The octet rule states that atoms of almost all elements strive to attain eight valence electrons. Atoms that own eight valence electrons are energetically stable. Hydrogen and helium, which strive for two valence electrons, are exceptions to the octet rule. The rule is based on observations published in 1916 separately by German chemist Walther Kossel and the American chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis.
- Wile, Dr. Jay L. Exploring Creation With Chemistry. Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc. 1998