Difference between revisions of "Northern cardinal"

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|family=Fringillidae 
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|family=Cardinalidae
|subfamily=Emberizinae 
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'''Northern cardinal''' (''Cardinalis cardinalis'') is a songbird of the family Fringillidae, and found throughout much of eastern North America.  The name "[[cardinal]]" refers to the senior clerics of the [[Roman Catholic Church]] and the red robes they wear.
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'''Northern cardinal''' (''Cardinalis cardinalis'') is a songbird of the family Cardinalidae, and found throughout much of eastern North America.  The name "[[cardinal]]" refers to the senior clerics of the [[Roman Catholic Church]] and the red robes they wear.
  
 
==Description==
 
==Description==
 
The northern cardinal is about 8.3–9.1 inches long, with a wingspan of 9.8 to 12.2 inches, and weigh 1.19 to 2.29 ounces.  It has a strong, conical beak and a small, yet distinctive head crest. The two sexes differ in the coloration of the plumage, with males having a predominantly scarlet-red plumage with some brownish-red hues on the wings, back and tail, a black face mask.  Females bear an olive-brownish plumage with reddish hues on the wings, on the tail and in the hood, as well as by a less well defined, rather gray colored face mask. Young birds are colored like the females, but without a face mask.  Northern races are darker, southern races are more brightly colored red.  
 
The northern cardinal is about 8.3–9.1 inches long, with a wingspan of 9.8 to 12.2 inches, and weigh 1.19 to 2.29 ounces.  It has a strong, conical beak and a small, yet distinctive head crest. The two sexes differ in the coloration of the plumage, with males having a predominantly scarlet-red plumage with some brownish-red hues on the wings, back and tail, a black face mask.  Females bear an olive-brownish plumage with reddish hues on the wings, on the tail and in the hood, as well as by a less well defined, rather gray colored face mask. Young birds are colored like the females, but without a face mask.  Northern races are darker, southern races are more brightly colored red.  
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===Subspecies===
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis affinis''; western Mexico: southeastern Sonora to southwestern Chihuahua, western Durango
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis canicaudus''; western Oklahoma, western Texas to east-central Mexico
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis''; eastern United States
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis carneus''; Mexico: coastal Colima to Isthmus of Tehuántepec
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis clintoni''; Mexico: Isla Cerralvo
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis coccineus''; Mexico: eastern San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, northeastern Puebla, northern Oaxaca
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis flammiger''; Mexico (southern Quintana Roo), Belize, northern Guatemala (Petén)
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus''; southeastern Georgia, peninsular Florida
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis igneus''; Mexico: southern Baja California, north to latitude 27°N
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis littoralis''; Mexico: southern Veracruz and Tabasco
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis magnirostris''; southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis mariae''; Mexico: Tres Marías Islands
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis saturatus''; Mexico: Cozumel Island
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis seftoni''; Mexico: central Baja California, south to latitude 27°N
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis sinaloensis''; Mexico: Sinaloa and Jalisco coasts
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis superbus''; extreme southeastern California to Arizona, southwest New Mexico and northern Sonora
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis townsendi''; Mexico: Isla Tiburón, adjacent coastal Sonora
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*''Cardinalis cardinalis yucatanicus''; Mexico: Yucatán Peninsula
  
 
==Range and habitat==
 
==Range and habitat==

Revision as of 12:57, 19 November 2019

Northern cardinal
Northern cardinal.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom Information
Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Animalia
Subkingdom Bilateria
Branch Deuterostomia
Phylum Information
Phylum Chordata
Sub-phylum Vertebrata
Infraphylum Gnathostomata
Class Information
Superclass Tetrapoda
Class Aves
Sub-class Neornithes
Infra-class Neoaves
Order Information
Superorder Passerimorphae
Order Passeriformes
Sub-order Passeri
Family Information
Superfamily Passeroidea
Family Cardinalidae
Genus Information
Genus Cardinalis
Species Information
Species C. cardinalis
Population statistics

Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is a songbird of the family Cardinalidae, and found throughout much of eastern North America. The name "cardinal" refers to the senior clerics of the Roman Catholic Church and the red robes they wear.

Description

The northern cardinal is about 8.3–9.1 inches long, with a wingspan of 9.8 to 12.2 inches, and weigh 1.19 to 2.29 ounces. It has a strong, conical beak and a small, yet distinctive head crest. The two sexes differ in the coloration of the plumage, with males having a predominantly scarlet-red plumage with some brownish-red hues on the wings, back and tail, a black face mask. Females bear an olive-brownish plumage with reddish hues on the wings, on the tail and in the hood, as well as by a less well defined, rather gray colored face mask. Young birds are colored like the females, but without a face mask. Northern races are darker, southern races are more brightly colored red.

Subspecies

  • Cardinalis cardinalis affinis; western Mexico: southeastern Sonora to southwestern Chihuahua, western Durango
  • Cardinalis cardinalis canicaudus; western Oklahoma, western Texas to east-central Mexico
  • Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis; eastern United States
  • Cardinalis cardinalis carneus; Mexico: coastal Colima to Isthmus of Tehuántepec
  • Cardinalis cardinalis clintoni; Mexico: Isla Cerralvo
  • Cardinalis cardinalis coccineus; Mexico: eastern San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, northeastern Puebla, northern Oaxaca
  • Cardinalis cardinalis flammiger; Mexico (southern Quintana Roo), Belize, northern Guatemala (Petén)
  • Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus; southeastern Georgia, peninsular Florida
  • Cardinalis cardinalis igneus; Mexico: southern Baja California, north to latitude 27°N
  • Cardinalis cardinalis littoralis; Mexico: southern Veracruz and Tabasco
  • Cardinalis cardinalis magnirostris; southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana
  • Cardinalis cardinalis mariae; Mexico: Tres Marías Islands
  • Cardinalis cardinalis saturatus; Mexico: Cozumel Island
  • Cardinalis cardinalis seftoni; Mexico: central Baja California, south to latitude 27°N
  • Cardinalis cardinalis sinaloensis; Mexico: Sinaloa and Jalisco coasts
  • Cardinalis cardinalis superbus; extreme southeastern California to Arizona, southwest New Mexico and northern Sonora
  • Cardinalis cardinalis townsendi; Mexico: Isla Tiburón, adjacent coastal Sonora
  • Cardinalis cardinalis yucatanicus; Mexico: Yucatán Peninsula

Range and habitat

The northern cardinal is found mainly in eastern North America, from southern Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia in Canada, south to Guatemala and Belize, and from the Atlantic coastline westward to southern Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas and southern Arizona. The species was introduced in Hawaii and southern California. A forest bird, it has also shown a preference for populated areas, living in open ground with plenty of bushes and hedges, in parks, gardens, at forest edges, in forest clearings and in riparian forests.

Diet

The northern cardinal's diet consists of 90% seeds, cereals and fruits. It feeds mainly by hopping on the ground, or among trees or shrubs. It also consumes beetles, cicadas, grasshoppers, snails, wild fruits and berries, flowers and bark of elms. It will also take advantage of maple sap flowing from the holes previously drilled by sapsuckers and woodpeckers. During the summer, it prefers seeds that spread easily, but it is less selective in winter when food is scarce. Young birds are fed almost exclusively on insects.