood Manual: The Godhead.
- Doctrine and Covenants 130.
- Doctrine and Covenants 20.
- "Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!" –1988 | chap. 27 pp. 180-181 par. 15 "God's Kingdom Is Born!" | . © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | "But who is Michael? The name "Michael" means "Who Is Like God?" So Michael must be interested in vindicating Jehovah's sovereignty by proving that no one is to be compared to Him. In Jude verse 9, he is called "Michael the archangel." Interestingly, the title "archangel" is used elsewhere in the Bible with reference to only one person: Jesus Christ. Paul says of him: "The Lord himself will descend from heaven with a commanding call, with an archangel's voice"
- "Insight On The Scriptures 2" –1988 | p. 393 "Michael" | . © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | "Scriptural evidence indicates that the name Michael applied to God's Son before he left heaven to become Jesus Christ and also after his return. Michael is the only one said to be "the archangel," meaning "chief angel," or "principal angel." The term occurs in the Bible only in the singular. This seems to imply that there is but one whom God has designated chief, or head, of the angelic host. At 1 Thessalonians 4:16 the voice of the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ is described as being that of an archangel, suggesting that he is, in fact, himself the archangel"
- "Jesus The Ruler Whose Origin Is From Early Times," The Watchtower (June 15, 1998) p. 22. | "Some centuries later came Jesus' greatest assignment up to that time. Jehovah transferred the life force of his beloved Son from heaven into the womb of Mary. Nine months later she gave birth to a baby boy, Jesus. (Luke 2:1-7, 21)"
- "Reasoning From The Scriptures" –1985 © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | p. 257 par. 1 Mary (Jesus' Mother) "Heb. 2:14, 17, JB: "Since all the children share the same blood and flesh, he Jesus too shared equally in it . . . It was essential that he should in this way become completely like his brothers." (But would he have been "completely like his brothers" if he had been a God-man?)"
- "Insight On The Scriptures" –1988 | p. 53 "Jesus Christ" | . © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | "Doubtless on many occasions during his prehuman existence as the Word, Jesus acted as Jehovah's Spokesman to persons on earth. While certain texts refer to Jehovah as though directly speaking to humans, other texts make clear that he did so through an angelic representative. (Compare Ex 3:2-4 with Ac 7:30, 35; also Ge 16:7-11, 13; 22:1, 11, 12, 15-18.) Reasonably, in the majority of such cases God spoke through the Word. He likely did so in Eden, for on two of the three occasions where mention is made of God's speaking there, the record specifically shows someone was with Him, undoubtedly his Son. (Ge 1:26-30; 2:16, 17; 3:8-19, 22) The angel who guided Israel through the wilderness and whose voice the Israelites were strictly to obey because 'Jehovah's name was within him,' may therefore have been God's Son, the Word.—Ex 23:20-23; compare Jos 5:13-15."
- Watchtower 9/1/06 1 p. 28 par. 5 "Let Your Petitions Be Made Known to God" © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | "5 Jehovah does not lay down a lot of rigid rules on how to pray. Nevertheless, we need to learn the proper approach to God, which is explained in the Bible. For instance, Jesus taught his followers: "If you ask the Father for anything he will give it to you in my name." (John 16:23) Hence, we are required to pray in Jesus' name, recognizing Jesus as the sole channel through which God's blessings are extended to all mankind."
- "What Do They Believe?", Watchtower Bible and Tract Society c.f., Retrieved April 14, 2007
- "Who is Jesus Christ?," The Watchtower, September 15, 2005, Retrieved December 3, 2007.
- "Insight On The Scriptures" –1988 © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | it-1 p. 1197 Incorruption "Raised to Immortality and Incorruption. Christ Jesus entered into immortality upon his resurrection from the dead, thereafter possessing "an indestructible life." (1Ti 6:15, 16; Heb 7:15-17)"
- The Watchtower © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | 10/1/06 p. 5 You Can Live Forever |"the apostle Paul explains: "Christ, now that he has been raised up from the dead, dies no more; death is master over him no more." (Romans 6:9)" |
- Flint, James; Deb Flint. One God or a Trinity?. Hyderabad: Printland Publishers, p. 3. ISBN 81-87409-61-4.
- Flint, James; Deb Flint. One God or a Trinity?. Hyderabad: Printland Publishers, p. 10. ISBN 81-87409-61-4.
- Pearce, Fred. Jesus: God the Son or Son of God? Does the Bible Teach the Trinity?. Birmingham, UK: The Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association Ltd (UK), p. 7.
- Pearce, Fred. Jesus: God the Son or Son of God? Does the Bible Teach the Trinity?. Birmingham, UK: The Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association Ltd (UK), p. 8.
- Morgan, Tecwyn. Christ is Coming! Bible Teaching About His Return. Birmingham, UK: The Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association Ltd (UK), p. 1.
- Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 102.
- "Christology." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- McManners, John, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 26–31.
- Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 124–125.
- Wace, Henry, "Commentary on Marcion", Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 103, p. 104–105, p.108
- The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, p.158
- "Isa," Encyclopedia of Islam
- Fasching, deChant (2001) p. 241
- Rice, Edward (1978), Eastern Definitions: A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient, New York, pp. 7, ISBN 0-385-08563-X .
- Schäfer, Peter; Cohen, Mark R. (1998), Toward the Millennium: Messianic Expectations from the Bible to Waco, Leiden/Princeton: Brill/Princeton UP, pp. 306, ISBN 90-04-11037-2 .
- Günter Grönbold, Jesus In Indien, München: Kösel 1985, ISBN 3466202701.
- Norbert Klatt, Lebte Jesus in Indien?, Göttingen: Wallstein 1988.
- Faruqi, Nisar Ahmed (1983), "The Promised Messiah", Ahmadiyyat in the Service of Islam, Lahore: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat, pp. 98, ISBN 0-913321-00-1, http://www.aaiil.org/text/books/others/naseerahmadfaruqui/ahmadiyyatserviceislam/promisedmessiah_pf.shtml .
- Houtsma, M. Th. (1913), "Ahmedia", in Houtsma, M. Th.; Arnold, T. W.; Basset, R., Encyclopedia of Islam, 1, Leiden: Brill, pp. 260 .
- Houtsma 1913, p. 260.
- Emunoth ve-Deoth, II:5
- Simmons, Shraga, "Why Jews Do not Believe in Jesus", Retrieved April 15, 2007; "Why Jews Do not Believe in Jesus", Ohr Samayach — Ask the Rabbi, Retrieved April 15, 2007; "Why do not Jews believe that Jesus was the messiah?", AskMoses.com, Retrieved April 15, 2007
- "Even Jesus the Nazarene who imagined that he would be Messiah and was killed by the court, was already prophesied by Daniel. So that it was said, "And the members of the outlaws of your nation would be carried to make a (prophetic) vision stand. And they stumbled." (Daniel 11.14) Because, is there a greater stumbling-block than this one? So that all of the prophets spoke that the Messiah redeems Israel, and saves them, and gathers their banished ones, and strengthens their commandments. And this one caused (nations) to destroy Israel by sword, and to scatter their remnant, and to humiliate them, and to exchange the Torah, and to make the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God. However, the thoughts of the Creator of the world — there is no force in a human to attain them because our ways are not God's ways, and our thoughts not God's thoughts. And all these things of Jesus the Nazarene, and of (Muhammad) the Ishmaelite who stood after him — there is no (purpose) but to straighten out the way for the King Messiah, and to restore all the world to serve God together. So that it is said, "Because then I will turn toward the nations (giving them) a clear lip, to call all of them in the name of God and to serve God (shoulder to shoulder as) one shoulder."(Zephaniah 3.9) Look how all the world already becomes full of the things of the Messiah, and the things of the Torah, and the things of the commandments! And these things spread among the far islands and among the many nations uncircumcised of heart. "Hilchot Malachim (laws concerning kings) (Hebrew)", MechonMamre.org, Retrieved April 15, 2007
- Waxman, Jonathan (2006). Messianic Jews Are Not Jews. United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. “Judaism has held that the Mashiach will come and usher in a new era; not that he will proclaim his arrival, die and wait centuries to finish his task. To continue to assert that Jesus was the Mashiach goes against the belief that the Mashiach will transform the world when he does come, not merely hint at a future transformation at some undefined time to come... Judaism rejects the claim that a new covenant was created with Jesus and asserts instead that the chain of Tradition reaching back to Moshe continues to make valid claims on our lives, and serve as more than mere window dressing.”
- Contemporary American Reform Responsa, #68, "Question 18.3.4: Reform's Position On...What is unacceptable practice?", faqs.org. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
- Stockman, Robert (1992). "Jesus Christ in the Baha'i Writings". Bahá'í Studies Review (1). http://bahai-library.com/index.php5?file=stockman_jesus_bahai_writings.
- The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, Introduction by Swami Nikhilananda, p. 34.
- Christ the Messenger. Retrieved on April 15, 2007.
- Paramahansa Yogananda, Autobiography of a Yogi, 2nd ed., Crystal Clarity Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1–56589–212–7.
- Beverley, James A., Hollywood's Idol, Christianity Today, "Jesus Christ also lived previous lives," he said. "So, you see, he reached a high state, either as a Bodhisattva, or an enlightened person, through Buddhist practice or something like that," Retrieved April 20, 2007
- 101 Zen Stories; #16
- Mandaean Scriptures and Fragments: The Haran Gawaitha. Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
- Bevan, A. A. (1930). "Manichaeism." Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume VIII Ed. James Hastings. London
- Wills, Garry, What Jesus Meant (2006) ISBN 0–670–03496–7
- Crossan, John Dominic, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperSanFrancisco (1993), ISBN 0–06–061629–6; Robert Funk, The Five Gospels: What Did Jesus Really Say? The Search for the AUTHENTIC Words of Jesus, Harper San Francisco (1997), ISBN 0–06–063040-X; Robert Funk, The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?, The Jesus Seminar, Harper San Francisco (1998), ISBN 0–06–062978–9; The Jesus Seminar, The Gospel of Jesus: According to the Jesus Seminar, Robert Walter Funk (Editor), Polebridge Press (1999), ISBN 0–944344–74–7
- Sniegocki, John. "Review of Joseph GRASSI, Peace on Earth: Roots and Practices from Luke's Gospel," Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2004 (repentance, forgiveness); Bock, Darrell L. "Major Themes of Jesus' life," (coming of the Kingdom of God); Brussat, Frederic and Mary Ann. "Review of If Grace Is So Amazing, Why Do not We Like It?," (grace); Hughes, F. A. "Grace and Truth," STEM publishing 1972 (grace)
- Duhaime, Jean; Blasi, Anthony J.; Turcotte, Paul-André (2002). Handbook of early Christianity: social science approaches. Walnut Creek, Calif: AltaMira Press, p.434. ISBN 0-7591-0015-2.
- The Jefferson Bible. Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
- "Christian Antisemitism: A History of Hate" by William Nicholls, 1993. Published by Jason Aronson Inc., 1995; "Mature Christianity: The Recognition and Repudiation of the Anti-Jewish Polemic in the New Testament" Norman A. Beck, Susquehanna Univ. Press, 1985; "The Satanizing of the Jews: Origin and development of mystical anti-Semitism" Joel Carmichael, Fromm, 1993; "The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity" John G. Gager, Oxford Univ. Press, 1983; "What Did They Think of the Jews?" Edited by Allan Gould, Jason Aronson Inc., 1991; "The New Testament's Anti-Jewish Slander and Conventions of Ancient Polemic," Luke Johnson, Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 3, 1989; "Three Popes and the Jews" Pinchas E. Lapide, Hawthorne Books, 1967; "National Socialism and the Roman Catholic Church" Nathaniel Micklem, Oxford Univ. Press, 1939; Theological Anti-Semitism in the New Testament," Rosemary Radford Ruether, Christian Century, Feb. 1968, Vol. 85; "John Chrysostom and the Jews" Robert L. Wilken, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1983
- Of Revelation and Revolution, Volume 1: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa by Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff 1991 University of Chicago Press; A Violent Evangelism: The Political and Religious Conquest of the Americas by Luis Rivera Pagan 1992 Westminster Press; The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in the 17th century by James Muldoon 1994 University of Pennsylvania Press; An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880–1914 by J.P. Daughton 2006 Oxford University Press; Contracting Colonialism: Translations and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule by Vicente L. Rafael 1988 Cornell University Press; Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-Cultural Communication Since 1500; With Special Reference to Caste, Conversion, and Colonialism (Studies in the History of Christian Missions) edited by Robert Eric Frykenberg and Alaine Low 2003 Wm. B. Eerdmans
- Allison, Dale. Jesus of Nazareth: Millenarian Prophet. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1999. ISBN 0–8006–3144–7
- Brown, Raymond E.. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0–385–24767–2
- Cohen, Shaye J.D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1988. ISBN 0–664–25017–3
- Cohen, Shaye J.D. The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 0–520–22693–3
- Crossan, John Dominic.
- The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. ISBN 0–06–061629–6
- Who Killed Jesus?," 1995. ISBN 0–06–061480–3
- Guy Davenport and Benjamin Urrutia. The Logia of Yeshua; The Sayings of Jesus. Washington, DC: 1996. ISBN 1–887178–70–8
- De La Potterie, Ignace. "The Hour of Jesus." New York: Alba House, 1989.
- Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. ISBN 0–671–11500–6
- Ehrman, Bart. The Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0–19–514183–0
- Ehrman, Bart. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0–19–515462–2
- Fredriksen, Paula. Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity. New York: Vintage, 2000. ISBN 0–679–76746–0
- Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 0–300–04864–5
- Finegan, Jack. Handbook of Biblical Chronology, revised ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1–56563–143–9.
- Fuller, Reginald H., The Foundations of New Testament Christology. New York: Scribners, 1965. ISBN 022717075X
- Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, New York: Anchor Doubleday,
- v. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, 1991. ISBN 0–385–26425–9
- v. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, 1994. ISBN 0–385–46992–6
- v. 3, Companions and Competitors, 2001. ISBN 0–385–46993–4
- O'Collins, Gerald. Interpreting Jesus. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1983.
- Pelikan, Jaroslav. Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0–300–07987–7
- Robinson, John A. T. Redating the New Testament. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001 (original 1977). ISBN 1–57910–527–0.
- Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin, 1996. ISBN 0–14–014499–4
- Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987. ISBN 0–8006–2061–5
- Vermes, Geza. Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1981. ISBN 0–8006–1443–7
- Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
- Vermes, Geza. The Religion of Jesus the Jew. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993. ISBN 0–8006–2797–0
- Vermes, Geza. Jesus in his Jewish Context. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0–8006–3623–6
- Wilson, A.N. Jesus. London: Pimlico, 2003. ISBN 0–7126–0697–1
- Wright, N.T. Jesus and the Victory of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1997. ISBN 0–8006–2682–6
- Wright, N.T. The Resurrection of the Son of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0–8006–2679–6
- Religious views
- Complete Sayings of Jesus Christ In Parallel Latin & English — The Complete Christ Sayings
- Historical and skeptical views
- Overview of the Life of Jesus A summary of New Testament accounts.
- The Jewish Roman World of Jesus
- The Jesus Puzzle — Earl Doherty's website.
af:Jesus van Nasaret am:ኢየሱስ ang:Iesus ar:يسوع an:Chesús de Nazaret arc:ܝܫܘܥ ast:Xesús az:İsa peyğəmbər bm:Yesu Krista bn:যিশু zh-min-nan:Iâ-so͘ ba:Ғайса be:Ісус Хрыстос be-x-old:Ісус Хрыстос bi:Jisas Kraes bs:Isus br:Jezuz Nazaret bg:Исус Христос bxr:Иисус Христос ca:Jesús de Natzaret cv:Иисус Христос ceb:Jesus cs:Ježíš Kristus ny:Yesu Kristu cy:Iesu da:Jesus fra Nazaret pdc:Yeesus Grischdus de:Jesus von Nazaret dv:އީސާ މަސީހު et:Jeesus el:Ιησούς Χριστός es:Jesús de Nazaret eo:Jesuo Kristo eu:Jesus Nazaretekoa ee:Yesu Kristo fa:عیسی fo:Jesus fr:Jésus de Nazareth fy:Jezus Kristus fur:Jesus ga:Íosa Críost gan:耶穌 gd:Iosa Chrìosd gl:Xesús de Nazareth got:𐌹𐌴𐍃𐌿𐍃 𐍇𐍂𐌹𐍃𐍄𐌿𐍃 hak:Yâ-sû ko:예수 ha:Yesu Kristi hy:Հիսուս Քրիստոս hi:ईसा मसीह hr:Isus ig:Jisọs Kraịst ilo:Jesus id:Yesus ia:Jesus Christo xh:UYesu Kristu zu:UJesu Krestu is:Jesús it:Gesù he:ישו jv:Yesus Kristus kl:Jesus Kristus kn:ಯೇಸು ಕ್ರಿಸ್ತ ka:იესო ქრისტე kk:Иса Мәсіх kw:Yesu Krist rw:Yesu Kristo rn:Yezu Kirisitu sw:Yesu kv:Исус Христос kg:Yesu ht:Jezi ku:Îsa lad:Yesukristo lo:ພະເຍຊູ la:Iesus lv:Jēzus Kristus lb:Jesus vun Nazaret lt:Jėzus Kristus lij:Gesû Cristo li:Zjezus Christus lg:Jesu Kristo hu:Jézus mk:Исус Христос mg:Jesoa ml:യേശു mt:Ġesù Kristu mi:Ihu Karaiti ms:Yesus Kristus cdo:Ià-sŭ mn:Есүс Христ nah:Yeshua Christós na:Jesu Kristo fj:Jisu Karisito nl:Christus (Jezus) nds-nl:Jezus Christus ne:येशु क्राइस्ट ja:イエス・キリスト pih:Jesus no:Jesus Kristus nn:Jesus nrm:Jésus-Chrît oc:Jèsus om:Yesus Kristos ug:ئەيسا پەيغەمبەر uz:Iso Masih pa:ਈਸਾ ਮਸੀਹ ps:عيسى عليه السلام pms:Gesù ëd Nàsaret nds:Jesus Christus pl:Jezus Chrystus pt:Jesus ty:Iesu Mesia ksh:Jesus Christus ro:Iisus din Nazaret rm:Gesu da Nazaret qu:Jesus ru:Иисус Христос sm:Iesu Keriso sg:Jésus Christ sco:Jesus Christ st:Jesu Kreste sq:Jezusi scn:Gesù Cristu simple:Jesus sk:Ježiš Kristus sl:Jezus Kristus szl:Jezus Chrystus so:Ciise sr:Исус Христос sh:Isus fi:Jeesus sv:Jesus tl:Hesus ta:இயேசு கிறிஸ்து kab:Ɛisa tt:Ğaysa te:యేసు th:พระเยซู vi:Giê-su tg:Исо tpi:Jisas to:Sīsū Kalaisi tr:İsa tk:Isa Pygamber tw:Yesu Kristo uk:Ісус Христос ur:عیسیٰ علیہ السلام vec:Gesù vls:Jezus van Nazareth wo:Yéesu-kristaa wuu:耶稣 yi:יוזל yo:Jesu Kristi zh-yue:耶穌 cbk-zam:Jesus bat-smg:Jiezos Krėstos zh:耶稣