Difference between revisions of "Marxism-Leninism"

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'''Marxism-Leninism''' refers to the theories and writings of [[Vladimir Lenin]] which expanded upon the writings of [[Karl Marx]].  
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[[File:Foundations of Leninism.jpg|thumb|Joseph Stalin's 'Foundations of Leninism' was originally a series a lectures delivered in 1924. This text would begin the creation of a new official Marxism and establish an ideological line between Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin.]]
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'''Marxism-Leninism''' was the official ideology of the USSR. It developed after [[Lenin|Lenin's]] death when competing factions within the Soviet leadership attempted to establish their legitimacy as Lenin's political successors. Soviet leaders such as Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, and Joseph Stalin wrote works developing the concept of a specifically [[Leninism|Leninist]] ideology. Joseph Stalin coined the term to describe an ideology which considers Lenin's political thought to be a necessary development of Marxism, and made the term popular through ''The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks)'' (1938).
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==Background==
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{{hatnote|See also: [[Leninism]]}}
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(factional struggle between Trotsky and Stalin/Zinoviev/Kamenev/Bukharin)
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<br>(Bolshevization campaign)
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<br>(consolidation of Marxism-Leninism)
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==Marxist-Leninist Ideology==
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=== Democratic centralism ===
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{{hatnote|Main article: [[Democratic centralism]]}}
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A Marxist-Leninist party is organized according to democratic centralism. This means that first the party democratically decides something, and then all members are required to follow that decision and not work against it. If members still disagree with the decision, they are expected to request to discuss the issue again, not to form a faction or another party.
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=== Socialism in one country ===
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(socialism in one country)
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=== Political economy, crises and revolution ===
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(political economy, crises, & revolution)
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=== The lower phase of communism, aka socialism ===
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(the lower phase of communism aka socialism)
  
While Marx laid out a broad theory of [[revolution]] more than half a century earlier, Marx left no practical guide or detailed instruction on the everyday problems of governance once the revolution was achieved.  Lenin added to Marxist theory with [[executive]] actions and decrees to create a non-democratic and anti-democratic [[bureaucracy]], staffed with [[progressive]] [[ideologue]]s, to carry out the "[[dictatorship of the proletariat]]".<ref>[https://libcom.org/library/guillotine-work-volume-1-leninist-counter-revolution-gregori-maximoff THE GUILLOTINE AT WORK Vol. 1: The Leninist Counter-Revolution], Gregory Petrovich Maximoff, First edition published Chicago, 1940.</ref>
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== Other Forms ==
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=== Maoism ===
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{{hatnote|Main article: [[Maoism]]}}
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=== Hoxhaism ===
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{{hatnote|Main article: [[Hoxhaism]]}}
  
One of the first Leninist decrees was to order the use of [[terrorism]] and mass executions against the civilian population to enforce compliance with the new [[leftist]] regime.<ref>https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/ad2kulak.html</ref>
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==Criticisms==
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{{hatnote|Main article: [[Criticisms of Marxism-Leninism]]}}
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Marxist critics argue that Marxism-Leninism works from the assumption that the Soviet Union was a socialist society and use this as reference point to navigate both political theory and practice. The consequence of this being that Marxism-Leninism is reconciled with bourgeois concepts such as the nation-state and nationalism. The most common criticism of Marxism-Leninism from Trotskyists is that rather than seeking to spread the socialist revolution throughout the world through direct revolutionary action, hence pursuing "Proletarian Internationalism," Stalin instead only assisted existing socialist revolutions, believing that the Soviet Union was the only country in the world capable of achieving socialism due to the success of its own revolution, and actually enacted a foreign policy of "peaceful coexistence" with the Western capitalist powers. {{cn}} Stalin named this theory Socialism in one country.
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===Trotsky===
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(Trotskyism aka Bolshevik-Leninism)
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<br>(Trotsky's criticism of Marxism-Leninism)
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===Bordiga===
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===Paul Mattick===
  
To enforce compliance for example, three mass graves existed in the [[Ukrainian]] town of Vinnitsa containing between 9,000 and 11,000 bodies. One grave site was in the People's Park near the city center and town square. The so-called "secret police" hardly tried to keep secret its crimes as a method of intimidation against dissenters of the [[Socialist]] system.<ref>[https://en.calameo.com/read/001042085fbd969923dc9 The Tragedy of Vinnytsia: Materials on Stalin's Policy of Extermination in Ukraine During Th Great Purge, 1936-1938]. Ihor Kamenetsky. Ukrainian Hist. Association, 1989.</ref> It was "secret" only in the sense that survivors had enough sense to never speak about the disappearance of loved ones or question authorities.
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== References ==
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http://en.internationalism.org/ir/96/leninists
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<br>https://isreview.org/issue/93/zinovievism-and-degeneration-world-communism
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<br>https://archive.org/details/25ZinovievLeninizm
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<br>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/ni/vol10/no03/trotsky.htm
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<br>https://libcom.org/library/revolutionary-alternative-left-wing-politics
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<br>''The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks)'' (1938)
  
==See also==
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[[Category:Tendencies]]
*[[Single party control]]
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*[[Civil service system]]
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*[[Bernie Bros]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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{{Communism}}
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[[Category:Leftism]]
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[[Category:Marxism]]
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[[Category:Communism]]
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[[Category:Marxist Terminology]]
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[[Category:Socialism]]
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[[Category:Progressivism]]
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[[Category:Political Theory]]
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[[Category:Political Ideologies]]
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[[Category:Oppression]]
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[[Category:Police State]]
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[[Category:Democratic Party]]
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[[Category:Bureaucracy]]
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Revision as of 17:24, 4 December 2020

File:Foundations of Leninism.jpg
Joseph Stalin's 'Foundations of Leninism' was originally a series a lectures delivered in 1924. This text would begin the creation of a new official Marxism and establish an ideological line between Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin.

Marxism-Leninism was the official ideology of the USSR. It developed after Lenin's death when competing factions within the Soviet leadership attempted to establish their legitimacy as Lenin's political successors. Soviet leaders such as Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, and Joseph Stalin wrote works developing the concept of a specifically Leninist ideology. Joseph Stalin coined the term to describe an ideology which considers Lenin's political thought to be a necessary development of Marxism, and made the term popular through The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (1938).

Background

Template:Hatnote (factional struggle between Trotsky and Stalin/Zinoviev/Kamenev/Bukharin)
(Bolshevization campaign)
(consolidation of Marxism-Leninism)

Marxist-Leninist Ideology

Democratic centralism

Template:Hatnote A Marxist-Leninist party is organized according to democratic centralism. This means that first the party democratically decides something, and then all members are required to follow that decision and not work against it. If members still disagree with the decision, they are expected to request to discuss the issue again, not to form a faction or another party.

Socialism in one country

(socialism in one country)

Political economy, crises and revolution

(political economy, crises, & revolution)

The lower phase of communism, aka socialism

(the lower phase of communism aka socialism)

Other Forms

Maoism

Template:Hatnote

Hoxhaism

Template:Hatnote

Criticisms

Template:Hatnote Marxist critics argue that Marxism-Leninism works from the assumption that the Soviet Union was a socialist society and use this as reference point to navigate both political theory and practice. The consequence of this being that Marxism-Leninism is reconciled with bourgeois concepts such as the nation-state and nationalism. The most common criticism of Marxism-Leninism from Trotskyists is that rather than seeking to spread the socialist revolution throughout the world through direct revolutionary action, hence pursuing "Proletarian Internationalism," Stalin instead only assisted existing socialist revolutions, believing that the Soviet Union was the only country in the world capable of achieving socialism due to the success of its own revolution, and actually enacted a foreign policy of "peaceful coexistence" with the Western capitalist powers.[Citation Needed] Stalin named this theory Socialism in one country.

Trotsky

(Trotskyism aka Bolshevik-Leninism)
(Trotsky's criticism of Marxism-Leninism)

Bordiga

Paul Mattick

References

http://en.internationalism.org/ir/96/leninists
https://isreview.org/issue/93/zinovievism-and-degeneration-world-communism
https://archive.org/details/25ZinovievLeninizm
https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/ni/vol10/no03/trotsky.htm
https://libcom.org/library/revolutionary-alternative-left-wing-politics
The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (1938)