Nation of Islam
The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a political and religious group with a race-based, black supremacist philosophy. The group was founded in Detroit, Michigan by Wallace D. Fard (a/k/a Wallace Fard Muhammad) in July 1930. It is active primarily in America.
Despite its name, the NOI is not considered Islamic by the overwhelming majority of Muslims, based on three key tenets of the NOI which differ from traditional Islamic teaching:
- First, the NOI teaches that founder Fard was God incarnate and that Elijah Muhammad was a prophet. Traditional Islam teaches that no human can be an incarnation of God and that Muhammad was the last prophet.
- Second, the NOI teaches that the "blue-eyed devils" (whites) were selectively bred from blacks by an evil black scientist named Yakub, whose work supposedly took hundreds of years for him and his disciples to fully whiten his creations, with the intent to enslave the black race. Although traditional Islam recognizes a Yakub (Jacob, the grandson of Abraham through Isaac), they do not teach him being an evil scientist.
- Finally, due to the workings of Yakub, the NOI believes that black people are racially superior to other races, and that whites are not worthy to be converted (they believe Asian races were also created by Yakub as an intermediate step toward his ultimate end of creating the "evil" white race). Traditional Islam has no such restriction: it accepts members from all races and nationalities.
Martin Luther King described Elijah Muhammad's movement in his Letter from Birmingham Jail:
- Nourished by the Negro's frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible "devil." 
- Elijah Muhammad
- Louis Farrakhan
- Malcolm X (later broke away from NOI and became a mainstream Muslim, changing his name to Malik Shabazz)
- Muhammad Ali (his ties to the NOI were severed after a dispute regarding one of his divorces)