Difference between revisions of "Separate but equal"

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'''Separate but equal''' is a type of racial [[segregation]] in which two races are provided with segregated services which are ideally equal in quality. However, as judge [[Robert Bork]] put it - you could never have separation and equality. Therefore, the policy universally violated the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constituion. Despite this, it was deemed constitutional in the [[Plessy v. Ferguson]] court case in 1896. The Plessy decision was overturned in 1954 by the Supreme Court decision in [[Brown v. Board of Education]]. <ref>http://www.historicaldocuments.com/BrownvBoardofEducation.htm</ref>  In practice separate but equal means less good facilities for non-whites.
{{For|the film about the [[Brown v. Board of Education]] trial|Separate But Equal (film)}}
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{{segregation}}
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'''Separate but equal''' is a set phrase that systems of [[Racial segregation|segregation]] giving different "colored only" facilities or services with the declaration that the quality of each group's public facilities remain equal. The phrase also came from the article written by an anonymous person in 1869. The article titled "Separate but Equal" was about how people had equal rights but were separated because of race.
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==United States==
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==References==
The [[American Civil War]] (1861–1865) policy yielded the cessation of most legal [[History of slavery in the United States|slavery]] in the U.S., upon which the separate but equal laws became officially established throughout the [[United States]] and represented the institutionalization of the segregation period. Blacks were entitled to receive the same public services such as schools, bathrooms, and water fountains, but the 'separate but equal' doctrine mandated different facilities for the two groups. The legitimacy of such laws was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1896 case of ''[[Plessy v. Ferguson]]'', ''163 U.S. 537.''
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[[Image:WhiteTradeOnlyLancasterOhio.jpg|thumb|250px|A restaurant in [[Lancaster, Ohio]], in 1938.]]
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[[Category:Politics]]
The facilities and social services exclusive to African-Americans were of lower quality than those reserved for whites; for example, many African-American schools received less public funding per student than nearby white schools.
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The repeal of "separate but equal" laws was a key focus of the [[American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)|civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s]]. In ''[[Brown v. Board of Education]]'', ''347 U.S. 483'' (1954), attorneys for the [[NAACP]] referred to the phrase "equal but separate" used in ''[[Plessy v. Ferguson]]'' as a custom ''[[de jure]]'' [[racial segregation]] enacted into law. The NAACP, led by the soon-to-be first black Supreme Court Justice [[Thurgood Marshall]], was successful in challenging the [[Constitutionality|constitutional]] viability of the separate but equal doctrine, and the court voted to overturn sixty years of law that had developed under ''Plessy''. The Supreme Court outlawed segregated public education facilities for blacks and whites at the state level. The companion case of ''[[Bolling v. Sharpe]]'', ''347 U.S. 497'' outlawed such practices at the Federal level in the [[District of Columbia]]. In 1967 under ''[[Loving v. Virginia]]'', the [[United States Supreme Court]] declared [[Virginia]]'s [[anti-miscegenation]] statute, the "[[Racial Integrity Act of 1924]]", unconstitutional, thereby ending all [[Race (classification of human beings)|race]]-based legal restrictions on [[marriage]] ("[[anti-miscegenation laws]]") in the United States.
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The phrase "separate but equal" has been more recently used by supporters of [[same-sex marriage]] <ref>Botts, Tina.  "Separate But Equal Revisited: The Case of Same Sex Marriage" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Jul 06, 2006 <Not Available>. 2008-10-23 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p95675_index.html></ref> to argue for full marriage rights for same-sex couples.
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== References ==
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{{reflist}}
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[[de:Separate but equal]]
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[[pl:Separate but equal]]
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[[sv:Separate but equal]]
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[[zh:隔离但平等]]
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Revision as of 12:38, December 27, 2008

Separate but equal is a type of racial segregation in which two races are provided with segregated services which are ideally equal in quality. However, as judge Robert Bork put it - you could never have separation and equality. Therefore, the policy universally violated the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constituion. Despite this, it was deemed constitutional in the Plessy v. Ferguson court case in 1896. The Plessy decision was overturned in 1954 by the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education. [1] In practice separate but equal means less good facilities for non-whites.

References

  1. http://www.historicaldocuments.com/BrownvBoardofEducation.htm