Difference between revisions of "Liberalism"

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'''Liberalism''' is a political and economic philosophy whose basis is on liberty, consent of the governed, and equality before the law.<ref>"liberalism In general, the belief that it is the aim of politics to preserve individual rights and to maximize freedom of choice." ''Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics'', Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan, Third edition 2009, {{ISBN|978-0-19-920516-5}}.</ref><ref>"political rationalism, hostility to autocracy, cultural distaste for conservatism and for tradition in general, tolerance, and [...] individualism". John Dunn. ''Western Political Theory in the Face of the Future'' (1993). Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-521-43755-4}}.</ref><ref>"With a nod to Robert Trivers' definition of altruistic behaviour" Trivers et al., 1971, page 35), Satoshi Kanazawa defines liberalism (as opposed to conservatism) as "the genuine concern for the welfare of genetically unrelated others and the willingness to contribute larger proportions of private resources for the welfare of such others" (Kanazawa et al., 2010, page 38).</ref> Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support free markets, free trade, limited government, individual rights (including civil rights and human rights), [[capitalism]], [[democracy]], secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, and freedom of speech, the press, and of religion.<ref name="LInternational">{{cite web|url=http://www.liberal-international.org/editorial.asp?ia_id=537|title=The Liberal Agenda for the 21st Century|access-date=20 March 2015|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110207012341/http://www.liberal-international.org/editorial.asp?ia_id=537|archive-date=7 February 2011}}</ref><ref name="Nader Hashemi">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UkVIYjezrF0C&dq=liberalism+secularism|author=Nader Hashemi|title=Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy: Toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies|publisher=Oxford University Press|quote=Liberal democracy requires a form of secularism to sustain itself|year=2009|isbn=978-0-19-971751-4}}</ref><ref name="Kathleen G. Donohue">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=htuTnexZAo8C&pg=PA1&dq=liberalism+freedom+of+religion#v=onepage|author=Kathleen G. Donohue|title=Freedom from Want: American Liberalism and the Idea of the Consumer (New Studies in American Intellectual and Cultural History)|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|quote=Three of them – freedom from fear, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion – have long been fundamental to liberalism.|isbn=978-0-8018-7426-0|date=19 December 2003|access-date=31 December 2007}}</ref><ref name="The Economist">{{cite journal|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KBzHAAAAIAAJ&q=liberalism+freedom+of+religion&dq=liberalism+freedom+of+religion|title=The Economist, Volume 341, Issues 7995–7997|journal=The Economist|quote=For all three share a belief in the liberal society as defined above: a society that provides constitutional government (rule by law, not by men) and freedom of religion, thought, expression and economic interaction; a society in which [...]|year=1996|access-date=31 December 2007}}</ref><ref name="Sheldon S. Wolin">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ndAdGl8ScfcC&pg=PA525&dq=liberalism+freedom+of+religion#v=onepage|author=Sehldon S. Wolin|title=Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought|publisher=Princeton University Press|quote=The most frequently cited rights included freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, property, and procedural rights|isbn=978-0-691-11977-9|year=2004|access-date=31 December 2007}}</ref><ref name="Edwin Brown Firmage, Bernard G. Weiss, John Woodland Welch">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mQJgnEITPRIC&pg=PA366&dq=liberalism+freedom+of+religion#v=onepage|author1=Edwin Brown Firmage|author2=Bernard G. Weiss|author3=John Woodland Welch|title=Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives|publisher=Eisenbrauns|quote=There is no need to expound the foundations and principles of modern liberalism, which emphasises the values of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion |isbn=978-0-931464-39-3|year=1990 |access-date=31 December 2007}}</ref><ref name="John Joseph Lalor">{{cite book|url=https://archive.org/details/cyclopaediapoli00lalogoog|page=[https://archive.org/details/cyclopaediapoli00lalogoog/page/n758 760]|first=John Joseph|last=Lalor|title=Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States|publisher=Nabu Press|quote=Democracy attaches itself to a form of government: liberalism, to liberty and guarantees of liberty. The two may agree; they are not contradictory, but they are neither identical, nor necessarily connected. In the moral order, liberalism is the liberty to think, recognised and practiced. This is primordial liberalism, as the liberty to think is itself the first and noblest of liberties. Man would not be free in any degree or in any sphere of action, if he were not a thinking being endowed with consciousness. The freedom of worship, the freedom of education, and the freedom of the press are derived the most directly from the freedom to think.|year=1883|access-date=31 December 2007}}</ref>
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'''Liberalism''' can refer to a number of political philosophies derived from [[Classical liberalism]]. In this article, the [[United States of America|American]] political platform referred to as "liberal" within the United States is contrasted with other meanings of the word, particularly in [[Europe]] and in other [[Parliamentary democracy|parliamentary democratic]] systems.
  
There are three main types of liberalism:
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* "Whereas Liberalism is the triumph of emotion over [[reason]] (as defined historically), [[Conservatism]] is an applied intellectual process; based on observation, deduction, and the study of provable historical fact." - Sandy Stringfellow<ref>[http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/26552 Sandy Stringfellow]</ref>
*[[Social liberalism]]
+
* [[Cal Thomas]] said, "One of liberalism's many problems is that once an idea or program is proved wrong and unworkable, liberals rarely acknowledge their mistake and examine the root cause of their error so they don't repeat it."<ref>[https://townhall.com/columnists/calthomas/2011/02/11/told_you_so Cal Thomas]</ref>
*[[Conservative liberalism]]
+
* [[Fred Seigel]] wrote, "Liberalism has become an ugly blend of sanctimony, self-interest, and social connections." <ref>[http://news.heartland.org/editorial/2013/09/09/curse-liberalism Fred Seigel]</ref>
*[[Classical liberalism]]
+
* [[Alan Caruba]] wrote:
 +
*:A distinguishing element of liberalism has been its admiration of autocratic leaders and this explains its embrace of dictators from the likes of the German Kaiser, Lenin and Stalin, through to men like Fidel Castro and his murderous sidekick, Ernesto "Che" Guevera.<ref>[http://news.heartland.org/editorial/2013/09/09/curse-liberalism The Curse of Liberalism] Alan Caruba - September 9, 2013</ref>
 +
* [[Michael Savage]] wrote, "As much as the Left fashions themselves as being progressive, they’re not. In reality, today’s leftist movement is made in much the same way as a sausage—it’s a blend of fascist, Communist, and socialist ideologies from twentieth-century Europe, with a pinch of Nazism, all ground together, yet retaining the flavor of its various parts."<ref>[https://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/25837-liberalism-is-a-mental-disorder-savage-solutions Quote from ''Liberalism is a Mental Disorder'' by Michael Savage]</ref>
  
==Relation to socialism==
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Since the definition of liberalism often – but not always – means to advocate for and be open to change, its specific reference depends on specified context. For instance, [[American liberalism]] has changed drastically since the 1960s, with liberals then (see: [[John F. Kennedy]] and [[Martin Luther King Jr.]]) advocating for personal responsibility and true liberty, in sharp contrast to modern-day liberals, being very close to leftists, denounce and devalue.
Liberals are not [[socialism|socialists]], and at most have somewhat of an inclination or sympathy towards such. Liberals tend to be unaware of legitimate critical theory but may side at times with socialism nonetheless either because they believe in forming a popular front or because they have a misconception about what socialism is (most commonly, this manifests as a liberal’s desire for what they believe to be socialism, when really they just focus on the achievement of welfare, not to change the relations to the means of production per se). Marxism rejects liberal reform of capitalism, considering reform to be a bandage that cannot reconcile the inherent contradictions to capitalism. Regardless, liberals on the path to class consciousness are generally considerable allies and have a place within the socialist movement, particularly at first when uniting against reactionary and other anti-socialist forces (wherein there is the establishment of a popular front).
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 +
== United States ==
 +
In the U.S. the word ''liberal'' is usually used to describe the platform espoused by the [[Democrat Party]], that is, support of [[social welfare]] systems, redistribution of wealth, and government regulation of the economy - combined with a certain brand of individual [[libertarianism]], emphasizing [[communism|social equality]], and (to a certain extent, these days increasingly radical) rejection of traditional [[Judaism|Judeo]]-[[Christianity|Christian]] standards of [[morality]] as a proper justification for [[law]].
 +
 
 +
The [[economic]] aspects of this ideology are to a large extent a product of the [[New Deal]] policies of the [[Great Depression]] era, as well as [[Lyndon B. Johnson]]'s "[[Great Society]]." It also should be noted that a good portion of the Liberal economic philosophy has certain roots in the teachings of [[Karl Marx]], such as the overall focus on [[communism|social equality]] and the outrageous rejection of the Judeo-Christian morals. It should be noted, however, that Liberals are not pureblood Communists: Unlike their redder brethren, Liberals are far more insidious and dangerous, as they have successfully infiltrated the American society and now threaten the American way of life.
 +
 
 +
The Democrat Party's idea of social liberty and equality, though, came much later, partly as a result of the [[Civil rights movement|civil rights]] and [[counterculture]] movements of the late 20th century.  It continues to be fueled by various youth movements and the interests of numerous special interest groups.
 +
 
 +
== Europe and elsewhere ==
 +
In Europe, ''liberalism'' refers to a political position that leans toward greater individual liberties and less government intervention in general.  In short, this is the philosophy closest to [[classical liberalism]], and is commonly referred to in the United States as [[libertarianism]].  In Europe and elsewhere, then, the opposite of liberalism is not [[conservatism]], but [[authoritarianism]].
 +
 
 +
Because of this, the terms "conservative liberalism" and "liberal conservatism", which are seen as contradictory in the U.S., are not so in Europe.  "Conservative liberalism" simply refers to a less radical libertarian philosophy, and is often referred to as "law-and-order liberalism."  Liberal conservatism is simply a variant of conservatism willing to allow for individual liberties, and, in a way, describes the ideology of the American [[Republican Party]]. Such examples of this obvious line of thought include the [[civil rights movement]], when the Republican Party (and a few southern Democrats) just wanted to maintain the African American's right to have the choice of forced segregation.
 +
 
 +
The Liberal Party of Australia is the right-leaning party, in opposition to the [[liberal]] Labor Party, and is not to be confused with liberalism as an ideology.
 +
 
 +
== Nazism and socialism ==
 +
''For more information please see:'' [[Nazism and socialism]], [[Gun Control in Nazi Germany]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:Hitler.jpg|thumb|250px|right|One of the most well known political parties of the 20th century which was [[socialism|socialistic]] was the [[Nazi Party|National Socialist German Workers' Party]] (Nazi Party), led by [[Social Darwinist]] [[Adolf Hitler]].<ref>http://mises.org/daily/1937</ref><ref>https://creation.com/darwinism-and-the-nazi-race-holocaust</ref><ref>http://www.hourofthetime.com/socialist.htm</ref> ]]
 +
The [[Ludwig von Mises Institute]] declares:
 +
{{cquote|The identification of [[Third Reich|Nazi Germany]] as a [[socialism|socialist]] state was one of the many great contributions of [[Ludwig von Mises]]...
 +
 
 +
The basis of the claim that Nazi Germany was capitalist was the fact that most industries in Nazi Germany appeared to be left in private hands.
 +
 
 +
What Mises identified was that private ownership of the means of production existed in name only under the Nazis and that the actual substance of ownership of the means of production resided in the German government. For it was the German government and not the nominal private owners that exercised all of the substantive powers of ownership: it, not the nominal private owners, decided what was to be produced, in what quantity, by what methods, and to whom it was to be distributed, as well as what prices would be charged and what wages would be paid, and what dividends or other income the nominal private owners would be permitted to receive. The position of the alleged private owners, Mises showed, was reduced essentially to that of government pensioners.
 +
 
 +
De facto government ownership of the means of production, as Mises termed it, was logically implied by such fundamental collectivist principles embraced by the Nazis as that the common good comes before the private good and the individual exists as a means to the ends of the State. If the individual is a means to the ends of the State, so too, of course, is his property. Just as he is owned by the State, his property is also owned by the State.<ref>http://mises.org/daily/1937</ref>}}
 +
 
 +
There is debate about the similarities between Nazism and socialism. Despite whether Nazism is socialist or not, they, with the help of general improvement of economic conditions in Europe, helped propel Germany out of the Great Depression with their economic policy.<ref>http://www.nazism.net/about/economic_practice</ref>
 +
 
 +
== Similarities between Communism, Nazism and liberalism ==
 +
''See also:'' [[Similarities between Communism, Nazism and liberalism]]
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
!
 +
![[Communism|Communist]] Manifesto
 +
![[Nazi Party]] Platform
 +
!Analysis
 +
|-
 +
|1
 +
|"Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes."
 +
|"We demand an agrarian reform in accordance with our national requirements, and the enactment of a law to expropriate the owners without compensation of any land needed for the common purpose. The abolition of ground rents, and the prohibition of all speculation in land."
 +
|The stripping away of land from private owners.  Liberalism today demands "eminent domain" on property.
 +
|-
 +
|2
 +
|"A heavy progressive or graduated income tax."
 +
|"We demand the nationalization of all trusts...profit-sharing in large industries...a generous increase in old-age pensions...by providing maternity welfare centers, by prohibiting juvenile labor...and the creation of a national (folk) army."
 +
|The points raised in the [[Nazi]] platform demand an increase in taxes to support them.  Liberalism today demands heavy progressive and graduated income taxes.
 +
|-
 +
|3
 +
|"Abolition of all rights of inheritance."
 +
|"That all unearned income, and all income that does not arise from work, be abolished."
 +
|Liberalism today demands a "death tax" on anyone inheriting an estate.
 +
|-
 +
|4
 +
|"Centralisation of credit in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly."
 +
|"We demand the nationalization of all trusts."
 +
|Central control of the financial system.
 +
|-
 +
|5
 +
|"Centralisation of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State."
 +
|"We demand that there be a legal campaign against those who propagate deliberate political lies and disseminate them through the press...editors and their assistants on newspapers published in the German language shall be German citizens...Non-German newspapers shall only be published with the express permission of the State...the punishment for transgressing this law be the immediate suppression of the newspaper..."
 +
|Central control of the press.  Liberals today demand control or suppression of talk radio and Fox News.
 +
|-
 +
|6
 +
|"Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children’s factory labour in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, &c, &c."
 +
|"In order to make it possible for every capable and industrious German to obtain higher education, and thus the opportunity to reach into positions of leadership, the State must assume the responsibility of organizing thoroughly the entire cultural system of the people. The curricula of all educational establishments shall be adapted to practical life. The conception of the State Idea (science of citizenship) must be taught in the schools from the very beginning. We demand that specially talented children of poor parents, whatever their station or occupation, be educated at the expense of the State. "
 +
|Central control of education, with an emphasis on doing things their way.  Liberals today are doing things ''their way'' in our schools.
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
 +
*[[Liberalism and bestiality]]
 +
*[[Progressivism]]
 +
*[[Laissez faire]]
 +
 
 +
{{liberalism}}
 +
{{creation vs. evolution}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
<references />
 +
[[Category:Liberalism]]
 +
[[Category:Anti-American]]

Revision as of 17:28, 4 December 2020

Liberalism can refer to a number of political philosophies derived from Classical liberalism. In this article, the American political platform referred to as "liberal" within the United States is contrasted with other meanings of the word, particularly in Europe and in other parliamentary democratic systems.

  • "Whereas Liberalism is the triumph of emotion over reason (as defined historically), Conservatism is an applied intellectual process; based on observation, deduction, and the study of provable historical fact." - Sandy Stringfellow[1]
  • Cal Thomas said, "One of liberalism's many problems is that once an idea or program is proved wrong and unworkable, liberals rarely acknowledge their mistake and examine the root cause of their error so they don't repeat it."[2]
  • Fred Seigel wrote, "Liberalism has become an ugly blend of sanctimony, self-interest, and social connections." [3]
  • Alan Caruba wrote:
    A distinguishing element of liberalism has been its admiration of autocratic leaders and this explains its embrace of dictators from the likes of the German Kaiser, Lenin and Stalin, through to men like Fidel Castro and his murderous sidekick, Ernesto "Che" Guevera.[4]
  • Michael Savage wrote, "As much as the Left fashions themselves as being progressive, they’re not. In reality, today’s leftist movement is made in much the same way as a sausage—it’s a blend of fascist, Communist, and socialist ideologies from twentieth-century Europe, with a pinch of Nazism, all ground together, yet retaining the flavor of its various parts."[5]

Since the definition of liberalism often – but not always – means to advocate for and be open to change, its specific reference depends on specified context. For instance, American liberalism has changed drastically since the 1960s, with liberals then (see: John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.) advocating for personal responsibility and true liberty, in sharp contrast to modern-day liberals, being very close to leftists, denounce and devalue.

United States

In the U.S. the word liberal is usually used to describe the platform espoused by the Democrat Party, that is, support of social welfare systems, redistribution of wealth, and government regulation of the economy - combined with a certain brand of individual libertarianism, emphasizing social equality, and (to a certain extent, these days increasingly radical) rejection of traditional Judeo-Christian standards of morality as a proper justification for law.

The economic aspects of this ideology are to a large extent a product of the New Deal policies of the Great Depression era, as well as Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Society." It also should be noted that a good portion of the Liberal economic philosophy has certain roots in the teachings of Karl Marx, such as the overall focus on social equality and the outrageous rejection of the Judeo-Christian morals. It should be noted, however, that Liberals are not pureblood Communists: Unlike their redder brethren, Liberals are far more insidious and dangerous, as they have successfully infiltrated the American society and now threaten the American way of life.

The Democrat Party's idea of social liberty and equality, though, came much later, partly as a result of the civil rights and counterculture movements of the late 20th century. It continues to be fueled by various youth movements and the interests of numerous special interest groups.

Europe and elsewhere

In Europe, liberalism refers to a political position that leans toward greater individual liberties and less government intervention in general. In short, this is the philosophy closest to classical liberalism, and is commonly referred to in the United States as libertarianism. In Europe and elsewhere, then, the opposite of liberalism is not conservatism, but authoritarianism.

Because of this, the terms "conservative liberalism" and "liberal conservatism", which are seen as contradictory in the U.S., are not so in Europe. "Conservative liberalism" simply refers to a less radical libertarian philosophy, and is often referred to as "law-and-order liberalism." Liberal conservatism is simply a variant of conservatism willing to allow for individual liberties, and, in a way, describes the ideology of the American Republican Party. Such examples of this obvious line of thought include the civil rights movement, when the Republican Party (and a few southern Democrats) just wanted to maintain the African American's right to have the choice of forced segregation.

The Liberal Party of Australia is the right-leaning party, in opposition to the liberal Labor Party, and is not to be confused with liberalism as an ideology.

Nazism and socialism

For more information please see: Nazism and socialism, Gun Control in Nazi Germany

One of the most well known political parties of the 20th century which was socialistic was the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party), led by Social Darwinist Adolf Hitler.[6][7][8]

The Ludwig von Mises Institute declares:

The identification of Nazi Germany as a socialist state was one of the many great contributions of Ludwig von Mises...

The basis of the claim that Nazi Germany was capitalist was the fact that most industries in Nazi Germany appeared to be left in private hands.

What Mises identified was that private ownership of the means of production existed in name only under the Nazis and that the actual substance of ownership of the means of production resided in the German government. For it was the German government and not the nominal private owners that exercised all of the substantive powers of ownership: it, not the nominal private owners, decided what was to be produced, in what quantity, by what methods, and to whom it was to be distributed, as well as what prices would be charged and what wages would be paid, and what dividends or other income the nominal private owners would be permitted to receive. The position of the alleged private owners, Mises showed, was reduced essentially to that of government pensioners.

De facto government ownership of the means of production, as Mises termed it, was logically implied by such fundamental collectivist principles embraced by the Nazis as that the common good comes before the private good and the individual exists as a means to the ends of the State. If the individual is a means to the ends of the State, so too, of course, is his property. Just as he is owned by the State, his property is also owned by the State.[9]

There is debate about the similarities between Nazism and socialism. Despite whether Nazism is socialist or not, they, with the help of general improvement of economic conditions in Europe, helped propel Germany out of the Great Depression with their economic policy.[10]

Similarities between Communism, Nazism and liberalism

See also: Similarities between Communism, Nazism and liberalism

Communist Manifesto Nazi Party Platform Analysis
1 "Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes." "We demand an agrarian reform in accordance with our national requirements, and the enactment of a law to expropriate the owners without compensation of any land needed for the common purpose. The abolition of ground rents, and the prohibition of all speculation in land." The stripping away of land from private owners. Liberalism today demands "eminent domain" on property.
2 "A heavy progressive or graduated income tax." "We demand the nationalization of all trusts...profit-sharing in large industries...a generous increase in old-age pensions...by providing maternity welfare centers, by prohibiting juvenile labor...and the creation of a national (folk) army." The points raised in the Nazi platform demand an increase in taxes to support them. Liberalism today demands heavy progressive and graduated income taxes.
3 "Abolition of all rights of inheritance." "That all unearned income, and all income that does not arise from work, be abolished." Liberalism today demands a "death tax" on anyone inheriting an estate.
4 "Centralisation of credit in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly." "We demand the nationalization of all trusts." Central control of the financial system.
5 "Centralisation of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State." "We demand that there be a legal campaign against those who propagate deliberate political lies and disseminate them through the press...editors and their assistants on newspapers published in the German language shall be German citizens...Non-German newspapers shall only be published with the express permission of the State...the punishment for transgressing this law be the immediate suppression of the newspaper..." Central control of the press. Liberals today demand control or suppression of talk radio and Fox News.
6 "Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children’s factory labour in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, &c, &c." "In order to make it possible for every capable and industrious German to obtain higher education, and thus the opportunity to reach into positions of leadership, the State must assume the responsibility of organizing thoroughly the entire cultural system of the people. The curricula of all educational establishments shall be adapted to practical life. The conception of the State Idea (science of citizenship) must be taught in the schools from the very beginning. We demand that specially talented children of poor parents, whatever their station or occupation, be educated at the expense of the State. " Central control of education, with an emphasis on doing things their way. Liberals today are doing things their way in our schools.

See also

References

  1. Sandy Stringfellow
  2. Cal Thomas
  3. Fred Seigel
  4. The Curse of Liberalism Alan Caruba - September 9, 2013
  5. Quote from Liberalism is a Mental Disorder by Michael Savage
  6. http://mises.org/daily/1937
  7. https://creation.com/darwinism-and-the-nazi-race-holocaust
  8. http://www.hourofthetime.com/socialist.htm
  9. http://mises.org/daily/1937
  10. http://www.nazism.net/about/economic_practice