Difference between revisions of "Mao Zedong"

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[[Image:Ncvjgfu.jpg|right|thumb|Mao Zedong]]
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{{Dictator bio
'''Mao Zedong''', the worst mass murderer of all time, lived from December 26, 1893, to September 9, 1976. He was a [[Communism|Communist]] [[Atheism|atheist]] and an early member of the [[Chinese Communist Party]] in 1921.  In 1935, Mao was elected to the Executive Committee of the [[Comintern]] in Moscow and remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943.<ref>''While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It'', John T. Flynn,  New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, [http://www.mises.org/books/whileyouslept.pdf  pgs. 21 - 22] pdf.</ref>
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| image        =[[Image:Ncvjgfu.jpg|200px]]
 +
| name        =Mao Zedong
 +
| birth        =December 26, 1893<br/>Shaoshan, Xiangtan, Hunan, China
 +
| parents      =Mao Jen-sheng<br/>Wen Chi-mei
 +
| religion    =[[Confucianism]] (rejected)<br/>[[Buddhism]] (rejected)<br/>[[Atheism]]
 +
| education    =Hunan Normal School<br/>Peking University
 +
| spouse      =Luo Yixiu (married 1907-1910)<br/>Yang Kaihui (married 1921-1927)<br/>He Zizhen (married 1928-1939)<br/>Jiang Qing: (married 1939-1976)
 +
| children    =Mao Anying (from Yang)<br/>Mao Anqing (from Yang)<br/>Li Min (from He)<br/>Li Na (from Jiang)
 +
| death        =September 9, 1976<br/>Beijing, China
 +
| deathmanner  =Complications after heart attack
 +
| burial      =Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing, China
 +
| country      =[[People's Republic of China]]
 +
| military    =[[People's Liberation Army]]
 +
| rank        =Grand Marshal
 +
| polbeliefs  =Communism<br/>Maoism
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| party        =[[Communist Party of China]]
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| dictatordate =October 1, 1949
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| war          =[[Chinese Civil War]]<br/>[[Great Leap Forward]]<br/>[[Cultural Revolution]]
 +
| deathnumber  =40,000,000 to 80,000,000 est.  Rummel:  77,000,000
 +
}}
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'''Mao Zedong''' (December 26, 1893-September 9, 1976), also known as '''Mao Tse-tung''', was the leader of Chinese Communism and a ruthless [[Atheism|atheist]] dictator after he came to power in 1949. While not the founder, he was an early member of the [[Chinese Communist Party]] in 1921.  In 1935, Mao was elected to the Executive Committee of the [[Comintern]] in Moscow and remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. Mao is regarded as perhaps the most prolific [[mass murder]]er in human history, not even counting the inummerable unborn female fetuses whom he [[abortion|callously slaughtered]].<ref>[http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/20TH.HTM "20th Century Democide"]. ''hawaii.edu''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref>
  
Mao was the author of ''[[Quotations from Chairman Mao]],'' published in 1966, informally known as "the little red book." During his lifetime, almost everyone in the [[People's Republic of China]] was expected to have a copy. One of his most well known statements was that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".
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==Soviet national liberation movement==
 +
[[Edgar Snow]], an admirer of the Chinese communists, introduced Mao and [[Zhou Enlai]] to American readers in 1937 in his book, ''Red Star Over China'', shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]'s rout by [[Chiang Kai-shek]] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[Yenan]] known as the [[Long March]]. Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the [[Communist International]], which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of [[Soviet Russia]], under the leadership of [[Stalin]]."<ref>''Red Star Over China'' by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.</ref> In 1957, in ominous foreshadowing of his true callous nature, Mao Zedong boasted in his "American Imperialism is a Paper Tiger" speech regarding the prospect of China entering [[nuclear war]] that:
  
[[Image:Little red book.jpg|left|200px|thumb|During the [[Cultural Revolution]], it was required for every Chinese citizen to own, read, and carry at all times ''Quotations from Chairman Mao'', also known as "the little red book".]]
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{{Quote|I’m not afraid of nuclear war. There are 2.7 billion people in the world; it doesn’t matter if some are killed. China has a population of 600 million; even if half of them are killed, there are still 300 million people left. I’m not afraid of anyone.|Mao Zedong|https://www.theepochtimes.com/maos-nuclear-mass-extinction-speech-aired-on-chinese-tv_4758.html}}
  
[[Edgar Snow]] introduced Mao and [[Zhou Enlai]] to American readers in 1937 in his book, ''Red Star Over China'', shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]’s rout by [[Chiang Kai-shek]] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[Yenan]] known as the [[Long March]].  Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of [[Soviet Russia]], under the leadership of [[Stalin]]."<ref>Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.</ref>
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Mao defeated [[Chiang Kai-shek]]'s Nationalists, taking control of the Chinese mainland and establishing the so-called People's Republic of China.
  
Mao defeated [[Chiang Kai-shek]]'s Nationalists, taking control of the Chinese mainland and establishing the People's Republic of China. As the leader of China, Mao initiated the [[Great Leap Forward]], an economic plan intended{{fact}} to rapidly industrialize China's then largely rural economy. In the end it proved a ruinous failure, preventing the peasants from producing needed food and causing massive famines; up to 38 million starved to death or were killed for opposing against the economic plan. In 1966, Mao instigated the [[Cultural Revolution]], in which those disloyal to the Chairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control. [[Richard Nixon]] was the first United States president to meet with Mao, and thus the first to acknowledge the existence of the People's Republic of China, as opposed to [[Taiwan]]'s Republic of China.
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==Three Years of Disasters==
 +
As the leader of China, Mao initiated the [[Great Leap Forward]], an economic plan intended to rapidly industrialize China's then largely rural economy. This led to an unprecedented famine. One cause was his 'Four Pests' campaign, which listed [[rats]], [[flies]], [[mosquitoes]], and [[sparrows]]. Because killing the sparrows encouraged insects to take out more crops, ornithologist Tso-hsin Cheng asked him to stop.
  
Overall, historians believe that around 43 million people died under Mao's rule, due mostly to starvation from disastrous socialist economic policies such as the [[Great Leap Forward]]. This is 7 times the common figure given for the Holocaust but it is much less known.
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==Cultural Revolution==
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{{language box
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|c=毛泽东
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|p=Máo Zédōng
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|w=Mao Tse-tung
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}}
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[[Image:Little red book.jpg|left|thumb|During the so-called [[Cultural Revolution|"Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution"]], it was required for every Chinese citizen to own, read, and carry at all times ''Quotations from Chairman Mao'', also known as "the little red book".]]
 +
In 1966, Mao instigated the [[Cultural Revolution]], in which those disloyal to the Chairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control.
  
Name: ([[Traditional Chinese]]: 毛澤東; [[Simplified Chinese]]: 毛泽东; [[Hanyu Pinyin]]: Máo Zédōng; [[Wade-Giles]]: Mao Tse-tung)
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==Mass Murder==
 +
According to the ''Washington Post'' (7/14/94):
 +
<blockquote>
 +
While most scholars are reluctant to estimate a total number of "unnatural deaths" in China under Mao, evidence shows he was in some way responsible for at least 40 million deaths and perhaps 80 million or more. This includes deaths he was directly responsible for and deaths resulting from disastrous policies he refused to change.
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<blockquote>
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One government document that has been internally circulated and seen by a former Communist Party official now at Princeton University says that 80 million died unnatural deaths – most of them in the famine following the Great Leap Forward. This figure comes from the Tigaisuo, or the System Reform Institute, which was led by Zhao Ziyang, the deposed Communist Party chief, in the 1980s to study how to reform Chinese society.
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<blockquote>
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In comparison, Hitler is blamed for 12 million concentration camp deaths and at least 30 million other deaths associated with World War II, while Stalin is believed responsible for between 30 million and 40 million “unnatural deaths,” including millions from a famine he created.
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</blockquote>
 +
 
 +
The article also added:
 +
<blockquote>
 +
Sources of new information on the famine indicate it was more widespread than long believed and could have been avoided.
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<blockquote>
 +
— An article appearing last year in the Shanghai University journal Society stated that at least 40 million died from 1959 to 1961. Previous estimates have ranged from 10 million to 30 million. The article noted a mistake in government population statistics for 1960 that led to an underestimation of "unnatural deaths." Authorities later banned this issue of the journal and withdrew it from circulation.
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<blockquote>
 +
— In another study, National Defense University professor Cong Jin estimated that 40 million died between 1959 and 1961.
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<blockquote>
 +
— Chen Yizi of Princeton University’s Center for Modern China did research for years in China, first as a student and then as a government official, and determined that 43 million had died in the famine, a figure recently matched by a report from a think tank in Shanghai. According to Chen, this made the total number of Chinese who died as a result of Mao’s policies 80 million.<ref>[http://www.paulbogdanor.com/left/china/deaths1.html "Uncounted Millions"]. ''paulbogdanor.com''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref>
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</blockquote>
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 +
This confirms the accuracy of democide analyst R.J. Rummel's research on China.  Taking every available estimate of Chinese democide by category and time period; averaging them out and adding them together; repeating the process several times; doing the same with other Communist states and comparing the results; Rummel estimated 77,000,000 Chinese were killed by Mao Tse-Tung, assuming 38 million famine-dead from 1959-61.<ref>[http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/20TH.HTM "20th Century Democide"]. ''hawaii.edu''. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.</ref> Mao was responsible for more deaths than [[Joseph Stalin|Stalin]], [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler]], [[Pol Pot]], [[Nicolae Ceausescu|Ceausescu]], and [[Tito]] ''combined''. Despite this massive body count, Mao remains an icon for certain segments of the far-left. For example, his likeness and books are often seen at [[Occupy Wall Street]] events.
 +
 
 +
[[Deng Xiaoping]] claimed the death toll of the famine to be 16 million, while the lowest estimate is less than 10 million <ref>Mao: The Real Story by Alexander P. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine, pg. 472</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Little Red Book==
 +
Mao is the author of ''[[Quotations from Chairman Mao]],'' published in 1966, informally known as "the little red book." During his lifetime, almost everyone in the [[People's Republic of China]] was expected to have a copy. One of his most well known statements was that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".
  
 
==Legacy==
 
==Legacy==
While often portrayed negatively, Mao Zedong made many undeniable contributions to China. Before 1949, for instance, the illiteracy rate in Mainland China was 80 percent, and [[life expectancy]] was a meager 35 years.{{fact}} At his death, illiteracy had declined to less than seven percent, and average life expectancy had increased to more than 70 years (alternative statistics also quote improvements, though not nearly as dramatic).{{fact}} In addition to these increases, the total population of China increased 57% to 700 million, from the constant 400 million mark during the span between the [[Opium War]] and the [[Chinese Civil War]]. Also, under Mao's government, China ended its "Century of Humiliation" from Western and Japanese imperialism and regained its status as a major world power. Mao also industrialized China to a considerable extent and ensured China's sovereignty during his rule. Many, including some of Mao's supporters, view the [[Kuomintang]], which Mao drove off the mainland, as having been corrupt.
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In their book ''Mao: The Unknown Story'', authors Jung Chang and Jon Halliday state that in his first five years of power, 700,000 were claimed by Mao to be dead, but another 700,000 died in local excesses and 700,000 committed suicide out of fear of Mao. During the Great Leap Forward, Mao deliberately killed peasants by shipping food to the USSR and Eastern Europe in exchange for aid in building  arms plants. As well, Mao's plans for peasants to make steel and build canals meant that in 1959-60 nobody grew any food. Thus, the worst famine in history occurred. Huge numbers were killed by puppets of Mao in the Cultural Revolution, which actually was launched to get rid of Mao's rivals in the Chinese Communist Party.
  
The Maoist era also improved women's rights by abolishing [[prostitution]], a phenomenon that was to return after Deng Xiaoping and post-Maoist CPC leaders increased liberalization of the economy. Indeed, Mao once famously remarked that "Women hold up half the heavens". A popular slogan during the Cultural Revolution was, "Break the chains, unleash the fury of women as a mighty force for revolution!" Mao was clearly an advocate for womens' rights, and worked towards equality.
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Despite killing far more people than Stalin and Hitler combined, Mao Zedong has often been held in high-regard by various leftists, with French Existential philosopher [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] claiming his revolution was "profoundly moral", and French feminist [[Simone de Beauvoir]] claiming that his actions were little different from [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt]]'s policies in an approving tone.<ref>https://www.christianpost.com/news/chairman-mao-s-reign-of-terror-151-finally-the-truth-comes-out-6475/</ref> Infamously, his image has even been used, similar to another leftist icon [[Che Guevara]], in various merchandising, including a restaurant in Hollywood called "Mao's Kitchen." Kai Chen, a Chinese basketball player who fled China, has stated that the promotion of Mao was tasteless, stating it's like someone deciding to open a restaurant called [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler's Kitchen]].<ref>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPl9Go3hHDI</ref>
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== Mao Zedong and Traditional Chinese medicine ==
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and medicine]] and [[Atheism and health]]
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The efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is poorly researched and supported.<ref>Shang, A.; Huwiler, K.; Nartey, L.; Jüni, P.; Egger, M. (2007). "Placebo-controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine and conventional medicine comparative study". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (5): 1086–92. doi:10.1093/ije/dym119. PMID 17602184.</ref>
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Mao Zedong revived and heavily promoted [[Traditional Chinese medicine]] (TCM) in China. He didn't believe in it himself, but pushed it as a cheap alternative to real medicine.<ref>[https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2018/10/01/who-endorses-tcm-expect-deaths-to-rise/#1f0c61f16418 WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise] by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine</ref>
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China has been aggressively promoting TCM on the international stage both for expanding its global influence and for profit.<ref>[https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2018/10/01/who-endorses-tcm-expect-deaths-to-rise/#1f0c61f16418 WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise] by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine</ref>
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==See also==
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* [[Darwin-Stalin connection]]
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* [[List of dictators]]
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* [[Friendly dictator]]
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* [[Dictatorship of the proletariat]]
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* [[List of Communist States]]
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* [[List of Socialist States]]
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* [[Death toll of communism]]
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* [[Far Left]]
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* [[Cult of personality]]
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*[[Long march through the institutions]]
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* [[Mobocracy]], [[Social Effects of the Theory of Evolution]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<references/>
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{{reflist|2}}
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 +
==Further reading==
 +
* Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. ''Mao: The Unknown Story,'' (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
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* Clark, Paul. ''The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History'' (2008), a favorable look at artistic production  [https://www.amazon.com/Chinese-Cultural-Revolution-History/dp/0521875153/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1214281188&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]
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* Dietrich, Craig. ''People's China: A Brief History,'' 3d ed. (1997), 398pp [https://www.amazon.com/Peoples-China-History-Craig-Dietrich/dp/0195106288/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197238522&sr=8-2 excerpt and text search]
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* Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds.  ''The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History.'' (2006). 382 pp.  [https://www.amazon.com/Cultural-Revolution-Shorenstein-Asia-Pacific-Research/dp/0804753504/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197221379&sr=1-1 excerpt and text search]
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* Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle.  ''China: A New History.'' (2nd ed. 2006). 640 pp.  [https://www.amazon.com/China-New-History-Second-Enlarged/dp/0674018281/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197346975&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]
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* Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. ''The Rise of Modern China,'' 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. [https://www.amazon.com/Rise-Modern-China-Immanuel-Hsu/dp/0195125045/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197238178&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]
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* Jian,  Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. ''Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.'' (2006). 433 pp.
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* MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds.  ''The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982.'' (1992). 1108 pp. 
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* MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. ''Mao's Last Revolution.'' (2006).
 +
* MacFarquhar, Roderick. ''The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961-1966.'' (1998). 733 pp.
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* Meisner, Maurice. ''Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic,'' 3rd ed. (1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. [https://www.amazon.com/Maos-China-After-History-Republic/dp/0684856352/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1197238473&sr=8-1 excerpt and text search]
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* Schoppa, R. Keith.  ''The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History.'' Columbia U. Press, 2000. 356 pp.  [http://www.questia.com/library/book/the-columbia-guide-to-modern-chinese-history-by-r-keith-schoppa.jsp online edition from [[Questia]]]
 +
* Spence, Jonathan D. ''The Search for Modern China'' (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s [https://www.amazon.com/Search-Modern-China-Jonathan-Spence/dp/0393307808/ref=pd_sim_b_title_2 excerpt and text search]; [http://www.questia.com/read/98946348 complete edition online at [[Questia]]]
 +
* Spence, Jonatham. ''Mao Zedong'' (1999) [https://www.amazon.com/Mao-Zedong-Penguin-Life-Lives/dp/0670886696/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1200477500&sr=1-1 excerpt and text search]
 +
* Shuyun, Sun. ''The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth'' (2007)
 +
* Taylor, Jay. ''The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China''  (2009), 722 pp. highly favorable scholarly biography of Mao's great enemy
 +
* Wang, Ke-wen, ed.  ''Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism.'' (1998). 442 pp. 
 +
* Xia, Yafeng. "The Study of Cold War International History in China: A Review of the Last Twenty Years," ''Journal of Cold War Studies''10#1 Winter 2008, pp.&nbsp;81–115 in [[Project Muse]]
 +
* Yan, Jiaqi and Gao, Gao. ''Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution.'' (1996). 736 pp.
 +
* [http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/chinesehistory/pgp/index.html Studies of Modern Chinese History: Reviews and Historiographical Essays]
  
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mao Zedong}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mao Zedong}}
[[Category:China]]
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[[Category:Atheists]]
[[Category:Heads of State]]
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[[Category:Chinese History]]
[[Category:World War II]]
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[[Category:Communists]]
 
[[Category:Communists]]
 
[[Category:Mass Murderers]]
 
[[Category:Mass Murderers]]
[[Category:Atheists]]
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[[Category:Marxism]]
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[[Category:Dictators]]
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[[Category:People's Republic of China]]
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[[Category:Police State]]
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[[Category:Welfare State]]
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[[Category:Anti-American]]

Latest revision as of 23:57, 2 October 2019

Ncvjgfu.jpg
Mao Zedong
Personal Life
Date & Place of Birth December 26, 1893
Shaoshan, Xiangtan, Hunan, China
Parents Mao Jen-sheng
Wen Chi-mei
Claimed religion Confucianism (rejected)
Buddhism (rejected)
Atheism
Education Hunan Normal School
Peking University
Spouse Luo Yixiu (married 1907-1910)
Yang Kaihui (married 1921-1927)
He Zizhen (married 1928-1939)
Jiang Qing: (married 1939-1976)
Children Mao Anying (from Yang)
Mao Anqing (from Yang)
Li Min (from He)
Li Na (from Jiang)
Date & Place of Death September 9, 1976
Beijing, China
Manner of Death Complications after heart attack
Place of Burial Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing, China
Dictatorial Career
Country People's Republic of China
Military Service People's Liberation Army
Highest rank attained Grand Marshal
Political beliefs Communism
Maoism
Political party Communist Party of China
Date of Dictatorship October 1, 1949
Wars started Chinese Civil War
Great Leap Forward
Cultural Revolution
Number of Deaths attributed 40,000,000 to 80,000,000 est. Rummel: 77,000,000

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893-September 9, 1976), also known as Mao Tse-tung, was the leader of Chinese Communism and a ruthless atheist dictator after he came to power in 1949. While not the founder, he was an early member of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. In 1935, Mao was elected to the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow and remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. Mao is regarded as perhaps the most prolific mass murderer in human history, not even counting the inummerable unborn female fetuses whom he callously slaughtered.[1]

Soviet national liberation movement

Edgar Snow, an admirer of the Chinese communists, introduced Mao and Zhou Enlai to American readers in 1937 in his book, Red Star Over China, shortly after the Chinese Red Army's rout by Chiang Kai-shek in 1934 and their year long retreat to Yenan known as the Long March. Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of Soviet Russia, under the leadership of Stalin."[2] In 1957, in ominous foreshadowing of his true callous nature, Mao Zedong boasted in his "American Imperialism is a Paper Tiger" speech regarding the prospect of China entering nuclear war that:

I’m not afraid of nuclear war. There are 2.7 billion people in the world; it doesn’t matter if some are killed. China has a population of 600 million; even if half of them are killed, there are still 300 million people left. I’m not afraid of anyone.

~ Mao Zedong on https://www.theepochtimes.com/maos-nuclear-mass-extinction-speech-aired-on-chinese-tv_4758.html

Mao defeated Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists, taking control of the Chinese mainland and establishing the so-called People's Republic of China.

Three Years of Disasters

As the leader of China, Mao initiated the Great Leap Forward, an economic plan intended to rapidly industrialize China's then largely rural economy. This led to an unprecedented famine. One cause was his 'Four Pests' campaign, which listed rats, flies, mosquitoes, and sparrows. Because killing the sparrows encouraged insects to take out more crops, ornithologist Tso-hsin Cheng asked him to stop.

Cultural Revolution

Mao Zedong
Chinese 毛泽东


During the so-called "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution", it was required for every Chinese citizen to own, read, and carry at all times Quotations from Chairman Mao, also known as "the little red book".

In 1966, Mao instigated the Cultural Revolution, in which those disloyal to the Chairman were killed or humiliated in order to solidify Mao's control.

Mass Murder

According to the Washington Post (7/14/94):

While most scholars are reluctant to estimate a total number of "unnatural deaths" in China under Mao, evidence shows he was in some way responsible for at least 40 million deaths and perhaps 80 million or more. This includes deaths he was directly responsible for and deaths resulting from disastrous policies he refused to change.

One government document that has been internally circulated and seen by a former Communist Party official now at Princeton University says that 80 million died unnatural deaths – most of them in the famine following the Great Leap Forward. This figure comes from the Tigaisuo, or the System Reform Institute, which was led by Zhao Ziyang, the deposed Communist Party chief, in the 1980s to study how to reform Chinese society.

In comparison, Hitler is blamed for 12 million concentration camp deaths and at least 30 million other deaths associated with World War II, while Stalin is believed responsible for between 30 million and 40 million “unnatural deaths,” including millions from a famine he created.

The article also added:

Sources of new information on the famine indicate it was more widespread than long believed and could have been avoided.

— An article appearing last year in the Shanghai University journal Society stated that at least 40 million died from 1959 to 1961. Previous estimates have ranged from 10 million to 30 million. The article noted a mistake in government population statistics for 1960 that led to an underestimation of "unnatural deaths." Authorities later banned this issue of the journal and withdrew it from circulation.

— In another study, National Defense University professor Cong Jin estimated that 40 million died between 1959 and 1961.

— Chen Yizi of Princeton University’s Center for Modern China did research for years in China, first as a student and then as a government official, and determined that 43 million had died in the famine, a figure recently matched by a report from a think tank in Shanghai. According to Chen, this made the total number of Chinese who died as a result of Mao’s policies 80 million.[3]

This confirms the accuracy of democide analyst R.J. Rummel's research on China. Taking every available estimate of Chinese democide by category and time period; averaging them out and adding them together; repeating the process several times; doing the same with other Communist states and comparing the results; Rummel estimated 77,000,000 Chinese were killed by Mao Tse-Tung, assuming 38 million famine-dead from 1959-61.[4] Mao was responsible for more deaths than Stalin, Hitler, Pol Pot, Ceausescu, and Tito combined. Despite this massive body count, Mao remains an icon for certain segments of the far-left. For example, his likeness and books are often seen at Occupy Wall Street events.

Deng Xiaoping claimed the death toll of the famine to be 16 million, while the lowest estimate is less than 10 million [5]

Little Red Book

Mao is the author of Quotations from Chairman Mao, published in 1966, informally known as "the little red book." During his lifetime, almost everyone in the People's Republic of China was expected to have a copy. One of his most well known statements was that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".

Legacy

In their book Mao: The Unknown Story, authors Jung Chang and Jon Halliday state that in his first five years of power, 700,000 were claimed by Mao to be dead, but another 700,000 died in local excesses and 700,000 committed suicide out of fear of Mao. During the Great Leap Forward, Mao deliberately killed peasants by shipping food to the USSR and Eastern Europe in exchange for aid in building arms plants. As well, Mao's plans for peasants to make steel and build canals meant that in 1959-60 nobody grew any food. Thus, the worst famine in history occurred. Huge numbers were killed by puppets of Mao in the Cultural Revolution, which actually was launched to get rid of Mao's rivals in the Chinese Communist Party.

Despite killing far more people than Stalin and Hitler combined, Mao Zedong has often been held in high-regard by various leftists, with French Existential philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre claiming his revolution was "profoundly moral", and French feminist Simone de Beauvoir claiming that his actions were little different from Franklin Delano Roosevelt's policies in an approving tone.[6] Infamously, his image has even been used, similar to another leftist icon Che Guevara, in various merchandising, including a restaurant in Hollywood called "Mao's Kitchen." Kai Chen, a Chinese basketball player who fled China, has stated that the promotion of Mao was tasteless, stating it's like someone deciding to open a restaurant called Hitler's Kitchen.[7]

Mao Zedong and Traditional Chinese medicine

See also: Atheism and medicine and Atheism and health

The efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is poorly researched and supported.[8]

Mao Zedong revived and heavily promoted Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China. He didn't believe in it himself, but pushed it as a cheap alternative to real medicine.[9]

China has been aggressively promoting TCM on the international stage both for expanding its global influence and for profit.[10]

See also

References

  1. "20th Century Democide". hawaii.edu. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.
  2. Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.
  3. "Uncounted Millions". paulbogdanor.com. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.
  4. "20th Century Democide". hawaii.edu. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.
  5. Mao: The Real Story by Alexander P. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine, pg. 472
  6. https://www.christianpost.com/news/chairman-mao-s-reign-of-terror-151-finally-the-truth-comes-out-6475/
  7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPl9Go3hHDI
  8. Shang, A.; Huwiler, K.; Nartey, L.; Jüni, P.; Egger, M. (2007). "Placebo-controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine and conventional medicine comparative study". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (5): 1086–92. doi:10.1093/ije/dym119. PMID 17602184.
  9. WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine
  10. WHO Endorses Traditional Chinese Medicine. Expect Deaths To Rise by Steven Salzberg, Forbes magazine

Further reading

  • Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story, (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
  • Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History (2008), a favorable look at artistic production excerpt and text search
  • Dietrich, Craig. People's China: A Brief History, 3d ed. (1997), 398pp excerpt and text search
  • Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. (2006). 382 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. (2nd ed. 2006). 640 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. The Rise of Modern China, 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. excerpt and text search
  • Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. (2006). 433 pp.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982. (1992). 1108 pp.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. Mao's Last Revolution. (2006).
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961-1966. (1998). 733 pp.
  • Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic, 3rd ed. (1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. excerpt and text search
  • Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. Columbia U. Press, 2000. 356 pp. online edition from Questia
  • Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s excerpt and text search; complete edition online at Questia
  • Spence, Jonatham. Mao Zedong (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Shuyun, Sun. The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
  • Taylor, Jay. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China (2009), 722 pp. highly favorable scholarly biography of Mao's great enemy
  • Wang, Ke-wen, ed. Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. (1998). 442 pp.
  • Xia, Yafeng. "The Study of Cold War International History in China: A Review of the Last Twenty Years," Journal of Cold War Studies10#1 Winter 2008, pp. 81–115 in Project Muse
  • Yan, Jiaqi and Gao, Gao. Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. (1996). 736 pp.
  • Studies of Modern Chinese History: Reviews and Historiographical Essays