Difference between revisions of "Mao Zedong"
m (→See also)
|Line 77:||Line 77:|
* [[Darwin-Stalin connection]]
* [[Darwin-Stalin connection]]
* [[List of dictators]]
* [[Friendly dictator]]
* [[Dictatorship of the proletariat]]
* [[List of Communist States]]
* [[List of Socialist States]]
* [[Death toll of communism]]
* [[Cult of personality]]
* [[Cult of personality]]
* [[Mobocracy]], [[Social Effects of the Theory of Evolution]]
* [[Mobocracy]], [[Social Effects of the Theory of Evolution
|Line 122:||Line 114:|
|Line 130:||Line 121:|
Revision as of 20:34, 6 June 2017
|Date & Place of Birth|| December 26, 1893|
Shaoshan, Xiangtan, Hunan, China
|Parents|| Mao Jen-sheng|
|Claimed religion|| Confucianism (rejected)|
|Education|| Hunan Normal School|
|Spouse|| Luo Yixiu (married 1907-1910)|
Yang Kaihui (married 1921-1927)
He Zizhen (married 1928-1939)
Jiang Qing: (married 1939-1976)
|Children|| Mao Anying (from Yang)|
Mao Anqing (from Yang)
Li Min (from He)
Li Na (from Jiang)
|Date & Place of Death|| September 9, 1976|
|Manner of Death||Complications after heart attack|
|Place of Burial||Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing, China|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Military Service||People's Liberation Army|
|Highest rank attained||Grand Marshal|
|Political beliefs|| Communism|
|Political party||Communist Party of China|
|Date of Dictatorship||October 1, 1949|
|Wars started|| Chinese Civil War|
Great Leap Forward
|Number of Deaths attributed||40,000,000 to 80,000,000 est. Rummel: 77,000,000|
Mao Zedong, (1893-1976) was the leader of Chinese Communism and a ruthless atheist dictator after he came to power in 1949. While not the founder, he was an early member of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. In 1935, Mao was elected to the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow and remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. Mao is regarded as perhaps the most prolific mass murderer in human history, not even counting the inummerable unborn female fetuses whom he callously slaughtered.
Soviet national liberation movement
Edgar Snow, an admirer of the Chinese communists, introduced Mao and Zhou Enlai to American readers in 1937 in his book, Red Star Over China, shortly after the Chinese Red Army's rout by Chiang Kai-shek in 1934 and their year long retreat to Yenan known as the Long March. Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of Soviet Russia, under the leadership of Stalin."
Mao defeated Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists, taking control of the Chinese mainland and establishing the so-called People's Republic of China.
Three Years of Disasters
As the leader of China, Mao initiated the Great Leap Forward, an economic plan intended to rapidly industrialize China's then largely rural economy. This led to an unprecedented famine.
In 1966, Mao instigated the Cultural Revolution, in which those disloyal to the Chairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control.
According to the Washington Post (7/14/94):
While most scholars are reluctant to estimate a total number of "unnatural deaths" in China under Mao, evidence shows he was in some way responsible for at least 40 million deaths and perhaps 80 million or more. This includes deaths he was directly responsible for and deaths resulting from disastrous policies he refused to change.
One government document that has been internally circulated and seen by a former Communist Party official now at Princeton University says that 80 million died unnatural deaths – most of them in the famine following the Great Leap Forward. This figure comes from the Tigaisuo, or the System Reform Institute, which was led by Zhao Ziyang, the deposed Communist Party chief, in the 1980s to study how to reform Chinese society.
In comparison, Hitler is blamed for 12 million concentration camp deaths and at least 30 million other deaths associated with World War II, while Stalin is believed responsible for between 30 million and 40 million “unnatural deaths,” including millions from a famine he created.
The article also added:
Sources of new information on the famine indicate it was more widespread than long believed and could have been avoided.
— An article appearing last year in the Shanghai University journal Society stated that at least 40 million died from 1959 to 1961. Previous estimates have ranged from 10 million to 30 million. The article noted a mistake in government population statistics for 1960 that led to an underestimation of "unnatural deaths." Authorities later banned this issue of the journal and withdrew it from circulation.
— In another study, National Defense University professor Cong Jin estimated that 40 million died between 1959 and 1961.
— Chen Yizi of Princeton University’s Center for Modern China did research for years in China, first as a student and then as a government official, and determined that 43 million had died in the famine, a figure recently matched by a report from a think tank in Shanghai. According to Chen, this made the total number of Chinese who died as a result of Mao’s policies 80 million.
This confirms the accuracy of democide analyst R.J. Rummel's research on China. Taking every available estimate of Chinese democide by category and time period; averaging them out and adding them together; repeating the process several times; doing the same with other Communist states and comparing the results; Rummel estimated 77,000,000 Chinese were killed by Mao Tse-Tung, assuming 38 million famine-dead from 1959-61. Mao was responsible for more deaths than Stalin, Hitler, Pol Pot, Ceausescu, and Tito combined. Despite this massive body count, Mao remains an icon for certain segments of the far-left. For example, his likeness and books are often seen at Occupy Wall Street events.
Little Red Book
Mao is the author of Quotations from Chairman Mao, published in 1966, informally known as "the little red book." During his lifetime, almost everyone in the People's Republic of China was expected to have a copy. One of his most well known statements was that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".
In their book Mao: The Unknown Story, authors Jung Chang and Jon Halliday state that in his first five years of power, 700,000 were claimed by Mao to be dead, but another 700,000 died in local excesses and 700,000 committed suicide out of fear of Mao. During the Great Leap Forward, Mao deliberately killed peasants by shipping food to the USSR and Eastern Europe in exchange for aid in building arms plants. As well, Mao's plans for peasants to make steel and build canals meant that in 1959-60 nobody grew any food. Thus, the worst famine in history occurred. Huge numbers were killed by puppets of Mao in the Cultural Revolution, which actually was launched to get rid of Mao's rivals in the Chinese Communist Party.
- Darwin-Stalin connection
- List of dictators
- Friendly dictator
- Dictatorship of the proletariat
- List of Communist States
- List of Socialist States
- Death toll of communism
- Cult of personality
- Mobocracy, Social Effects of the Theory of Evolution
- Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story, (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
- Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History (2008), a favorable look at artistic production excerpt and text search
- Dietrich, Craig. People's China: A Brief History, 3d ed. (1997), 398pp excerpt and text search
- Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. (2006). 382 pp. excerpt and text search
- Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. (2nd ed. 2006). 640 pp. excerpt and text search
- Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. The Rise of Modern China, 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. excerpt and text search
- Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. (2006). 433 pp.
- MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982. (1992). 1108 pp.
- MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. Mao's Last Revolution. (2006).
- MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961-1966. (1998). 733 pp.
- Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic, 3rd ed. (1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. excerpt and text search
- Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. Columbia U. Press, 2000. 356 pp. online edition from Questia
- Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s excerpt and text search; complete edition online at Questia
- Spence, Jonatham. Mao Zedong (1999) excerpt and text search
- Shuyun, Sun. The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
- Taylor, Jay. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China (2009), 722 pp. highly favorable scholarly biography of Mao's great enemy
- Wang, Ke-wen, ed. Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. (1998). 442 pp.
- Xia, Yafeng. "The Study of Cold War International History in China: A Review of the Last Twenty Years," Journal of Cold War Studies10#1 Winter 2008, pp. 81–115 in Project Muse
- Yan, Jiaqi and Gao, Gao. Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. (1996). 736 pp.
- Studies of Modern Chinese History: Reviews and Historiographical Essays