Difference between revisions of "Pope"

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#[[Pope John Paul II]] (1978)
#[[Pope John Paul II]] (1978)
#[[Pope Benedict XVI]] (2007)
#[[Pope Benedict XVI]] (2007)
#[[Pope Francis]] (2013)
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[[Category:Catholic Church]]

Revision as of 10:54, 7 April 2013

The Pope (from Greek papas, father) is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. His Catholic titles include Bishop of Rome, in which position he is considered by Roman Catholics to be the successor of St. Peter. The Pope is the chief pastor of the whole Church Catholic, the "Vicar of Christ upon earth." [1] Pontifex summus is a title of dignity.

He appoints all the cardinals and bishops, but otherwise has limited control over them. Catholics consider him infallible in certain (rare) proclamations, and cite the Bible in support of that belief:

Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona: because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my Father who is in heaven. And I say to thee: That thou art Peter; and upon this rock (Cepha) I will build my Church. Matthew 16:17-19. Be the shepherd of my sheep. John 21:16.

The Pope's ecclesiastical jury is called the Holy See. Since 1059 The Pope has always been chosen by the Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church meeting in secret. When they have not reached a decision they burn the ballots and black smoke emerges; when a pope is chosen the smoke is white.


  • Tiara

The pope is distinguished by the use of the tiara or triple crown. At what date the custom of crowning the pope was introduced is unknown. It was certainly previous to the forged donation of Constantine, which dates from the commencement of the ninth century, for mention is there made of the pope's coronation. The triple crown is of much later origin. (it remains only a symbol)

No pope has worn an actual triple tiara since Pope Paul VI at the end of the Second Vatican Council in 1965.

  • Cross

The pope moreover does not, like ordinary bishops, use the bent pastoral staff, but only the erect cross. This custom was introduced before the reign of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) (cap. un. X de sacra unctione, I, 15).

  • Pallium

He further uses the pallium at all ecclesiastical functions, and not under the same restrictions as do the archbishops on whom he has conferred it. [2]

  • Fisherman's Ring

It is a gold ring decorated with a depiction of St. Peter in a boat casting his net.


His Holiness, Pope Francis.

Today the Pope is Pope Francis, (formerly Jorge Mario Bergoglio, born December 17, 1936, in Buenos Aires, Argentina) who became the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church on March 13, 2013. Pope Francis, elected as 266th Roman Catholic pontiff, is the first Jesuit and the first Latin American pope; First non-European pope in 1300 years. He succeeded Pope Benedict XVI, to whom he was reportedly the runner-up in the papal election of 2005.[3]


The Pope is claimed to be infallible in matters of doctrine (see Dictatus Papae). The concept of Papal Infallibility (1870) is used to proclaim articles of faith, which are essential for adherents to be truly Catholic. These articles are therefore considered to be a Dogmatic definition. Such pronouncements are rare, and the concept does not mean that Catholics are to believe everything that the Pope says is correct. The last issue was asserting the Assumption of Mary.

The First Vatican Council, of 1870, anathematized all who dispute the Pope's primacy of honor and of jurisdiction (it is lawful to discuss the precise nature of that primacy, provided that such discussion does not violate the terms of the Council's Dogmatic Constitution). The Second Vatican Council of 1965 modified many of the dictates of 1870.

Critics of the papacy claim that past Popes who claimed successorship to St. Peter, such as Pope Callixtus III and Pope Alexander VI from the Borgia family, were so corrupt as to be unfit to wield power. An just and loving God, they claim, would not have given those people the powers claimed for them by the Catholic Church. Opponents of these critics reply that even the worst Popes failed to wreck the traditions of the Church.


The history of the papacy is a major factor in European history, especially the Middle Ages.

The Pope has been the head of the Roman Catholic Church for over 1600 years. The Eastern Orthodox churches reject his claims to primacy. Even more vigorously the Protestant Reformation rejected Papal claims to primacy. As secular leaders the Popes controlled Rome and the Papal States in central Italy until 1870, and especially in the 16th century were notable patrons of the arts, turning St. Peter's Church in Rome into an architectural wonder, especially notable for the artwork in its Sistine Chapel.[4]

Since 1929 the Pope controls only the small Vatican city-state (located inside Rome), but has diplomatic relations with most nations. The Pope's power comes from his appointment of all the bishops in the Catholic Church, and from his ability (since 1870) to proclaim a theological doctrine infallibly. The history of the Popes is interwoven with the history of the Catholic Church and the history of Europe. In terms of personalities and morality, the 262 Popes were saints and sinners who ranged very widely indeed.[5]In recent centuries most have been holy men and in recent decades they have been linguists able to speak to Catholics in many languages. In recent centuries most Popes have been scions of Italian nobility; notable exceptions are Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) the first Polish Pope, and Benedict XVI (2005- ) the first German since 1523.


Catholic tradition argues that Christ told Peter to found a church, that he built one in Rome, that all Popes descend from him, and that the bishop of Rome has divine authority to rule over the Church. Protestants say the Biblical texts are silent concerning any grant of universal leadership, let alone an infallible one. It was asserted centuries after Christ. Protestants often insist also that the relationship between Christ and the sinner is interrupted by the imposition of an Earthly intercessor.

Indeed, the history of the Reformation is the history of the rejection of the Papacy, while the history of the Counter-Reformation is the history of a reassertion of its power using moral authority, diplomacy, and orders such as the Jesuits.

Biblical texts

Catholics emphasize that Jesus told Simon Peter:

thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven.[6]

Peter (and Paul) did found a church in Rome in 42 A.D. and served as the bishop for 25 years until 67 A.D. when he was martyred. However, as Duffy points out, "wherever we turn, the solid outlines of the Petrine succession at Rome seem to blur and dissolve."[7] That is, the primacy of the bishop of Rome in the Western Roman Empire was not established for several centuries, and even then was rejected by eastern bishops who guide the Eastern Orthodox Church under the leadership of the Patriarch of Constantinople.

Early history to 350

Early Middle Ages: 350-1000

Late Middle Ages: 1000-1500

The 14th century was the scene of dramatic humiliations that reduced the secular power and religious prestige of the of the papacy. The French king made his man Pope and moved the papal court to Avignon in France, 1309-1377. During the "Babylonian Captivity" of the papacy, seven French popes were seen as mere tools of France. Avignon was not a holy city, like Rome, and the men there were scarcely concerned with holiness; the papal entourage demanded bribes and fees to deal with terns of thousands of petitions that flooded in. As the paperwork and expenses multiplied and the prestige of the Papacy slipped.[8] The return to Rome in 1378 was followed by an even greater catastrophe. A split between French and Italian factions in the Curia resulted in the "Great Schism" of 1378-1417, during which Rome and Avignon each had their own series of popes, who claimed legitimacy and authority over the church. After enormous confusion the decision was made to appeal to a church council. The Council of Constance healed the schism in 1415.

The Council issued the decree Sacrosancta, (April 1415) asserting that in matters touching the faith and the unification and reform of the Church, a general council stood above all other authority, including papal. Another decree Frequens, (October 1417) tried to set controls on the pope and cardinals and proposed that a new council meet within five years and be convened regularly every ten years thereafter. The Church was on the verge of a constritutional revolution that would have shifted power from the pope to the bishops. However the papal forces fought back and by defeating the Council of Basel (1431-1449) regained control.

It took years to rebuild the neglected infrastructure of the city of Rome. The papacy never regained the secular power it had lost, and the loosened religious authority allowed an opening for radical reformers such as John Wycliffe and the Hussites.

Reformation and Counter-Reformation: 1500-1700

Frommel (1986) shows the popes did not provide a coordinated policy for Roman urban development. Rather, they had their own building agendas, driven by an egocentric spontaneity to outdo predecessors and eternalize family glory. Their agendas did reflect papal prominence in the city and created an imperial aura.


The Pope confronted Gallicanism in France, which reduced the Pope's power over the bishops. The Gallican argument was that the pope was supreme in spiritual matters, but that temporal affairs were the province of the government. The main issue was the selection of bishops, who had powerful temporal roles in terms of ownership of lands and churches. "Royal Gallicanism" emphasized the powers of the king. "Ecclesiatical Gallicanism" emphasized the powers of the bishops vis-a-vis the pope.

French Revolution

Much worse was the French Revolution in the 1790s, which disestablished the Church, forced many priests and bishops into exile, and seized vast landholdings.


Religion had been a major issue during the French Revolution, and Napoleon resolved most of the outstanding problems. Thereby he moved the clergy and large numbers of devout Catholics from hostility to the government to support for him. The Catholic system was reestablished by the Concordat of 1801 (signed with Pope Pius VII), so that church life returned to normal; the church lands were not restored, but the Jesuits were allowed back in and the bitter fights between the government and Church ended. Protestants and atheists were tolerated.[9]

1815 to 1914

Pius VII

Pius VII (1800-23) was stripped of powers by Napoleon but made a striking comeback after Napoleon's fall in 1815. Pius VII was a deeply religious Benedictine, and a theologian; he lived simply and avoided nepotism. His unusually able Secretary of State Cardinal Consalvi won the restoration to the Pope of most of the territories in Italy which Napoleon had seized. He reinvigorated numerous monastic orders and helped create new societies for men and women, especially those engaged in teaching and missionary work. Most important was the restoration of the Jesuits in 1814; they had been suppressed in most countries. They grew larger and even more influential in the 19th century.


After 1800 the Papacy became the center of conservatism in Europe in reaction against the liberalism of the French Revolution and its admirers. The Papacy recognized that throughout Europe millions of peasants and poor folk were devoted to the saints and traditions of the Church; the Popes responded energetically by promoting new Marian devotions (such as the rosary). Rome had fallen into disrepair and Pius VII began the restoration of the city's artistic glories, an enterprise that continues into the 21st century. [10] Much like other heads of state, popes can have political leanings, which tend to be conservative, especially on issues of abortion. However, on some issues popes have been known to hold more liberal opinions; for example, Pope John Paul II was against Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Ultramontane vs Gallican

The "ultramontane" tendency in the Church centralized more power and authority in the Papacy. It was opposed by the "Gallican" tendency, especially in France, to give national churches more control over their affairs. The ultramontine forces generally won out, especially with the declaration of papal infallability at the First Vatican Council in 1870. The ultramontane forces cited the old doctrines of Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) and Francisco de Suárez (1548-1617) to bolster the papal claim to absolute power in spiritual matters.

Gallicanism in France was damaged by the rise of ultramontanism in the 1850s and the devotional revolution that shifted piety to devotions sponsored by Rome. Gallicanism was officially suppressed by the First Vatican Council in 1870, which established the paramount authority of the pope as a matter of dogma. However informal manifestations of Gallicanism continue in some countries, especially China. In Canada, the Irish clergy fought for ultramontanism against the French clergy, who were Gallican. The Irish won out with the support of the Vatican.

After Vatican II, 1962-65, the multiple and often confused controversy over papal authority and infallibility ended quietly.

Facing Modernity

Despite dire predictions, the Church adapted to modernity in its own way and increased its role in people's lives in the 19th century. The Church escaped irrelevance by using the same means as did emerging nation-states; establishing more administrative and doctrinal centralization in Rome; establishing a homogeneous culture, aided especially by universal use of Latin; promoting new rites and folk devotions, especially those focused on Mary and other favored saints; promoting pilgrimages to holy sites; encouraging clergy to endorse and lead regional nationalist movements that focused on historic languages and cultures; creating many new teaching orders and establishing Catholic schools and colleges; supporting intellectuals and publishing houses; enhancing papal power; and cultivating an image of both theologiocal canonical and moral superiority. Of special importance was the missionary activity, based especially in Germany, that was in competition with Protestant missions in China, India, Africa and other non-Christain lands. The Jesuits proved highly adept at promoting the Papal cause. The Pope thereby became less symbolic and more powerful. There was internal dissent among some Catholic intellectuals, such as historian Lord Acton in Britain and theologian Ignaz von Döllinger in Germany, who opposed the declaration of the dogma of papal infallibility.

Facing Liberalism

Burns (1990) takes a sociological perspective on the Papacy's long battle with liberalism. He shows how the papacy, in reaction to the rise of the liberal states of the 19th and 20th centuries, gradually reformulated Catholic ideology within the limited autonomy they possessed and carefully subordinated social and political issues to more purely religious and moral issues as they constructed an ideological opposition to liberalism.

In Germany in the 1840s the ultramontane movement used mass meetings and pilgrimages to combat the growth of liberalism and modernism. However the abnti-clerical liberal press attacked these mass meetings, and in response a large number of Catholic newspapers emerged in Germany starting in the 1840s. To ensure their own survival, these newspapers championed the liberal idea of press freedom. In addition, local clubs were established to mobilize the Catholic working class. These clubs tried to end discrimination against ordinary Catholics by working to establish freedom of religion and freedom of thought and by entering the electoral process. With the unification of Germany in 1870, the new nation faced the problems of consolidation, one of which was secularization. The laws dealing with secularization opened a poltical battle between Bismark and the Protestants and liberals on one side, and the Catholics on the other, called the "Kulturkampf." The Catholics organized their own political parties and protected their interests by voting as a bloc into the 1930s, when the Nazis closed down all other parties.

Syllabus of Errors

The Syllabus of Errors of Pope Pius IX in 1864 rejected the liberal doctrines of the modern world.[11] It denounced pantheism, naturalism, nationalism, indifferentism, socialism, communism, freemasonry, and other modern views. The Pope claimed for the Catholic Church total control over science and culture. The liberals viewed this as a declaration of war by the Church on modern civilization. Its repercussions within France, the U.S., Britain and other countries were resounding, nearly destroying the liberal Catholic movement and furnishing a powerful weapon to the anticlerical faction, or (in the U.S.) to anti-Catholic Protestants. Opponents stressed the Papacy had become intolerant and medieval and largely political in nature.[12]


In many countries the Church faced off against the Freemasons, a secret society that was politically active in numerous countries. The Papacy coordinated a counterattack. For example in Brazil, the religious question in the 1870s centered on the Masonic controversy and the struggle between regalist and ultramontane forces. One method of counterattack was to found Catholic universities. Thus Mgr. Ignace Bourget, second bishop of Montreal, Canada, founded Laval University, as a Catholic reaction to a liberal and secularist outburst in Quebec. Bourget said the university would be the principal instrument for "wresting the elite from the clutches of liberalism."


Camp (1990) traces the treatment of women. In the late 19th century the papacy began to revise its public teachings about the proper role of women in the Church and society. From Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) to Pope John Paul II (1978-2005), papal social pronouncements reveal an evolution in attitudes toward a woman's proper "place" from the view that women are passive subordinates to men in all spheres of life to the current teaching that lay and clerical women are equal but complementary partners with men in religious, political, economic, and social endeavors. However, the papacy has remained firm in the conviction that ordination to the priesthood is for men only.

Since 1914

Student and youth groups were formed in major countries, with Papal blessing. For example the French Federation of Catholic Students (FFEC) was formed in 1922 to keep college graduates within the orbit of the Church, shield them from hostile ideological and political influences, and deepen their spiritual experience. It was a conservative movement, ultramontane in outlook; and boasted 16,000 members in 1939. During the Vichy years 1940-42 it was politically active at first in support of Vichy before being won over by nationalist ideology at the instigation of spiritual leaders and joining the underground resistance movement.

John XXIII (1958-63) enjoyed uniformly favorable, if sometimes puzzled, treatment from the English-language media. Initially, the focus was on his wit and warm personality. His unexpected calling of Vatican Council II and his major encyclicals - Mater et Magistra and Pacem in Terris - transformed his image into that of a bold innovator. In the end, it was his concern for world peace at the height of the Cold War and his effort to reach beyond Catholics to address all people of good will that won Pope John XXIII universal praise and affection.

Holocaust issues

Coppa (2005) reassesses the attitudes and policies toward Nazi racism of Pope Pius XI (1922-1939). Although Pius XI accepted and practiced religious anti-Judaism, he consistently opposed racial anti-Semitism on theological grounds throughout his papacy. As a result, he resisted the course of accommodation and conciliation favored by others within the Catholic Church, including Eugenio Pacelli (1876-1958), who served as papal secretary of state from 1930 prior to succeeding Pius XI as Pope Pius XII in 1939. Between 1933 and 1939 Pius XI waged a campaign against Nazi and Fascist racism and anti-Semitism that included public speeches and published condemnations denouncing the division of humanity on the basis of race as well as the commission of a "secret" encyclical on the incompatibility of racism and Catholicism that remained unpublished until 1995. His confrontational stance therefore sharply contrasted with the silence of Pope Pius XII during the Holocaust.

External links



  • Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Pope" (1913) online edition many articles on related topics
  • Coppa, Frank J., ed. Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy. Greenwood, 1998. 473 pp.
  • Duffy, Eamon. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, (3rd ed 2006), 496pp; Yale University Press; heavily illustrated history by leading Catholic scholar
  • LaDue, William J. The Chair of Saint Peter: A History of the Papacy. Orbis Books, 1999. 374 pp.
  • Levillain, Philippe, ed. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2001. 1780 pp.
  • New Catholic 'Encyclopedia (1967), numerous articles
  • Steimer, Bruno and Parker, Michael G., ed. Dictionary of Popes and the Papacy. Crossroad, 2001. 278 pp.

Specialized studies

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 272 pp.
  • Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity 200-1000 AD (2002), 640pp
  • Ralph J. Capio; "The Papacy: A Case Study in Organizational Longevity," Journal of European Studies, Vol. 26, 1996. online edition
  • Carlen, Claudia. ed. Papal Pronouncements, a Guide, 1740-1978: Vol. 1: Benedict XIV to Paul VI. and Papal Pronouncements, a Guide, 1740-1978: Vol. 2: Paul VI to John Paul I. Pierian, 1990.
  • Chadwick, Owen. The Popes and European Revolution. Oxford U. Press, 1981. 646 pp.
  • Daniel-Rops, Henri. The Church in the Eighteenth Century (1964)
  • Daniel-Rops, Henri. The Church in an Age of Revolution (1965).
  • Frommel, Christoph L. "Papal Policy: The Planning Of Rome During The Renaissance." Journal Of Interdisciplinary History, 1986 17(1): 39-65. Issn: 0022-1953 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Hales, E. E. Y. Revolution and Papacy, 1769-1846, (1960)
  • Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. 2002. online edition
  • Mullett, Michael A. The Catholic Reformation, (1999), online edition
  • Pastor, Ludwig von. History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages, (1894-1930), 16 vol, older Catholic history online from books.google.com
  • Ullmann, Walter. A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages, (2002), 393pp, online edition
  • Wright, A. D. The Early Modern Papacy: From the Council of Trent to the French Revolution 1564-1789. Longman, 2000. 335 pp.

Specific Popes

  • Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Pope" (1913) online edition many articles on all the Popes and related topics
  • Collins, Jeffrey. Papacy and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Rome: Pius VI and the Arts. Cambridge U. Press, 2004. 355 pp.
  • Coppa, Frank J., ed. Great Popes through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood, 2002. 600 pp.
  • Gouwens, Kenneth and Reiss, Sheryl E., ed. The Pontificate of Clement VII: History, Politics, Culture. Ashgate, 2005. 437 pp.
  • Kelly, J.N.D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (1988). 349pp; scholarly short biographies; online edition

Since 1815

  • Burns, Gene. "The Politics of Ideology: The Papal Struggle with Liberalism." American Journal of Sociology, 1990 95(5): 1123-1152. Issn: 0002-9602 fulltext: in Jstor and Ebsco
  • Camp, Richard L. "From Passive Subordination To Complementary Partnership: The Papal Conception of a Woman's Place in Church and Society since 1878." Catholic Historical Review, 1990 76(3): 506-525. Issn: 0008-8080 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Chadwick, Owen. A History of the Popes, 1830-1914. (1998), 616pp; a standard recent history. online edition,
  • Coppa, Frank J. The Modern Papacy since 1789. Longman, 1998. 296 pp.
  • Coppa, Frank J. "Between Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism, Pius XI's Response to the Nazi Persecution of the Jews: Precursor to Pius XII's "Silence"?" Journal of Church and State 2005 47(1): 63-89. Issn: 0021-969x Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Gillis, Chester, ed. The Political Papacy: John Paul II, Benedict XVI, and Their Influence. Paradigm, 2006. 208 pp.
  • Holland, Joe. Modern Catholic Social Teaching: The Popes Confront the Industrial Age 1740-1958. Paulist Press, 2003. 404 pp.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age: A History of Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 5 Vol (1958), a detailed history of Chritianity 1800-1950 by a fair-minded Protestant scholar. vol 1 online edition
  • Packard, Jerrold M. Peter's Kingdom: Inside the Papal City. Scribner's, 1985. 352 pp.
  • Pollard, John F. Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy: Financing the Vatican, 1850-1950. Cambridge U. Press, 2005. 265 pp.
  • Rittner, Carol and Roth, John K., ed. Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. Leicester U. Press, 2002. 291 pp.


  1. Until 1870 he also was the secular ruler of an independent country in central Italy, the Papal States. Since 1929 the Pope rules Vatican City, an independent country inside the city of Rome.
  2. The Pope Catholic Encyclopedia
  3. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/13/us-pope-succession-bergoglio-idUSBRE92C15X20130313
  4. Famous patrons of the arts include Sixtus IV (1471-1484), Julius II (1503-1513), and Clement VII (1523-1534)
  5. They were all men. The story of Joan who disguised herself as a man and became Pope sometime between 850 and 1050 was exposed as a false myth in 1650, but still circulates. Kelly (1998) 331-32.
  6. Gospel of Matthew: Chapter 16, Verse 18; see also 1 Corinthians 3:11, Ephesians 2:20, 1 Peter 2:5–6, and Revelations 21:14.
  7. Duffy, p. 2
  8. Ullmann (2002) p. 287
  9. Donald Sutherland. The French Revolution and Empire: The Quest for a Civic Order (2003) ch 11
  10. Kelly (1999); Duffy (2006); Latourette (1958) vol 1.
  11. see text at [1]
  12. Latourette (1958) vol 1 ch. 6

List of Popes

Following the name of each Pope is the year of their accession.

Pope Benedict XVI
  1. Saint Peter (30?)
  2. Pope Linus (67)
  3. Pope Anacletus (76)
  4. Pope Clement I (88)
  5. Pope Evaristus (97)
  6. Pope Alexander I (105)
  7. Pope Sixtus I (115)
  8. Pope Telesphorus (125)
  9. Pope Hyginus (136)
  10. Pope Pius I (140)
  11. Pope Anicetus (155)
  12. Pope Soter (166)
  13. Pope Eleuterus (175)
  14. Pope Victor I (189)
  15. Pope Zephyrinus (199)
  16. Pope Callixtus I (217)
  17. Pope Urban I (222)
  18. Pope Pontian (230)
  19. Pope Anterus (235)
  20. Pope Fabian (236)
  21. Pope Cornelius (251)
  22. Pope Lucius I (253)
  23. Pope Stephen I (254)
  24. Pope Sixtus II (257)
  25. Pope Dionysius (259)
  26. Pope Felix I (269)
  27. Pope Eutychian (275)
  28. Pope Caius (283)
  29. Pope Marcellinus(296)
  30. Pope Marcellus I (308)
  31. Pope Eusebius (309)
  32. Pope Miltiades (311)
  33. Pope Sylvester I (314)
  34. Pope Mark (336)
  35. Pope Julius I (337)
  36. Pope Liberius (352)
  37. Pope Damasus I (366)
  38. Pope Siricius (384)
  39. Pope Anastasius I (399)
  40. Pope Innocent I (401)
  41. Pope Zosimus (417)
  42. Pope Boniface I (418)
  43. Pope Celestine I (422)
  44. Pope Sixtus III (432)
  45. Pope Leo I (440)
  46. Pope Hilarius (461)
  47. Pope Simplicius (468)
  48. Pope Felix III (483)
  49. Pope Gelasius I (492)
  50. Pope Anastasius II (496)
  51. Pope Symmachus (498)
  52. Pope Hormisdas (514)
  53. Pope John I, Martyr (523)
  54. Pope Felix IV (526)
  55. Pope Boniface II (530)
  56. Pope John II (533)
  57. Pope Agapetus I (535)
  58. Pope Silverius, Marytr (536)
  59. Pope Vigilius (537)
  60. Pope Pelagius I (556)
  61. Pope John III (561)
  62. Pope Benedict I (575)
  63. Pope Pelagius II (579)
  64. Pope Gregory I (590)
  65. Pope Sabinian (604)
  66. Pope Boniface III (607)
  67. Pope Boniface IV (608)
  68. Pope Adeodatus I (615)
  69. Pope Boniface V (619)
  70. Pope Honorius I (625)
  71. Pope Severinus (640)
  72. Pope John IV (640)
  73. Pope Theodore I (642)
  74. Pope Martin I, Marytr (649)
  75. Pope Eugene I (654)
  76. Pope Vitalian (657)
  77. Pope Adeodatus II (672)
  78. Pope Donus (676)
  79. Pope Agatho (678)
  80. Pope Leo II (682)
  81. Pope Benedict II (684)
  82. Pope John V (685)
  83. Pope Conon (686)
  84. Pope Sergius I (687)
  85. Pope John VI (701)
  86. Pope John VII (705)
  87. Pope Sisinnius (706)
  88. Pope Constantine (708)
  89. Pope Gregory II (715)
  90. Pope Gregory III (731)
  91. Pope Zachary (741)
  92. Pope Stephen II (752)
  93. Pope Paul I (757)
  94. Pope Stephen III (768)
  95. Pope Adrian I (772)
  96. Pope Leo III (795)
  97. Pope Stephen IV (816)
  98. Pope Paschal I (817)
  99. Pope Eugene II (824)
  100. Pope Valentine (827)
  101. Pope Gregory IV (827)
  102. Pope Sergius II (844)
  103. Pope Leo IV (847)
  104. Pope Benedict III (855)
  105. Pope Nicholas I (858)
  106. Pope Adrian II (867)
  107. Pope John VIII (872)
  108. Pope Marinus I (882)
  109. Pope Adrian III (884)
  110. Pope Stephen V (885)
  111. Pope Formosus (891)
  112. Pope Boniface VI (896)
  113. Pope Stephen VI (896)
  114. Pope Romanus (897)
  115. Pope Theodore II (897)
  116. Pope John IX (898)
  117. Pope Benedict IV (900)
  118. Pope Leo V (903)
  119. Pope Sergius III (904)
  120. Pope Anastasius III (911)
  121. Pope Landus (914)
  122. Pope John X (914)
  123. Pope Leo VI (928)
  124. Pope Stephen VII (928)
  125. Pope John XI (931)
  126. Pope Leo VII (936)
  127. Pope Stephen VIII (939)
  128. Pope Marinus II (942)
  129. Pope Agapetus II (946)
  130. Pope John XII (955)
  131. Pope Leo VIII (963)
  132. Pope Benedict V (964)
  133. Pope John XIII (965)
  134. Pope Benedict VI (973)
  135. Pope Benedict VII (974)
  136. Pope John XIV (983)
  137. Pope John XV (985)
  138. Pope Gregory V (996)
  139. Pope Sylvester II (999)
  140. Pope John XVII (1003)
  141. Pope John XVIII (1004)
  142. Pope Sergius IV (1009)
  143. Pope Benedict VIII (1012)
  144. Pope John XIX (1024)
  145. Pope Benedict IX (1032)
  146. Pope Sylvester III (1045)
  147. Pope Benedict IX (1045)
  148. Pope Gregory VI (1045)
  149. Pope Clement II (1046)
  150. Pope Benedict IX (1047)
  151. Pope Damasus II (1048)
  152. Pope Leo IX (1049)
  153. Pope Victor II (1055)
  154. Pope Stephen IX (1057)
  155. Pope Nicholas II (1059)
  156. Pope Alexander II (1061)
  157. Pope Gregory VII (1073)
  158. Pope Victor III (1086)
  159. Pope Urban II (1088)
  160. Pope Paschal II (1099)
  161. Pope Gelasius II (1118)
  162. Pope Callixtus II (1119)
  163. Pope Honorius II (1124)
  164. Pope Innocent II (1130)
  165. Pope Celestine II (1143)
  166. Pope Lucius II (1144)
  167. Pope Eugene III (1145)
  168. Pope Anastasius IV (1153)
  169. Pope Adrian IV (1154)
  170. Pope Alexander III (1159)
  171. Pope Lucius III (1181)
  172. Pope Urban III (1185)
  173. Pope Gregory VIII (1187)
  174. Pope Clement III (1187)
  175. Pope Celestine III (1191)
  176. Pope Innocent III (1198)
  177. Pope Honorius III (1216)
  178. Pope Gregory IX (1227)
  179. Pope Celestine IV (1241)
  180. Pope Innocent IV (1243)
  181. Pope Alexander IV (1254)
  182. Pope Urban IV (1261)
  183. Pope Clement IV (1265)
  184. Pope Gregory X (1271)
  185. Pope Innocent V (1276)
  186. Pope Adrian V (1276)
  187. Pope John XXI (1276)
  188. Pope Nicholas III (1277)
  189. Pope Martin IV (1281)
  190. Pope Honorius IV (1285)
  191. Pope Nicholas IV (1288)
  192. Pope Celestine V (1294)
  193. Pope Boniface VIII (1294)
  194. Pope Benedict XI (1303)
  195. Pope Clement V (1305)
  196. Pope John XXII (1316)
  197. Pope Benedict XII (1334)
  198. Pope Clement VI (1342)
  199. Pope Innocent VI (1352)
  200. Pope Urban V (1362)
  201. Pope Gregory XI (1370)
  202. Pope Urban VI (1378)
  203. Pope Boniface IX (1389)
  204. Pope Innocent VII (1404)
  205. Pope Gregory XII (1406)
  206. Pope Martin V (1417)
  207. Pope Eugene IV (1431)
  208. Pope Nicholas V (1447)
  209. Pope Callixtus III (1455)
  210. Pope Pius II (1458)
  211. Pope Paul II (1464)
  212. Pope Sixtus IV (1471)
  213. Pope Innocent VIII (1484)
  214. Pope Alexander VI (1492)
  215. Pope Pius III (1503)
  216. Pope Julius II (1503)
  217. Pope Leo X (1513)
  218. Pope Adrian VI (1522)
  219. Pope Clement VII (1523)
  220. Pope Paul III (1534)
  221. Pope Julius III (1550)
  222. Pope Marcellus II (1555)
  223. Pope Paul IV (1555)
  224. Pope Pius IV (1559)
  225. Pope Pius V (1566)
  226. Pope Gregory XIII (1572)
  227. Pope Sixtus V (1572)
  228. Pope Urban VII (1585)
  229. Pope Gregory XIV (1590)
  230. Pope Innocent IX (1591)
  231. Pope Clement VIII (1592)
  232. Pope Leo XI (1602)
  233. Pope Paul V (1605)
  234. Pope Gregory XV (1621)
  235. Pope Urban VIII (1623)
  236. Pope Innocent X (1644)
  237. Pope Alexander VII (1655)
  238. Pope Clement IX (1667)
  239. Pope Clement X (1670)
  240. Pope Innocent XI (1676)
  241. Pope Alexander VIII (1689)
  242. Pope Innocent XII (1691)
  243. Pope Clement XI (1700)
  244. Pope Innocent XIII (1721)
  245. Pope Benedict XIII (1724)
  246. Pope Clement XII (1730)
  247. Pope Benedict XIV (1740)
  248. Pope Clement XIII (1758)
  249. Pope Clement XIV (1769)
  250. Pope Pius VI (1775)
  251. Pope Pius VII (1800)
  252. Pope Leo XII (1823)
  253. Pope Pius VIII (1829)
  254. Pope Gregory XVI (1831)
  255. Pope Pius IX (1846)
  256. Pope Leo XIII (1878)
  257. Pope Pius X (1903)
  258. Pope Benedict XV (1914)
  259. Pope Pius XI (1922)
  260. Pope Pius XII (1939)
  261. Pope John XXIII (1958)
  262. Pope Paul VI (1963)
  263. Pope John Paul I (1978)
  264. Pope John Paul II (1978)
  265. Pope Benedict XVI (2007)
  266. Pope Francis (2013)