The Michelson-Morley experiment was an important physics experiment performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley. The experiment attempted to measure the motion of the earth through the aether and failed to do so. This unexpected failure threw physics into chaos, and lead to the Theory of relativity.
The experiment was performed in the days when technology had just become sufficiently advanced to accurately measure the speed of light. At that time it was known that light behaved like a wave. Scientists believed that light waves (consisting of photons) traveled through a medium referred to as the aether (Sometimes spelt ether). The aether was believed to be fixed in space and so was regarded as an absolute frame of reference, relative to which the velocity of any object could (in theory), be measured. The concept of the eather was in some ways similar to the modern concept of "space-time" though some differences exist. Thus the idea was that absolute movement existed.
Scientists at the time believed that if they could accurately measure the relative velocity between the earth and light waves, they would get different results for the speed of the light waves moving in different directions. They believed this would happen because the earth was constantly moving, and the aether was fixed. They believed that by examining the results they could measure the relative velocity between the earth and the aether, and hence determine the absolute velocity of the earth through space. The Michelson-Morley experiment was an attempt to do that.
Results of the Experiment
The experiment gave unexpected results. The speed of light was found to be the same regardless of the direction the light was traveling in. At first it was assumed that the result was due to poor equipment or some other anomaly, but further work ruled that possibility out.
Consequences of the results
Scientists then faced the dilemma. They believed the earth was moving through space, but the Michelson-Morley experiment and similar experiments indicated that the earth was somehow stationery relative to the aether at all times.
A number of theories were proposed to explain the paradox, including the idea that the aether might in some way be "dragged along" by the earth. In the end the theory of special relativity (See Theory of relativity) became the accepted explanation, and the concept of the aether was subsequently rejected, as experimental evidence accumulated in support of the theory of Relativity. Modern concepts such as a foldable (by gravitation) space-time (a concept vital to General Relativity), or the Higgs Field (a proposed hypothetical concept in particle physics to explain the gravitational force) have been misinterpreted by laymen to be the aether of pre-Einsteinian physics.
Objections to the current view
However, a small number of people feel that the scientific community took a wrong turn when they rejected the concept of the aether, and recently some cosmologists have been toying with the idea of 're-inventing' the aether as a way of understanding the creation event: "Could spacetime literally be a kind of fluid, like the ether of pre-Einsteinian physics?" .
Others argue that Geocentric theory is an alternative explanation of the result[Citation Needed]. If the earth is in-fact stationary relative to the aether then the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is easy to understand. This interpretation makes the Earth "special" compared to other celestial objects, supporting the view that Humanity (and the Earth) is the pinnacle of creation (and thus central).
- See, for example a recent article in Scientific American, where the aether is interpreted as a quantum foam of black holes - December 2005 issue of Scientific American: http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000ADA62-D854-137C-962A83414B7F0000&sc=I100322