Oran was founded in the tenth century. It has hosted a Jewish community since 1391, when Jewish refugees fled there from Spain. Under French administration, which lasted from 1830 to 1962, Oran was made into a modern port and increased in importance. During World War II, Algeria was under Vichy control until November 1942. Oran was one of the main objectives of Operation Torch, and became a key Allied logistical base.