Difference between revisions of "Religion and U.S. Government"

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The role of '''Religion and U.S. Government''' has been a central Constitutional issue since the [[American Revolution]].   
 
The role of '''Religion and U.S. Government''' has been a central Constitutional issue since the [[American Revolution]].   
==American revolution==
+
==American Revolution==
 
One of the causes of the revolution was fear that the British government was about to impose on the American colonies a bishop from the Anglican [[Church of England]].
 
One of the causes of the revolution was fear that the British government was about to impose on the American colonies a bishop from the Anglican [[Church of England]].
  
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==Public Opinion==
 
==Public Opinion==
 
Americans see their country as a predominantly Christian nation.  A Pew Report showed 76% of Republicans, 63% of Democrats,and 67% of independents view the U.S. a Christian nation. [[Humanism#Secular_Humanism|Secular]] categories are the only subgroup in which fewer than a majority sees the U.S. as a Christian country. <ref>[http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=153#1 Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life], August 24, 2006.  Retrieved June 7, 2007.</ref>  
 
Americans see their country as a predominantly Christian nation.  A Pew Report showed 76% of Republicans, 63% of Democrats,and 67% of independents view the U.S. a Christian nation. [[Humanism#Secular_Humanism|Secular]] categories are the only subgroup in which fewer than a majority sees the U.S. as a Christian country. <ref>[http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=153#1 Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life], August 24, 2006.  Retrieved June 7, 2007.</ref>  
 +
==Further reading==
 +
* Goldberg, George. ''Church, State and the Constitution.'' (1987), conservative attack on Supreme Court decisions; argues in
 +
favor of prayer in the public schools
 +
* Hammond, Phillip E. "American Church/State Jurisprudence from the Warren Court to the Rehnquist Court," ''Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,'' Vol. 40, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 455-464 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1388099 in JSTOR]
 +
* Healey, Robert M. "Thomas Jefferson's 'Wall': Absolute or Serpentine?" ''Journal of Church and State'' 1988 30(3): 441-462, history of usage by Supreme Court
 +
* Ivers, Gregg. ''To Build a Wall: American Jews and the Separation of Church and State.'' (1995). 272 pp. shows strong Jewish support for a high wall
 +
* Kleeberg Irene Cumming. ''Separation of Church and State'' (1986), introduction at high school level.
 +
* Levy Leonard W. ''The Establishment Clause.'' (1986) by leading historian
 +
* McWhirter, Darien A. ''The Separation of Church and State'' (1994) 189pp; summary of the issues [http://www.questia.com/library/book/the-separation-of-church-and-state-by-darien-a-mcwhirter.jsp online edition]
 +
* Reichley A. James. ''Religion in American Public Life.'' (1985), history of the relationship between religion and politics
 +
* Segers, Mary C. and Jelen, Ted G. eds. ''A Wall of Separation?: Debating the Public Role of Religion.'' (1998). 191 pp.
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* Stokes Anson Phelps, and Pfeffer Leo. ''Church and State in the United States.''(1964), famous classic.
 +
* [http://www.questia.com/library/separation-of-church-and-state.jsp online books on Separation]
 +
  
 
==see also==
 
==see also==

Revision as of 06:19, 16 May 2009

The role of Religion and U.S. Government has been a central Constitutional issue since the American Revolution.

American Revolution

One of the causes of the revolution was fear that the British government was about to impose on the American colonies a bishop from the Anglican Church of England.

The Declaration of Independence acknowledges the existence of a God when it refers to "the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God" and says all men "are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights." That statement was inserted by the author, Thomas Jefferson, a Deist. Most Americans were Protestants; the Anglican Church of England, which had been the eestablished church in several colonies, was disestablished. That is, it was no longer supported by taxes. Massachusetts and Connecticut later dropped their taxpayer support of the Congregational Church, and the principle of legal separation of church and state became established.

Bill of Rights

James Madison in 1791 wrote the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, stating "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." The first clause is referred to as the Establishment Clause, and the second the Free Exercise Clause. An informal letter that President Thomas Jefferson wrote to the Danbury Baptists, called the First Amendment as "a wall of separation between Church and State."[1]

Supreme Court

In recent decades, the U.S. Supreme Court has used the "Lemon test" as a means for determining whether or not a particular controversy causes excessive entanglement between government and religion, though in some cases has allowed religious icons (such as the Ten Commandments display in Texas.[2])

Public Opinion

Americans see their country as a predominantly Christian nation. A Pew Report showed 76% of Republicans, 63% of Democrats,and 67% of independents view the U.S. a Christian nation. Secular categories are the only subgroup in which fewer than a majority sees the U.S. as a Christian country. [3]

Further reading

  • Goldberg, George. Church, State and the Constitution. (1987), conservative attack on Supreme Court decisions; argues in

favor of prayer in the public schools

  • Hammond, Phillip E. "American Church/State Jurisprudence from the Warren Court to the Rehnquist Court," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 40, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 455-464 in JSTOR
  • Healey, Robert M. "Thomas Jefferson's 'Wall': Absolute or Serpentine?" Journal of Church and State 1988 30(3): 441-462, history of usage by Supreme Court
  • Ivers, Gregg. To Build a Wall: American Jews and the Separation of Church and State. (1995). 272 pp. shows strong Jewish support for a high wall
  • Kleeberg Irene Cumming. Separation of Church and State (1986), introduction at high school level.
  • Levy Leonard W. The Establishment Clause. (1986) by leading historian
  • McWhirter, Darien A. The Separation of Church and State (1994) 189pp; summary of the issues online edition
  • Reichley A. James. Religion in American Public Life. (1985), history of the relationship between religion and politics
  • Segers, Mary C. and Jelen, Ted G. eds. A Wall of Separation?: Debating the Public Role of Religion. (1998). 191 pp.
  • Stokes Anson Phelps, and Pfeffer Leo. Church and State in the United States.(1964), famous classic.
  • online books on Separation


see also

references

  1. Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists, January 1, 1802. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
  2. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=03-1500
  3. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, August 24, 2006. Retrieved June 7, 2007.