Difference between revisions of "Oxygen"

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{{Element | name=Oxygen | symbol=O | anumber=8 | amass=16.0 amu | state=gas | class=Non-metal | cstructure=Cubic | color=Colorless | date=1774 | discname=[[Joseph Priestley]] | origname=From the Greek words ''oxus'' (acid) and ''gennan'' (generate) | uses=Supports life | obtained=From liquid air}}
 
{{Element | name=Oxygen | symbol=O | anumber=8 | amass=16.0 amu | state=gas | class=Non-metal | cstructure=Cubic | color=Colorless | date=1774 | discname=[[Joseph Priestley]] | origname=From the Greek words ''oxus'' (acid) and ''gennan'' (generate) | uses=Supports life | obtained=From liquid air}}
'''Oxygen''' is a [[chemical]] [[element]] with 8 [[proton]]s.<ref>Wile, Dr. Jay L. ''Exploring Creation With Physical Science''. Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc. 1999, 2000</ref> Oxygen's [[atomic mass]] is slightly under 16, since it also has 8 [[neutron]]s (a slight amount of mass is "lost" in the energy contained in the [[subatomic bond]]s).
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Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe by mass and is essential to life on Earth.
  
The name "oxygen" means "acid maker": Many common acids -- nitric, sulfuric, phosphoric, etc. -- are just hydrogen nitrate, hydrogen sulfate, or hydrogen phosphate, where the nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate complexes involve oxygen.
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==Chemical Properties==
  
Under normal conditions oxygen is a colorless, odorless [[gas]] consisting of two oxygen [[atom|atoms]] which has the chemical formula O<sub>2</sub>. This means it is [[diatom]]ic.  Approximately 20% of the [[atmosphere]] is made up of oxygen.  Oxygen also forms a [[triatomic]] molecule called [[ozone]] (O<sub>3</sub>), which, although unstable under normal conditions, is a very important ingredient in the upper [[atmosphere]], forming a layer which blocks most of the [[Sun]]'s [[ultraviolet]] radiation.
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At normal atmospheric pressure oxygen melts at 54.36 [[Kelvin]] (K) and boils at 90.2 K; on Earth it essentially exists only as a gas. It readily dissolves in water, which makes aquatic life possible. Under normal conditions oxygen forms molecules consisting of two oxygen atoms each sharing two electrons in the 2p subshell; this form of oxygen is known as O<sub>2</sub>. O<sub>2</sub> is a pale blue odourless gas.
 
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Oxygen is highly reactive, and in many other elements and compounds undergo [[exothermic reaction]]s with it (they [[combustion|burn]] or [[oxidation|rust]]).  If it were not for its continual replenishment as a waste product of plant [[photosynthesis]], all atmospheric oxygen would disappear, forming compounds with other chemicals at the earth's surface.
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Many [[animal]]s depend upon oxygen as a highly efficient ingredient for breaking down [[food]] for [[energy]], due to its reactivity.  Those that do not are called "[[anaerobic]]", meaning "without air", and include many important [[bacteria]].
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{{periodic table}}
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==References==
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<references/>
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Revision as of 16:05, 19 September 2011

Oxygen
Properties
Atomic symbol O
Atomic number 8
Classification Non-metal
Atomic mass 16.0 amu
Other Information
Date of discovery 1774
Name of discoverer Joseph Priestley
Name origin From the Greek words oxus (acid) and gennan (generate)
Uses Supports life
Obtained from From liquid air

Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe by mass and is essential to life on Earth.

Chemical Properties

At normal atmospheric pressure oxygen melts at 54.36 Kelvin (K) and boils at 90.2 K; on Earth it essentially exists only as a gas. It readily dissolves in water, which makes aquatic life possible. Under normal conditions oxygen forms molecules consisting of two oxygen atoms each sharing two electrons in the 2p subshell; this form of oxygen is known as O2. O2 is a pale blue odourless gas.