The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) was formed in 1929 by merger of several Ukrainian resistance movements to Bolshevik control of the Ukraine. The Soviet Union declared the OUN a terrorist organization. When the Ukrainian parliament declared independence from the U.S.S.R. in 1991, among its first acts was to terminate the state of war which the OUN had declared against the Soviet Union since its earliest days. The founding parties of the new independent Ukrainian state received funding from the OUN.
The OUNb reorganized itself within Ukraine as the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (CUN) and registered as a political party in January 1993.. Until her death in 2003, CUN was headed by Slava Stetsko, widow of Yaroslav Stetsko. According to Ukrainian nationalist scholar Taraz Kuzio, in 1945, Yaroslav Stetsko was still asking Adolf Hitler for armies to continue the fight on the Eastern front against the Allied Powers of World War II.
OUN's leaders living abroad, including in the United States, did not want to openly enter Ukrainian politics, and attempted to imbue this party with a democratic, moderate facade. On March 9, 2010 the OUN rejected Yulia Tymoshenko's call to unite "all of the national patriotic forces" against President Viktor Yanukovych. OUN demanded that Yanukovych reject calls to annul the Hero of Ukraine award given to Stepan Bandera.
The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division (1st Galician) was a German military formation made up predominantly of military volunteers with a Ukrainian ethnic background from the area of Galicia, later also with some Slovaks and Czechs. Formed in 1943, it was largely destroyed in the battle of Brody, reformed, and saw action in Slovakia, Yugoslavia and Austria before being renamed the first division of the Ukrainian National Army and surrendering to the Western Allies by 10 May 1945. Volodymyr Kubiyovych (Ukrainian Father Jewish Mother) founded this Division in order for Ukrainians to aid the Ukrainian Insurgent Army with weapons.
The Nachtigall Battalion, also known as the Ukrainian Nightingale Battalion Group, or officially as Special Group Nachtigall, was the subunit under command of the German Abwehr (Military Intelligence) special operations unit "Brandenburg". Along with the Roland Battalion it was one of two military units formed February 25, 1941 by head of the Abwehr Adm. Wilhelm Canaris, which sanctioned the creation of the "Ukrainian Legion" under German command. It was composed of volunteer "Ukrainian nationalists," Ukrainians operating under Stephan Bandera's OUN orders.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center contends that between June 30 and July 3, 1941, in the days that the Battalion was in Lviv the Nachtigall soldiers together with the German army and the local Ukrainians participated in the killings of Jews in the city. The pretext for the pogrom was a rumor that the Jews were responsible for the execution of prisoners by the Soviets before the 1941 Soviet withdrawal from Lviv. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust states that some 4,000 Jews were kidnapped and killed at that time. It further states that the unit was removed from Lviv on July 7 and sent to the Eastern Front.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) arose out of separate militant formations of the OUN-Bandera faction (the OUNb). The political leadership belonged to the OUNb. It was the primary perpetrator of the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.
Its official date of creation is 14 October 1942, The Ukrainian People's Revolutionary Army at the period from December 1941 till July 1943 has the same name (Ukrainian Insurgent Army or UPA).
The OUN's stated immediate goal was the re-establishment of a united, quasi-independent Nazi-aligned, mono-ethnic nation state on the territory that would include parts of modern day Russia, Poland, and Belarus. Violence was accepted as a political tool against foreign as well as domestic enemies of their cause, which was to be achieved by a national revolution led by a dictatorship that would drive out what they considered to be occupying powers and set up a government representing all regions and social classes.
The ideology of the organization was heavily influenced by the philosophy of Nietzsche, German National Socialism and Italian Fascism; combining extreme nationalism with terrorism, corporatism, and anti-Semitism, as well as totalitarianism and anti-democracy.
In order to create an illusion that the Ukrainian brand of nationalism was a product of domestic development, most early OUN writers denied their ideological connection to fascism in a self-deceptive manner, contradicting generally known facts. According to its initial declaration, the primary goal of OUN was to establish an independent and ethnically pure Ukrainian state. This goal was to be achieved by a national revolution, that would drive out all foreign element and set up an authoritarian state led by a strong man. The OUN's leadership felt that past attempts at securing independence failed due to the presence of democratic values in society, poor party discipline, and a conciliatory attitude towards Ukraine's traditional enemies.
|The OUN shared the fascist attributes of antiliberalism, anticonservatism, and anticommunism, an armed party, totalitarianism, anti-Semitism, Führerprinzip, and an adoption of fascist greetings. Its leaders eagerly emphasized to Hitler and Ribbentrop that they shared the Nazi Weltanschauung and a commitment to a fascist New Europe.|
President Harry Truman approved the creation of a guerrilla army code-named “Nightingale” in Ukraine. Originally setup by the Nazis in 1941, it was made up of ultra-nationalists. They would, as Oliver Stone described in his documentary Untold History, wreak havoc on the “famine-wrecked region where Soviet control was loose, carrying out the murder of thousands of Jews, Soviets and Poles, who opposed a separate Ukrainian state.” The CIA would parachute “infiltrators” into the country as well to further “dislodge Soviet control.”
American historian and former Under Secretary of the Air Force Townsend Hoopes and Rice University history professor Douglas Brinkely confirm:
|One group that particularly attracted CIA attention and support was the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), a political-military underground movement that had long fought for Ukrainian independence—first against the Poles in the 1920s when Poland controlled the Ukraine and after 1939 against the Soviets. ‘Though violently anti-Russian, the OUN was itself totalitarian and Fascist in character. as well as anti-Semitic. The Nazis poured money into the OUN after the German invasion of Russia and pretended to support the goal of Ukrainian national independence. In return, a large OUN militia, code-named Nachtigall, or Nightingale, provided local administrators, informers, and killers for the German invaders. Nazi-sponsored OUN police and militia formations were involved in “thousands of instances of mass murders of Jews and of families suspected of aiding Red Army partisans.”|
When the Germans were driven out of the Ukraine, many OUN members who had served the Nazis’ police formations and execution squads fled with them, but several thousand retreated into the Carpathian Mountains to fight another day. This remaining Nightingale group fascinated the CIA and was recruited essentially en bloc. Its leaders were brought to the United States for training. Nightingale leaders were then parachuted into the Ukraine to link up with their compatriots and to carry out measures of subversion, agitation, and sabotage, including assassination. The leader of the Nightingale group was Stepan Bandera.
In 1997 a former U.S. national security advisor and high-level Obama policy advisor called for the U.S. to take Ukraine away from Russia.
A month before the Maidan Revolution in February 2014, Obama administration Assistant US Secretary of State for Europe and Eurasia Victoria Nuland, wife of Neocon Robert Kagan, announced plans to promote a “new government” in Ukraine. The leader of the “protests” in February 2014 which ousted President Yanukovych was a neo-Nazi and follower of Stepan Bandera.
Ukrainian diaspora and Independence
The leadership of the Ukrainian diaspora revolved around small groups of people in Ukraine, Europe, and America. From 1986- 2003 the leader of the OUNb was Slava Stetsko. Stetsko gained the mantle from her husband who died in 1986, Yaroslav Stetsko. He was the right hand to Stepan Bandera. Stetsko is the only Axis WWII leader who can claim eventual victory over the Allies even though this trio were responsible for the first Holocaust of World War II. It was the mass execution of over 30,000 Jews at Babi Yar. They starved 3 million war prisoners to death in Ukraine. They tortured and murdered close to half million Ukrainians. And they were never tried in court for these crimes.
Instead, they financed the radicalization of Ukraine and radical political parties starting before 1989. The biggest influence proved to be bringing back OUNb children groups from the Diaspora. These children groups were still labeled by the CIA as Bandera terrorist groups until the 1980’s. During WWII they planted bombs and murdered civilians that disagreed with Nazi ideology.
In far-flung Nazi strongholds like New York, Boston, Stamford, Philadelphia, and Geelong, Australia emigre kids are still taught that Stepan Bandera is a saint to be worshiped and a perfect person that they need to model their lives after. Bandera ordered his followers to rape, torture, and murder; men, women, and children as a sign of heroism and dedication to the cause of his nationalism. This is why it is so prevalent today with the Ukrainian volunteer battalions like Pravy Sector, Azov, Donbas, Kiev Rus, or Aidar.
Even Ukrainian state symbolism which was given by the emigres celebrates this today by integrating the 3 prong pitch fork (trident- 3 tooth) as the national symbol for Ukraine. In WWII, the 3 prong pitchfork was a favorite tool for murder and torture by Bandera’s OUNb and they found it especially useful when used on small children as a torture for parents. Victoria Nuland grew up in these children groups and in the Obama administration was setting foreign policy regarding Eastern Europe and Russia.
In Stamford, Connecticut on October 16, 2011 it was reported,
|members of the 54th branch of CYM “Khersones” in Stamford, CT attended a mass and requiem service in honor of the great Ukrainian hero and freedom fighter, Stepan Bandera…The SUM members and the faithful present that day enjoyed a beautiful and emotional homily about the life and achievements of Stepan Bandera delivered by Reverend Bohdan Danylo, Rector of St. Basil’s Seminary in Stamford.|
He instructed the children on how they can model their own lives on Bandera’s by following his example of self-sacrifice and unwavering dedication to his country. Following the homily, Father Bohdan distributed candles to each child which burned brightly during a stirring execution of the prayer “Vichnaya Pam’yat” in honor of the great hero of the Ukrainian nation.”
Ukrainian nationalist scholar, Taras Kuzio goes on to say that CYM was set up in East Ukraine to indoctrinate Donbass children into integral nationalism and Plast was set up in West Ukraine in 1989. Adolf Hitler’s nationalism, like the Ukrainian emigre, is called integral nationalism. “Integral” means you answer to the ideology in every aspect of your life and every decision is checked against the ideology. The emigres today, regardless of what country they live in hold the same type of Nazi ideology (integral nationalism) Adolf Hitler had for Germany as being more precious than their own lives.
By February 1991 it started to pay off in Ukraine. Radical nationalism exploded among the youth, and Rukh, which was Ukraine’s leading nationalist party attracted them. The youth called for the party to adopt the mythologized version of the OUN ideology. The OUNr (OUNb and m) were supporting the groups financially and ideologically promoting radical nationalism.
According to Ukrainian apologist Anne Applebaum -“…rather than acknowledging that nationalism is fundamentally emotional. In truth, you can’t really make ‘the case’ for nationalism; you can only inculcate it, teach it to children, cultivate it at public events.”
Just before Ukraine declared its independence from the Soviet Union, Ukrainian nationalist forces in Ukraine and the Diaspora identified the greatest threat to their take-over project in Ukraine was a flourishing Russian democracy. Taras Kuzio wrote,
“Originally, in 1990, the SNUM-nationalists and the UNS(Ukrainian nationalist groups) espoused “revolutionary nationalism” (the ideology of the emigre OUNr). ..”The enemy of the Ukrainian administration is Russian democracy. The only weapon for it is state independence.” Hence, the UNA believed that Kravchuk’s anathema for Russian democracy would have transformed itself into support for authoritarianism and nationalism within an independent Ukraine, especially as both the UNA and the national communists supported state-based (not ethnic) nationalism and allegiance to independent Ukraine… The vote in favour of independence, which was made by the population of Ukraine, was not the result of the activity of the so-called ‘democratic forces’ (apart from, possibly, in the territory of western Ukraine), but was the result of the turn towards independence of the higher organs of power in Ukraine, as was seen in the election of Kravchuk as president of Ukraine,” claimed Melnyk, head of the UNA executive”
Andreas Umland and Anton Shekhovstsov wrote in 2013:
In 1990, one of the best known nationalist parties—the Ukrainian National Assembly (UNA), headed by Dmytro Korchyns'kyi—was established in Lviv… In Ukraine itself, the UNA-UNSD became a media phenomenon, not least thanks to its deliberate provocation aimed at left-wing and pro-Russian forces and its frequent clashes with the police. But the UNA had little political success… The second best-known ultraright party to emerge at the beginning of the 1990s was the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (CUN)—a direct heir of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Bandera) (OUN-B), which Stepan Bandera headed in 1940 after a split in the original OUN. The continuity between the OUN-B and the CUN was ensured by the return from emigration of Iaroslava Stets'ko, [Slava Stetsko] a former member of the OUN-B and the widow of Iaroslav Stets'ko [Yaroslav Stetsko], one of the leaders of the OUN-B and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
Per Anders wrote the same year:
|While Yushchenko's successor Viktor Yanukovych has revoked the hero status of Bandera and Shukhevych and largely put an end to the state cult of the ultra-nationalists, in Western Ukraine, apologetics for the Waffen-SS Galizien is entering the mainstream. On April 28, 2011, the 68th anniversary of the establishment of Waffen-SS Galizien, neo-fascist 'autonomous nationalists,' together with the far-right Svoboda Party, which dominates the L'viv city government organized a march through the city. Led by Svoboda ideologue Iurii Mykhal'chyshyn of the L'viv city council, the nearly 700 participants (2,000 according to the organizers), carrying banners with neo-Nazi symbols marched down the streets of L'viv, shouting slogans like 'Halychyna—division of heroes!,' and 'One race, one nation, one Fatherland!' Svoboda, which dominates the L'viv city council, decorated the city with billboards with the symbol of the unit, accompanied by the texts 'the treasure of the nation' and 'they defended Ukraine'.|
Alexandra Chalupa and the DNC
Alexandra Chalupa, a member of the Ukrainian Diaspora community and co-convener of the National Democratic Ethnic Coordinating Council (NDECC), is a strident neo-Nazi Bandera and UPA apologist. Alexandra Chalupa was paid $71,000 by the Democratic National Committee to collude with the government of Ukraine and Ukrainian Intelligence to dig up dirt on Paul Manafort and the Trump campaign during the 2016 presidential election. Alexandra Chalupa hired the hacking terrorist group named "Fancy Bear" by Dimitry Alperovich and Crowdstrike at the latest in 2015. While the Ukrainian hackers worked for the DNC, Fancy Bear had to send in progress reports, turn in research, and communicate on the state of the projects they were working on.
CrowdStrike is an Irvine, California cyber security company founded in 2011. Crowdstrike was founded by Dimitry Alperovitch, a Ukrainian oligarch and senior fellow at the Atlantic Council. Another owner and senior manager of Crowdstrike is an NBC News contributor and former senior FBI man Shawn Henry, who was promoted by Robert Mueller to be the FBI's Head of Cyber Security in the 2000s.
Crowdstrike is funded by Google, the arms industry, NATO, the US Military, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and another Ukrainian oligarch who donated $10 million to the Clinton Foundation named Victor Pinchuk. Pichuk hosted the September 2013 confabulation in Yalta, Crimea attended by Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, and Tony Blair to discuss how Ukraine's assets would be carved up after the forthcoming Ukrainian coup.
Russian hacking claims of DNC servers in the Spring of 2016 rely entirely on a report by CrowdStrike. Despite repeated requests from the FBI, Crowdstrike and the DNC refused to turn over evidence. The Obama administration never examined the DNC servers to determine if indeed they were hacked, or attempted to identify who the hacker might have been. On July 25, 2019, President Trump requested President Zelensky of Ukraine to assist in recovering evidence from Crowdstrike, which contracts with the Ukrainian military.
- According to journalist and DNC activist Andrea Chalupa on her Facebook page “After Chalupa sent the email to Miranda (which mentions that she had invited this reporter to a meeting with Ukrainian journalists in Washington), it triggered high-level concerns within the DNC, given the sensitive nature of her work. “That’s when we knew it was the Russians,” said a Democratic Party source who has been directly involved in the internal probe into the hacked emails. In order to stem the damage, the source said, “we told her to stop her research.”” July 25, 2016
- If she was that close to the investigation Crowdstrike did how credible is she? Her sister Alexandra was named one of 16 people that shaped the election by Yahoo news. The DNC hacking investigation done by Crowdstrike concluded hacking was done by Russian actors based on the work done by Alexandra Chalupa? That is the conclusion of her sister Andrea Chalupa and obviously enough for Crowdstrike to make the Russian government connection.
- How close is Dimitri Alperovitch to DNC officials? Close enough professionally he should have stepped down from an investigation that had the chance of throwing a presidential election in a new direction. According to Esquire.com, Alperovitch has vetted speeches for Hillary Clinton about cyber security issues in the past. Because of his work on the Sony hack, President Barrack Obama personally called and said the measures taken were directly because of his work.
- Alperovitch’s relationships with the Chalupas, radical groups, think tanks, Ukrainian propagandists, and Ukrainian state supported hackers [show a conflict of interest]. When it all adds up and you see it together, we have found a Russian that tried hard to influence the outcome of the US presidential election in 2016.
- Originally Yehvan Konovelets UNR army and several other groups.
- Pavel Sudaplatov, Special tasks, 1994, page 430.
- Конгресс Українських Націоналістів, Database DATA
- Andrew Wilson. (1997). Ukrainian Nationalism in the 1990s: a Minority Faith. Cambridge University Press.
- OUN rejects Tymoshenko's calls to form united opposition, Kyiv Post (March 9, 2010)
- Alexander Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, Volume 3, pages 44-46.
- German: 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (galizische Nr. 1)) Ukrainian: 14а Гренадерська Дивізія СС (1а галицька)), prior to 1944 titled the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galicia" Ukrainian: 14а Добровільна Дивізія "Галичина"
- Abbot, Peter. Ukrainian Armies 1914-55, p.47. Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN|1-84176-668-2
- І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках.
Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN) p.271-278
- "... скрепив нашу ненависть нашу до жидів, що в двох селах ми постріляли всіх стрічних жидів. Під час нашого перемаршу перед одним селом... ми постріляли всіх стрічних там жидів" from Nachtigal third company activity report Центральний державний архів вищих органів влади та управління України (ЦДАВО). — Ф. 3833 . — Оп. 1. — Спр. 157- Л.7
- Gutman, Israel. "Nachtigall Battalion". Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Macmillan Publishing Company: New York, 1990.
- Vedeneyev, D. Military Field Gendarmerie – special body of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. "Voyenna Istoriya" magazine. 2002.
- The July 1943 genocidal operations of OUN-UPA in Volhynia, pp=2-3; https://web.archive.org/web/20160401045104/http://www.volhyniamassacre.eu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/5199/The-July-1943-genocidal-operations-of-the-OUN-UPA-in-Volhynia.pdf
- The OUN, the UPA, and the Nazi Genocide in Ukraine / Collaboration in Eastern Europe during World War II and the Holocaust, Ivan Katchanovski, 2019.
- Demotix: 69th anniversary of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. 2011.
- Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chapter 3 pp.104-154
- "The massacre of the Polish population in Volhynia by Ukrainian nationalists in 1939 and 1945" November 9, 1943: "The Polish village of Parosle near Sarny. A gang of Ukrainian nationalists posing as Soviet partisans deceived the villagers who had hosted the gang during the day. In the evening, the bandits surrounded all the houses and killed the Polish population. 173 people were killed. Only three people survived. Two were able to hide under the corpses and one boy turned himself in. A later investigation of the murdered revealed the extreme cruelty of the executioners. Infants had been nailed to tables with kitchen knives. Several people were skinned. Women were raped, some had their breasts cut off, many had their ears and noses cut off, their eyes cut out, their heads cut off. After the massacre, there was a drinking feast in the house of the local village school. After the executioners left, among the scattered bottles of homemade liquor and leftovers, a one-year-old child was found nailed to the table with a bayonet and had a piece of sour cucumber in his mouth that one of the bandits had not eaten." Semaschko Turowski: Atrocities committed by Ukrainian nationalists against the Polish population in Volhynia in 1939 and 1945.
- Myroslav Yurkevich, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Orhanizatsiia ukrainskykh natsionalistiv) This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 3 (1993).
- The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths, Per Anders Rudling, The Carl Beck Papers in Russian & East European Studies, University of Pittsburgh, Number 2107, November 2011, p. 3 (6 of 76 in PDF).
- Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine, David R. Marples, Central European University Press, 2007, pages 285–286.
- Hitler's Europe Ablaze: Occupation, Resistance, and Rebellion during World War II, Philip Cooke & Ben Shepherd, Skyhorse Publishing, 2014, page 336.
- When Nazi Hands Rock American Cradles, GH Eliason.
- Radical Nationalist Parties And Movements In Contemporary Ukraine Before And After Independence: The Right And Its Politics, 1989-1994, Taras Kuzio.
- Anne Applebaum historian for UCCA history project (Wife of Poland’s Foreign Minister, Radislaw Sikorski.
- 16 people who shaped the 2016 election: Alexandra Chalupa, Yahoo News, October 24, 2016.
- Victor Pinchuk, the Clintons & Endless Connections, by Jeff Carlson, March 11, 2018.
- Oliver Stone documentary Ukraine on Fire Complete.
- Stepan Bandera! Hero or Nazi?
- World War 2 HISTORY Galicia Division: The Waffen SS 14th grenadier Division Галичина WW2 Ukraine, Ukrainian television interview with Iryna Farion ІРИНА ФАРІОН, posted to youtube March 23, 2019. Farion call the UPA and 14th Galicia Division "heroes" (dubbed English).
- Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists(OUN): Massacres of Poles in Volhynia 1943, uploaded to youtube August 13, 2014.
- Eyewitness accounts of Ukrainian massacre of Poles, Part 2 of 4.
- Eyewitness accounts of Ukrainian massacre of Poles, Part 3 of 4.
- Nazi era Ukrainian language news reel clip.
- Banderites v Red Army: Kiev Struggles to Come to Terms With WWII History During 75th Anniversary!