|Nickname||The Buckeye State|
|Governor||Mike DeWine, R|
|Senator||Sherrod Brown, D |
|Senator||Rob Portman, R |
|Ratification of Constitution/or statehood||March 1, 1803 (17th)|
|Motto: With God all things are possible|
Ohio is a "Rust Belt" state located in the Midwestern region of the United States, which on March 1, 1803, became the seventeenth state. The capital of Ohio is Columbus. Other large cities in Ohio include Cincinnati and Cleveland, where the 2016 Republican National Convention was held. Ohio borders the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and West Virginia. The current governor of Ohio is Mike DeWine, a Republican.
Ohio voters include a substantial percentage of pro-life, working class Democrats who shifted enough to the Republican column to enable Donald Trump to garner 52% in 2016, despite Obama winning the state easily in 2008 and 2012. Rampant early voting of roughly a month in duration plagues its elections.
The state Constitution of Ohio, like all of the other 50 states, acknowledges God or our Creator or the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe. It says:
- We, the people of the State of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our common welfare, do establish this Constitution.
Chillicothe was the capital from the formation of the Ohio Territory from the Northwest Territory in 1800, until 1809, when it was moved to Zanesville for three years. Chillicothe was again the capital from 1812 until 1816, when Columbus became the capital because it was the geographical center of the state. Cincinnati was the largest and most important city until surpassed by Cleveland in the early 20th century.
Since 1940, fiscal conservatism has been a hallmark of Ohio leaders, including such Republicans governors as John Bricker, Thomas Herbert, and C. William O’Neill, as well as some Democrats, notably Martin Davey and Frank Lausche. Especially in the small towns and cities voters expressed low-tax, low-spending and pro-business sentiments.
Michael V. DiSalle, a Democrat elected in 1958, tried to convert Ohio to high spending, but angered the taxpayers after one term. He was defeated by Republican James A. Rhodes (1909-2001), who branded DiSalle "Tax Hike Mike" and went on to become Ohio's longest serving governor (1962–70 and 1974–82). Rhodes eliminated or cut back the wasteful programs and concentrated instead on building of airports, state office buildings, prisons, and other public structures. Rhodes lowered taxes on small business owners, thereby building up the economy, while increasing funding to schools and universities.
Democrat Richard F. Celeste was defeated by Rhodes in 1978, but won the governorship in 1982 and defeated Rhodes's comeback effort in 1986. Celeste sought to increase state funding to education, health services, and welfare program; with the legislature in liberal hands he increased the state income tax by 90%. A referendum to overturn the tax increase failed, but in 1984, voters returned the Ohio Senate to Republican control.
Congress defined Ohio's borders in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:
Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.
This was based on the mistaken impression that the southern tip of Lake Michigan was further north than Toledo, Ohio. Fur trappers reported that this was incorrect at the time that the Ohio Constitution was drafting its border provisions. As a result, the Toledo Strip was created as a zone that was claimed by both Ohio and Michigan, resulting in the Toledo War. Ultimately, Michigan gave up the Toledo Strip in exchange for gaining the western portion of its Upper Peninsula when it was admitted to the union.
- Sen. Sherrod Brown (D)
- Sen. Rob Portman (R)
- Rep. Steve Chabot [R, OH–01]
- Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R, OH–02]
- Rep. Joyce Beatty [D, OH–03]
- Rep. Jim Jordan [R, OH–04]
- Rep. Bob Latta [R, OH–05]
- Rep. Bill Johnson [R, OH–06]
- Rep. Bob Gibbs [R, OH–07]
- Rep. Warren Davidson [R, OH–08]
- Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D, OH–09]
- Rep. Michael Turner [R, OH–10]
- Rep. Shontel Brown [D, OH–11]
- Rep. Troy Balderson [R, OH–12]
- Rep. Tim Ryan [D, OH–13]
- Rep. David Joyce [R, OH–14]
- Rep. Mike Carey [R, OH–15]
- Rep. Anthony Gonzalez [R, OH–16]
Presidents From Ohio
Ohio was known as the "mother of presidents"; the last one was Harding, who won in 1920 by defeating another Ohioan, Governor James Cox.
- [1773-1841] 9th President -William Henry Harrison. Whig
- [1822-1885] 18th President -Ulysses Simpson Grant, Republican
- [1822-1893] 19th President -Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican
- [1831-1881] 20th President -James Garfield, Republican
- [1833-1901] 23rd President -Benjamin Harrison, Republican
- [1843-1901] 25th President -William McKinley, Republican
- [1857-1930] 27th President -William Howard Taft, Republican
- [1865-1923] 29th President -Warren Gamaliel Harding, Republican
Ohio is a swing state in presidential elections. No Republican has won the presidency without Ohio's electoral votes.
Ohioans usually engage in a call and reply type chant when celebrating their state. The leader yells "O,H" and the crowd replies with "I,O". Both presidential candidates have used this at rallies across the state in 2012.
- Ohio History Central, authoritative short articles, with images, audio and video files
Surveys and textbooks
- Bell, Carol Willsey. Ohio Guide to Genealogical Sources. (1988). 372 pp.
- Benedict, Michael Les and Winkler, John F., eds. The History of Ohio Law. (2 vol. 2004). 946 pp.
- Booth, Stephane Elise. Buckeye Women: The History of Ohio's Daughters. (2001). 239 pp.
- Borcyczka, Raymond and Cary, Lorin Lee. No Strength without Union: An Illustrated History of Ohio Workers, 1803-1980. (1982). 328 pp.
- Cayton, Andrew R. L. Ohio: The History of a People (2002), 473pp
- Grant, H. Roger and Clarence Wunderlin. Ohio On The Move: Transportation In Buckeye State (2000) excerpt
- Knepper, George W. Ohio and Its People. (3rd ed. 2003), textbook; ISBN 0-87338-791-0 online edition
- Lafferty, Michael B., ed. Ohio's Natural Heritage. (1979). 324 pp.
- Parker, Gregory; Sisson, Richard; and Coil, William Russell, eds. Ohio & the World: Essays toward a New History of Ohio. (2005). 199 pp.
- Sisson, Richard, ed. The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (2006), very right regional encyclopedia by scholars
- Smith, Thomas H., ed. An Ohio Reader. Vol. 1, 1750 to the Civil War. Vol 2. Reconstruction to the Present. (1975). 763 pp. articles by historians
History to 1860
- Blue, Frederick J. Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics (1987) online edition
- Bond Jr., Beverley W. The Foundations of Ohio. Volume: 1. 1941. detailed history to 1802. online edition
- Brown, Jeffrey P., and Andrew R. L. Cayton, eds. The Pursuit of Public Power: Political Culture in Ohio, 1787-1861 (1994)
- Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest (1950), Pulitzer Prize winner
- Carter, Harvey Lewis. The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. (1987). 275 pp.
- Cayton, Andrew R. L. The Frontier Republic: Ideology and Politics in the Ohio Country, 1780-1825 (1986)
- Cayton, Andrew R.L. and Stuart D. Hobbs. The Center of a Great Empire: The Ohio Country in the Early Republic (2005) excerpt and text search
- Fox, Stephen C. The Group Bases of Ohio Political Behavior, 1803-1848. (1989). 349 pp.
- Giesen, Myra Jayne. "Late Prehistoric Populations in the Ohio Area: Biological Affinities and Stress Indicators." PhD dissertation, anthropology. Ohio State U. 1992. 271 pp. DAI 1993 53(8): 2872-A. DA9238180 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Hendrick, Booraem V. The Road to Respectability: James A. Garfield and His World, 1844-1852 (1988)
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. (1996). ISBN 0-253-21212-X 418pp
- Jones, Robert Leslie. History of Agriculture in Ohio to 1880. (1983). 416 pp.
- Leet, Don R. Population Pressure and Human Fertility Response: Ohio, 1810-1860. (1978). 291 pp.
- Maizlish, Stephen E. The Triumph of Sectionalism: The Transformation of Ohio Politics, 1844-1856 (1983), 310pp
- O'Donnell, James H. Ohio's First Peoples. (2004). Indian tribes.
- Ratcliffe, Donald J. The Politics of Long Division: The Birth of the Second Party System in Ohio, 1818-1828. (2000). 455 pp.
- Ratcliffe, Donald J. Party Spirit in a Frontier Republic: Democratic Politics in Ohio, 1793-1821 (1998). 336 pp. online review
- Rokicky, Catherine M. Creating a Perfect World: Religious and Secular Utopias in Nineteenth-Century Ohio. (2002). 181 pp.
- Utter, William T. The Frontier State: 1803-1825, vol. 2 of History of the State of Ohio (1942).
- VanVugt, William E. British Buckeyes: The English, Scots, and Welsh in Ohio, 1700-1900. (2006). 295 pp.
- Weisenburger, Francis P. The Passing of the Frontier, vol. 3 (1941), detailed history of 1830s and 1840s
- Winkle, Kenneth J. The Politics of Community: Migration and Politics in Antebellum Ohio. (1988). 239 pp.
- Comer, James Ray. "Immigration and Foodways in Ohio, 1870-1920." PhD dissertation Bowling Green State U. 2001. 369 pp. DAI 2001 62(6): 2217-A. DA3016141 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Downes, Randolph C. The Rise of Warren Gamaliel Harding, 1865-1920. (1970). 734 pp
- Gerber, David A. Black Ohio and the Color Line, 1860-1915. (1977). 500 pp.
- Hoogenboom, Ari. Rutherford B. Hayes: Warrior and President. (1995). 626 pp.
- Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896 (1971)
- Jordan, Philip D.Ohio Comes of Age: 1873-1900 Volume 5 (1968)
- Klement, Frank L. The Limits of Dissent: Clement L. Vallandigham and the Civil War. (1998). 351 pp.
- Morton, Jack Devon. "Ohio's Gallant Fight: Northern State Politics during the Reconstruction Era, 1865-1878." PhD dissertation. U. of Virginia 2005. 274 pp. DAI 2005 66(1): 313-A. DA3161251 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Roseboom, Eugene. The Civil War Era, 1850-1873, vol. 4 (1944), detailed general history
- Semsel, Craig Robert. "Built to Move Millions: Transit Vehicle Manufacture in Ohio, 1880-1938." PhD dissertation Case Western Reserve U. 2001. 720 pp. DAI 2002 62(9): 3162-3163-A. DA3027315 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Weeks, Philip, ed. Buckeye Presidents: Ohioans in the White House. (2003). 240 pp.
- Wheeler, Kenneth W., ed. For the Union: Ohio Leaders in the Civil War. (1968) 497 pp.
History 1920 to present
- Bower, Kevin Patrick. "Relief, Reform, and Youth: The National Youth Administration in Ohio, 1935-1943." PhD dissertation U. of Cincinnati 2003. 201 pp. DAI 2003 64(5): 1787-A. DA3092078 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Coil, William Russell. "'New Deal Republican': James A. Rhodes and the Transformation of the Republican Party, 1933-1983." PhD dissertation Ohio State U. 2005. 345 pp. DAI 2005 66(6): 2357-A. DA3180621 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Davies, Richard O. Defender of the Old Guard: John Bricker and American Politics. (1993). 271 pp.
- Giffin, William W. African Americans and the Color Line in Ohio, 1915-1930. (2005). 312 pp.
- Lamis, Alexander P. and Sharkey, Mary Anne, eds. Ohio Politics. (1994). 417 pp. textbook
- Lieberman, Carl, ed. Government, Politics, and Public Policy in Ohio. (1995). 277 pp. textbook
- Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft. (1972). 749 pp.
- Van Tine, Warren, et al. In the Workers' Interest: A History of the Ohio AFL-CIO, 1958-1998. (1998). 219 pp.
- Zimmerman, Richard G. Call Me Mike: A Political Biography of Michael V. Disalle (2003)
Localities and regions
- Curl, Donald W. Murat Halstead and the Cincinnati Commercial. (1980). 186 pp
- Hirsimaki, Eric. Lima: The History. (1986). 351 pp.
- Moore, Jonathan Barrons. "Local Economic Development in the Post-industrial Service Economy: Manufacturing Communities in the Ohio River Valley." PhD dissertation Ohio State U. 2003. 255 pp. DAI 2004 65(3): 1065-A. DA3124375 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Painter, Sue Ann. Architecture in Cincinnati: An Illustrated History of Designing and Building an American City. (2006) 368pp; ISBN 978-0-8214-1701-0 online review
- Ross, Steven J. Workers on the Edge: Work, Leisure, and Politics in Industrializing Cincinnati, 1788-1890 (1985), new social history online edition
- Van Tassel, David D.. and John J. Grabowski, eds. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History (1987), also online
- Van Tassel, David D.. and John J. Grabowski, eds. Cleveland: A Tradition of Reform (1986)
- Ware, Jane. Building Ohio: A Traveler's Guide to Ohio's Urban Architecture. (2001). 330 pp.
- Wheeler, Kenneth H. "Local Autonomy and Civil War Draft Resistance: Holmes County, Ohio" Civil War History, Vol. 45, 1999
- WPA. Cincinnati: A Guide to the Queen City and Its Neighbors (1943), 574pp; famous guide book, with history online edition
Primary historical sources
- Bentley, Anna Briggs. American Grit: A Woman's Letters from the Ohio Frontier. ed. by Emily Foster, (2002). 344 pp. online review
- Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's War: The Civil War in Documents. (2007). 244 pp. online review
- Foster, Emily, ed. The Ohio Frontier: An Anthology of Early Writings. (1996). 229 pp.
- Gebby, Margaret. Farm Wife: A Self-Portrait, 1886-1896. ed. by Virginia E. McCormick. (1990). 243 pp.
- Johnson, Tom L. My Story (1993), reform mayor of Cleveland
- Saxbe, William B. and Franklin, Peter D. I've Seen the Elephant: An Autobiography. (2000). 267 pp. Saxbe was a politician and US Senator 1946-74
- Shriver, Phillip R., Jr. and Clarence E. Wunderlin. eds. Documentary Heritage Of Ohio (2001)
- Richard G. Zimmerman, Call Me Mike: A Political Biography of Michael V. DiSalle (2003)
- Ohio v. Kentucky, 444 U.S. 335. Find law. January 21, 1980. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=444&invol=335. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- Directory of Representatives. Retrieved on February 15, 2015.