On November 9, 1938, the Nazis organized a series of mobs and riots against Jews in Germany. Thousands of synagogues, Jewish businesses, and homes were destroyed and burned. Tens of thousands of Jews were sent to concentration camps. The amount of glass left behind gave the incident its name: Kristallnacht ("Crystal Night"), or the "Night of Broken Glass."
Kristallnacht followed decades of Pogroms against Jews across eastern Europe and Russia.
- Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power: 1933-1939 2005. 800 pp.
- Friedlander, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1: The Years of Persecution 1933-1939 (1998)