Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife

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Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555 (1992) contains the classic test of "injury of fact" that is an essential aspect of standing in federal court.

Under this test, to establish "injury in fact" the plaintiff must show:[1]

(1) an actual or imminent invasion of plaintiff's constitutionally cognizable interest;
(2) that this invasion is causally connected with the challenged conduct; and
(3) a harm that can be redressed by a favorable decision.

The three-part test is stated another way as follows:

(1) plaintiff must have suffered an injury in fact which is concrete and particularized,
(2) the injury must be traceable to defendant's conduct, and
(3) the injury must be redressable by a favorable decision.

As You Sow v. Shell Oil Co., No. C 97-2395 SI, 1997 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 24181, at *12 n.4 (N.D. Cal. Aug. 15, 1997) (citing Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555, 560-61, 119 L. Ed. 2d 351, 112 S. Ct. 2130 (1992)).


  1. 504 U.S. at 560-62