Difference between revisions of "Marijuana"

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'''Marijuana''' (colloquially known as '''"weed"''' or '''"pot"''') is a dangerous drug that comes from the ''Cannabis'' [[plant]]. The main active ingredient in marijuana is [[Tetrahydrocannabinol|THC]], or tetrahydrocannabinol, an [[organic chemistry|organic chemical]] compound. Marijuana is illegal to possess, cultivate or consume in most civilized areas of the world.
 
'''Marijuana''' (colloquially known as '''"weed"''' or '''"pot"''') is a dangerous drug that comes from the ''Cannabis'' [[plant]]. The main active ingredient in marijuana is [[Tetrahydrocannabinol|THC]], or tetrahydrocannabinol, an [[organic chemistry|organic chemical]] compound. Marijuana is illegal to possess, cultivate or consume in most civilized areas of the world.
  
The effects of marijuana can include short-term memory loss, mild [[hallucination]]s, and an impairment of physical and mental functioning. Proponents of marijuana have claimed that it has medicinal benefits (see [[Medical marijuana]]) although other treatments can also deliver these benefits to various ailments without hallucinations and the impairments to judgment.  
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The effects of marijuana can include short-term memory loss, malaise, mild [[hallucination]]s, insanity, impairment of physical and mental functioning, and death. Proponents of marijuana have claimed that it has medicinal benefits (see [[Medical marijuana]]) although other treatments can also deliver these benefits to various ailments without hallucinations and the impairments to judgment.  
  
 
The religious or sacramental use of marijuana is reported in various cultures such as those of the [[Rastafari]] movement or the [[Sadhu]]s of India.
 
The religious or sacramental use of marijuana is reported in various cultures such as those of the [[Rastafari]] movement or the [[Sadhu]]s of India.

Revision as of 23:50, 28 October 2011

Indoor Marijuana Grow (DEA photo)

Marijuana (colloquially known as "weed" or "pot") is a dangerous drug that comes from the Cannabis plant. The main active ingredient in marijuana is THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, an organic chemical compound. Marijuana is illegal to possess, cultivate or consume in most civilized areas of the world.

The effects of marijuana can include short-term memory loss, malaise, mild hallucinations, insanity, impairment of physical and mental functioning, and death. Proponents of marijuana have claimed that it has medicinal benefits (see Medical marijuana) although other treatments can also deliver these benefits to various ailments without hallucinations and the impairments to judgment.

The religious or sacramental use of marijuana is reported in various cultures such as those of the Rastafari movement or the Sadhus of India.

Medicinal Harms

Marijuana contains many of the same carcinogens as tobacco, thus when smoked it has the same harmful effects including: potential damage to DNA, cancer, respiratory diseases associated with smoke inhilation, and impaired immune system.[1]. However, these effects have not been linked directly to alternate methods of marijuana use. Marijuana use can impair short term memory while intoxicated. THC has slight negative affects on long term memory and thus, in chronic users (approximately 1g/24Hrs)[2], complications with long term memory are a risk. If smoked, marijuana leads to a temporary increase in heart rate and blood pressure while intoxicated. For this reason, there is a slight increase in the risk for heart related problems including heart attack during the time of intoxication[3]. Chronic smokers often suffer from mild withdrawal symptoms, however marijuana is not physically addictive.[4]. Marijuana can impair judgment, motor skills, and balance [5]. Marijuana has also been linked to impaired learning and developmental diability in unborn children [6]

Medicinal Benefits

The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, has been shown (in studies) to produce certain psychological and medicinal benefits. Marijuana has been used to treat anorexia and has been used as an antiemetic.[7] Harvard University conducted a study on the effect of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on certain lung cancers. The result of the test was that THC can reduce tumor size by as much as half.[8] In addition to a significant reduction in tumor size, there was a reduction in lesions on the lungs by 60%, and a reduction in protein markers associated with the progression of cancer.[9] This study shows that not only can THC treat the side effects of cancer treatment, but can stop the spread of cancer, repair damage caused by tumors, and even reduce the size of tumors.

In addition to the positive effect on cancer treatment symptoms and cancer itself, marijuana is used to help patients afflicted with ALS[10].

Marijuana is an antispasmodic and is used in the treatment of seizures [11]. Marijuana is also used in the treatment of migraines, arthritis[12], depression[13], and glaucoma. However the effect of marijuana on intraocular pressure (IOC) is not as effective as those offered by other drugs on the market [14].

There have not been many in-depth and widely distributed studies into the possible medicinal effects of marijuana. However, with pressure from liberal advocates of marijuana, more otherwise accredited institutions are conducting research on the drug.

Interesting Facts

Carl Sagan used recreational marijuana to help "open his mind".[15] Cannabis was first cultivated in China around 4000 B.C.[16] U.S. Declaration of Independence was written on hemp paper.[17] George Washington grew marijuana. [18] Marijuana is over 100 times less lethal than Alcohol (ratio of lethal dose to effective dose)[19].

Legal Status

Marijuana is a Schedule I Controlled Substance in the United States of America, meaning that it is an illegal substance under the law of the United States. In a few countries, particularly in the most liberal countries of Western Europe, it is legal, though several other countries impose more harsh penalties than the Untied States.

The Netherlands decriminalized the use of marijuana in 1976. As a result, marijuana use among the 18-25 age group doubled, while the rate of heroin addiction tripled.[20] The Netherlands also saw an influx of "drug tourists" and other undesirables, as well as an increase in crime.

Many liberals have advocated for decriminalization.[21][22]

Many American conservatives, especially social conservatives, oppose legalization of marijuana in any form due to its harmful medical and emotional effects and its likelihood of harm to third parties due to drug-related crime and reckless driving. A few libertarian-leaning conservatives, most notably William F. Buckley and Larry Elder, have advocated the decriminalization of this drug. Some liberals support legalization, but most instead advocate for drug treatment and rehabilitation. Libertarians are usually the biggest supporters of marijuana legalization.

References

  1. Science Daily 6/9/2009
  2. AskMen: Benefits of Marijuana
  3. AskMen: Benefits of Marijuana
  4. Psychology Today: Is Marijuana Addictive?
  5. [1]
  6. Neuropsycopharmacology: High-Potency Marijuana Impairs Executive Function and Inhibitory Motor Control
  7. National Cancer Institute
  8. Science Daily 4/7/2007
  9. Science Daily 4/17/2007
  10. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
  11. National Academies Press: Marijuana and muscle spasticity
  12. Online Library: Treatment of adjuvant arthritis in rats with anti-inflammatory drugs
  13. Interesting Facts: Facts about marijuana
  14. National Eye Institue: Glaucoma and Marijuana use
  15. Boing Boing: Carl Sagan Spaced Out
  16. Interesting Facts: Facts about marijuana
  17. Interesting Facts: Facts about marijuana
  18. The President and the Cabinet: George Washington the Man
  19. Wikipedia: Tetrahydrocannabinol
  20. Europe’s More Liberal Drug Policies Are Not the Right Model for America
  21. Law Enforcement Against Prohibition
  22. http://www.lp.org/issues/lp-oss.shtml