Difference between revisions of "September 11, 2001 attacks"

From Conservapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
(Social Impacts)
 
(142 intermediate revisions by 68 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Image:National Park Service 9-11 Statue of Liberty and WTC fire.jpg|right|thumb|250px]]
+
[[Image:National Park Service 9-11 Statue of Liberty and WTC fire.jpg|right|300px|thumb|The view of the burning towers of the World Trade Center from Staten Island, New York City, September 11, 2001]]
The '''Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001''' were the deadliest to ever occur on [[United States of America|US]] soil and had far reaching effects on both foreign and domestic policy.
+
[[File:Pentagon sept11.jpg|right|300px|thumb|The damage to the Pentagon, Washington D.C., September 11, 2001]]
The coordinated attacks by [[al Qaeda]] affiliated [[Islam|Islamic]] extremists saw three transcontinental airliners strike the [[World Trade Center]] towers (buildings 1 and 2) in [[New York City]], NY and the [[The Pentagon|Pentagon]] outside of [[Washington, D.C.]] within one hour of each other.  The attacks succeeded in destroying both World Trade Center towers as well as a third building in the complex and significantly damaged the Pentagon (though the Pentagon was still able to function).  A fourth airliner crashed in a field in Shanksville, [[Pennsylvania|PA]], failing to reach its objective.
+
The '''Islamic Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001''' occurred when [[al Qaeda]] [[Islam|Islamic extremists]] hijacked four transcontinental airliners and used them to strike targets in the [[United States]]; two aircraft destroyed the twin towers of the [[World Trade Center]] in [[New York City]]; the third crashed into a portion of the [[Pentagon]] in Washington, D.C.; and the fourth aircraft - in which the hijackers are believed to have targeted the White House or the Capitol Building - crashed into an empty field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after passengers fought back to re-take control.  
  
The events of the day are often referred to simply as "September 11th" or "9/11."
+
The sheer audacity of the attack and the heavy loss of life that resulted from it caused the U.S. government to declare a [[War on Terror]] with the determination to hunt down terrorists worldwide; within two months of September 11, [[Afghanistan]] was completely occupied by Coalition forces, driving the ruling Islamo-fascist [[Taliban]] from power and causing the head of [[al Qaeda]] and the man who personally approved the attacks - [[Osama bin Laden]] - to flee into hiding before being killed in [[Pakistan]] in 2011, some 10 years after the attack.
  
==Timeline of events==
+
==The Hijacking==
 +
All 19 hijackers boarded the planes on the morning of September 11, having carefully chosen flights whose routes would be transcontinental.  Two planes flew out of Boston's Logan Airport, one flew from Washington Dulles International Airport, and the fourth left an airport in Newark, New Jersey.
  
<!-- I have purposefully left this time-line limited to the physical events of the day as response time or lack thereof could be seen as partisanFeel free to add to the time-line. -->
+
===New York City===
 +
[[American Airlines Flight 11]] left Logan Airport around 8 AM, carrying 11 crew and 81 passengers; its destination was Los Angeles, California.  [[United Airlines Flight 175]] left Logan a few minutes later, carrying 9 crew and 56 passengers, and also on a flight to Los AngelesBoth aircraft were Boeing 767-200s.
  
*7:45 AM - American Airlines Flight 11 departs from Boston with a destination of Los Angeles
+
At 8:25 AM Boston air traffic controllers heard a strange voice from Flight 11: "We have some planes. Just stay quiet, and you will be OK. We are returning to the airport."  The plane then headed south toward New York City; at 8:46 AM the plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center between the 93 and 99th floors.  Sixteen minutes later, at 9:03 AM, Flight 175 crashed into the south tower - at a greater speed and more oblique angle - between the 77th and 85th floors.
  
*7:58 AM - United Airlines Flight 175 departs from Boston with a destination of Los Angeles
+
The impact of the crashes took out any hope of getting to victims and survivors on the affected floors and the floors above; many people desperate to get away from the smoke and fire jumped to their deaths.  Both towers were designed to survive the impact of a 1960s-era jet, but the Boeing 767 was larger and carried more fuel; it was determined later that the heat from the burning fuel weakened the central steel structure and supports.  At 9:59 am the south tower collapsed; the upper floors had lost support in the damaged area and fell in a chain reaction - pancake style - to the ground.  At 10:29 AM the north tower fell in a similar manner.  The death toll was around 2,750, including more than 300 firefighters and 100 police officers and other rescue workers.
  
*8:10 AM - American Airlines Flight 77 departs from Dulles International Airport with a destination of Los Angeles
+
The building at 7 World Trade Center, commonly abbreviated as WTC7, also collapsed in the attacks not long after. This collapse is frequently cited in various [[9/11 conspiracy theories|conspiracy theories]].
  
*8:42 AM - United Airlines Flight 93 departs from Newark with a destination of San Francisco
+
===Washington, D.C.===
 +
[[American Airlines Flight 77]], a Boeing 757-200, left Dulles at 8:20 AM, carrying 6 crew and 58 passengers on a flight to Los Angeles.  Forty minutes later the aircraft had turned back toward Washington; at 9:37 it crashed at high-speed into the west side of the Pentagon, killing a total of 184 people.  Despite being built of reinforced concrete, the aircraft was able to penetrate to the third concentric ring of the building.
  
*8:45 AM - American Airlines Flight 11 strikes the World Trade Center North Tower
+
===Shanksville, Pennsylvania===
 +
[[United Airlines Flight 93]], a Boeing 757-200, left Newark at 8:40 AM, with a destination of San Francisco.  Unlike the other planes which had four hijackers each, Flight 93 had three; it also had passengers who, through onboard phone calls, learned of the previous hijackings and crashes and determined to wrest control of the aircraft back from the terrorists.  Turned towards Washington, the plane ended up crashing in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 AM, the only one of the aircraft which failed to reach its target.  Among the recorded conversations between the passengers and phone operators was the phrase "Let's roll" by Todd Beamer, made just before he set down his phone and took action with the other passengers involved; Beamer's last phrase would become a rallying cry in the coming war on Islamic terrorism.
  
*9:03 AM - United Airlines Flight 175 strikes the World Trade Center South Tower
+
===Ground Casualties===
 +
The total loss of life is constantly being reevaluated to account for wrongly reported missing persons and, in some cases, occurrences of fraud. Estimates of more than 6,000 deaths were announced shortly after the attacks.  The current estimate is 2,996 fatalities as a direct result of the attacks.  About 500 foreign nationals from over 90 countries are believed to have died in the attack.<ref>[https://www.cnn.com/2003/US/Northeast/10/29/wtc.deaths/ "New York Reduces 9/11 Death Toll by 40"] at CNN.com,  Phil Hirschkorn, 10/29/03</ref>
  
*9:43 AM - American Airlines Flight 77 strikes the Pentagon
+
The Department of Defense reported the deaths of 125 people at The Pentagon. The aftermath of the World Trade Center towers collapsing created a good deal of confusion and has been the main source of discrepancies in casualty estimates.  As of October 29, 2003, New York City reported 2605 deaths in the attacks, not counting the passengers and crew of the planes.<ref>[https://www.cnn.com/2003/US/Northeast/10/29/wtc.deaths/ "New York Reduces 9/11 Death Toll by 40"] at CNN.com,  Phil Hirschkorn, 10/29/03</ref>
  
*10:05 AM - The World Trade Center South Tower collapses
+
As a matter of course, the deaths of the 19 [[suicide|hijackers]] are not included in these casualty totals.
  
*10:10 AM - An external portion of the Pentagon collapses
+
===Economic Impact===
 +
The material costs of the attacks are well in excess of one hundred billion US dollars.  Factoring in stock market losses, loss of revenue in New York City, loss of jobs, impact on air travel, and heightened security, some estimate the cost approaches two trillion dollars.<ref>[http://www.iags.org/costof911.html The Cost of September 11] Institute for the Analysis of Global Security</ref>
  
*10:10 AM - United Airlines Flight 93 crashes in Shanksville, PA
+
Some estimates of the cost of executing the plan place it in the $400,000-$500,000 range, making it an extremely "profitable" operation for al-Qaeda.<ref>[http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Exec.htm The 9/11 Commission Report]</ref>
  
*10:28 AM - The World Trade Center North Tower collapses
+
==The Suspects==
 +
Suspicion fell on Osama bin Laden and his [[Islam|Islamic terrorist]] al-Qaeda organization almost immediately.  Known to have harbored hatred for the United States since the basing of U.S. fighters and other military personnel in Saudi Arabia during the first Gulf War, bin Laden has tried "To kill Americans and their allies — civilians and military — is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it,",<ref>[http://awildernessvoice.com/Mohammed.html]</ref> and often succeeding.  In four previous attacks, bin Laden's operatives
 +
*killed 6 in a bomb explosion in the first attack on the World Trade Center in 1993;
 +
*killed 19 soldiers in 1996 at a military housing complex in Saudi Arabia;
 +
*killed more than 200 people in the simultaneous bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania;
 +
*killed 17 sailors by putting an explosives-laden boat next to USS ''Cole'' while that destroyer was refueling in Yemen in 2000.
  
*4:10 PM - World Trade Center Building 7 is reported to be on fire
+
His personal fortune, estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars, had enabled him to finance well-coordinated operations, including the training of the hijackers in close-quarter fighting, commandeering of aircraft, and ironically to bankroll their education in American flight schools.
  
*5:20 PM - World Trade Center Building 7 collapses
+
==Commemorations==
 +
[[File:Son-Of-9-11-Victim-Reads-Names-Of-Those-Killed-Wearing-‘Some-People-Did-Something’-Shirt.jpg |left|300px|thumb|[[Rep. Ilhan Elmi Omar]] was criticized by name by victim survivors at the September 11, 2019 memorial observation.]]
 +
Following the attacks there was a strong surge of patriotism in virtually all facets of American society.  The government, being aware that the most deadly attack ever on American soil could stir up animosity against the ethnic or ideological group of the perpetrators, went out of its way along with the mainstream media to separate Islam from the actions taken by its more radical adherents, misleadingly referring to it at multiple times as a "religion of peace."<ref>https://thereligionofpeace.com/</ref>  While people of Middle Eastern decent and adherents of Islam were concerned at first, the overall effect of hostility towards these groups was barely noticeable.  Although there were literally millions of Muslims in America out of a total population of 300 million who could have sought out reprisals, in an entire year less than 500 cases of aggression of verbal hostility were reported. Like the [[Dome of the Rock]], Muslims responded by constructing  a victorious [[Ground Zero Mosque]] over conquered territory.
  
==Casualties==
+
9/11 memorial services have been held throughout the nation every September 11 to commemorate the loss of loved ones and attack on American values.
[[Image:393px-WTC-remnant highres.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Remains of the South Tower, September 13, 2001.]]
+
[[File:Benghazi attack.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Libyan [[jihad]]is, supported by the [[Obama administration]], commemorated the massacre on September 11, 2012 by burning down the U.S. Consulate in Libya.<ref>https://www.amazon.com/REAL-Benghazi-Story-White-Hillary/dp/1531817130</ref>  President Obama remarked, "The future does not belong to those who insult the Prophet of Islam."]]
The total loss of life is constantly being reevaluated to account for wrongly reported missing persons and, in some cases, occurrences of fraud. Estimates of more than 6,000 deaths were announced following the attacks. The current estimate is 2996 fatalities as a direct result of the attacks. About 500 foreign nationals from over 90 countries are believed to have died in the attack.<ref> [http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/Northeast/10/29/wtc.deaths/ "New York Reduces 9/11 Death Toll by 40"] at CNN.com,  Phil Hirschkorn, 10/29/03</ref>
+
In April 2019, [[Democrat]] Rep. Ilhan Omar speaking at a [[Council on American-Islamic Relations]] (CAIR) conference remarked the terrorist-linked organization was founded because of "some people who did something."<ref>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrql_Sb30B8</ref> At that years' Ground Zero ceremonies the son of a murder victim said there should be no confusion on who attacked the United States and killed almost 3,000 people.
  
As a matter of course, the deaths of the 19 hijackers are not included in these casualty totals.
+
{{quotebox|I am here today to honor my 76-year-old mother, Frances, on the solemn 18th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Mom, we always miss you and love you very much. This day I also remember over 200 personal friends and co-workers that I knew that died.
  
===On the Planes===
+
'Some people did something,' said a freshman congresswoman from Minnesota to support and justify the creation of CAIR. Today I am here to respond to you, exactly who did what to whom.  Madam, objectively speaking, we know who and what was done, there is no uncertainty about that. Why your confusion? On that day, 19 Islamic terrorist members of [[al Qaeda]] killed over 3,000 people and caused billions of dollars in economic damage. Is that clear?"
  
<!-- I welcome anyone who can make this presentable-->
+
But as to whom? I was attacked. Your relatives and friends were attacked. Our constitutional freedoms were attacked. And our nation’s founding on [[Judeo-Christian]] principles were attacked. That’s what some people did. Got that now? We are here today, congresswoman, to tell you and ‘[[the Squad]]’ just who did what to whom. Show respect in honoring them, please.<ref>https://youtu.be/w0JFwm-waiU</ref>}}
American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767, suffered 92 casualties (11 crew, 81 passengers). American Airlines 77, a Boeing 757, suffered 64 casualties (six crew, 58 passengers). United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767, suffered 65 casualties (nine crew, 56 passengers). United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 suffered 45 casualties (seven crew, 38 passengers).
+
  
===On the Ground===
+
==Consequences of the Attacks on U.S. Policy==
 +
===Domestic Policy===
 +
The attacks were a direct or indirect cause of massive changes in United States domestic policy.  Most notably, the ''Homeland Security Act of 2002'' "established a [[Department of Homeland Security]], as an executive department of the United States",<ref>[https://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/bill/hsl-bill.pdf H.R. 5005 The Homeland Security Act]</ref> a cabinet level position.  One of the tools implemented by the Department is the [[Homeland Security Advisory System]], a color coded advisory system meant to "establish a comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." <ref>[http://www.dhs.gov/xinfoshare/laws/ DHS Laws and Regulations] Department of Homeland Security</ref>
  
The Department of Defense reported the deaths of 125 people at The Pentagon. The aftermath of the World Trade Center towers collapsing created a good deal of confusion and has been the main source of discrepancies in casualty estimates.  As of October 29, 2003, New York City reported 2605 deaths in the attacks, not counting the passengers and crew of the planes. <ref> [http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/Northeast/10/29/wtc.deaths/ "New York Reduces 9/11 Death Toll by 40"] at CNN.com,  Phil Hirschkorn, 10/29/03</ref>
+
Another notable result of the attacks was the ''[[USA PATRIOT Act|USA PATRIOT Act of 2001]]'' ('''U'''niting and '''S'''trengthening '''A'''merica by '''P'''roviding '''A'''ppropriate '''T'''ools '''R'''equired to '''I'''ntercept and '''O'''bstruct '''T'''errorism). The act was written to expand the authority of law enforcement and the justice system in the pursuit of terrorism suspects.<ref>[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.R.3162.ENR: ''The USA PATRIOT Act''] Library of Congress</ref>
  
==Economic Impact==
+
===Foreign Policy===
 +
In response to the attacks, the United States declared a [[War on Terror]], which comprises United States military action in [[Afghanistan]] and [[Iraq]] as well as a significant increase in intelligence gathering and a new outlook on foreign relations.
  
The material costs of the attacks are well in excess of one hundred billion US dollars. Factoring in Stock Market losses, loss of revenue in New York City, loss of jobs, impact on air travel, and heightened security, some estimate the cost approaches two trillion dollars.<ref>[http://www.iags.org/costof911.html The Cost of September 11] Institute for the Analysis of Global Security</ref>
+
American and British intelligene agencies forged a partnership with [[Muammar Gaddafi]] to spy on [[Libya]]n dissidents in the [[Western world]], in exchange for permission to use Libya as a base for [[extraordinary rendition]].<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/09/03/libya.west.spies/ |title=Documents shed light on CIA, Gadhafi spy ties |first=Ben |last=Wedeman |work=CNN |date=3 September 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Libya: Gaddafi regime's US-UK spy links revealed |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14774533 |publisher=[[BBC]] |date=4 September 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Abigail Hauslohner |title=How Libya Seems to Have Helped the CIA with Rendition of Terrorism Suspects |url=http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2091653,00.html |work=Time |date=Sep 2, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/files-show-mi6-cia-ties-to-libya-reports-20110904-1jrzy.html |title=Files show MI6, CIA ties to Libya: reports |work=The Sydney Morning Herald |date=4 September 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8739893/Libya-secret-dossier-reveals-Gaddafis-UK-spy-links.html |title=Libya: secret dossier reveals Gaddafi's UK spy links |work=[[The Daily Telegraph]] |first=Richard |last=Spencer |date=3 September 2011 |location=London}}</ref>
  
Some estimates of the cost of executing the plan place it in the $400,000-$500,000 range, making it an extremely "profitable" operation for al-Qaeda. <ref>[http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Exec.htm The 9/11 Commission Report]</ref>
+
==Conspiracy Theories==
  
==Consequences of the Attacks on US Policy==
+
{{Main|9/11 conspiracy theories}}
===Domestic Policy===
+
  
The attacks were a direct or indirect cause of massive changes in United States domestic policy.  Most notably, the ''Homeland Security Act of 2002'' "established a [[Department of Homeland Security]], as an executive department of the United States" <ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/bill/hsl-bill.pdf H.R. 5005 The Homeland Security Act]</ref>, a cabinet level position. One of the tools implemented by the Department is the [[Homeland Security Advisory System]], a color coded advisory system meant to "establish a comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." <ref>[http://www.dhs.gov/xinfoshare/laws/ DHS Laws and Regulations] Department of Homeland Security</ref>
+
Many conspiracy theories have sprouted up from the events of September 11, 2001, including the "Loose Change" movies seen on YouTube.<ref>[http://www.thenation.com/doc/20061002/alterman Lying About 9/11? Easy as [[ABC]]], Eric Alterman, ''The Nation'', September 14, 2006 (October 2, 2006 issue).</ref> These movies have been comprehensively disproven by independent experts.<ref>[http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military_law/1227842.html "Debunking The 9/11 Myths"] ''Popular Mechanics'', Mar. 2005 Cover Story</ref>  Prominent endorsers of such theories include talk show host [[Rosie O'Donnell]] as well as actor [[Charlie Sheen]].  A third of the American public has bought into the idea of some sort of role by federal officials.<ref>[http://www.scrippsnews.com/911poll Third of Americans Suspect 9-11 Government Conspiracy] ''Scrippsnews'', Hargrove, Thomas, 8/01/06</ref> This view is much more common among those who get their news solely from the internet and is rare for those who read newspapers or watch the news on regular television.
  
Another notable consequence of the attacks was the ''[[USA PATRIOT Act|USA PATRIOT Act of 2001]]'' ('''U'''niting and '''S'''trengthening '''A'''merica by '''P'''roviding '''A'''ppropriate '''T'''ools '''R'''equired to '''I'''ntercept and '''O'''bstruct '''T'''errorism).  The act was written to expand the authority of law enforcement and the justice system in the pursuit of terrorism suspects.<ref>[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.R.3162.ENR: ''The USA PATRIOT Act''] Library of Congress</ref>
+
In some cases, the leftists have also resorted to outright blaming the victims of 9/11 for terrorism instead of Osama Bin Ladin. A notable example of this was [[Robert Fisk]], a British journalist who was on his way to America when his flight was redirected as a result of the events of the Trade Center collapse. Deducing what had happened, he then infamously wrote and submitted that very day an article that blamed the victims inside the World Trade Center buildings for causing terrorism all over the world.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20050612021521/https://www.newcriterion.com/archive/23/jun05/windschuttle.htm</ref>
  
===Foreign Policy===
+
==See also==
 
+
* [[Terrorism]]
<!-- Yeah, this is not my strong suit at all.  But it points to the War on Terror, so it does the job -->
+
* [[Suicide bomber: a personal account]]
 
+
* [[List of military strategies and concepts]]
The perpetrators of the attacks were soon identified as members of the al Qaeda terrorist organization headed by [[Osama Bin Laden|Osama bin Laden]].  In response, the United States declared a
+
* [[List of Islamist terrorist attacks]]
[[War on Terror]], which comprises United States military action in [[Afghanistan]] and [[Iraq]] as well as a significant increase in intelligence gathering and a new outlook on foreign relations.
+
 
+
==Conspiracy Theories==
+
 
+
Many conspiracy theories have sprouted up from the events of September 11, 2001, including the "Loose Change" movies seen on YouTube.  While compelling, these movies have been comprehensively disproven by independent experts <ref>[http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military_law/1227842.html "Debunking The 9/11 Myths"] ''Popular Mechanics'', Mar. 2005 Cover Story</ref>.  Prominent endorsers of such theories include talk show host [[Rosie O'Donnell]] and actor [[Charlie Sheen]].
+
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
 
*[http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf The 9/11 Commission Report]
 
*[http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf The 9/11 Commission Report]
 +
*[http://wtc.nist.gov/NISTNCSTAR1CollapseofTowers.pdf Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers], [[National Institute of Standards and Technology|NIST]].
 
*[http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html September 11: Chronology of Terror] at CNN.com
 
*[http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html September 11: Chronology of Terror] at CNN.com
 
*[http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/penttbom/penttbomb.htm Federal Bureau of Investigations PENTTBOM Press Release]
 
*[http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/penttbom/penttbomb.htm Federal Bureau of Investigations PENTTBOM Press Release]
*[http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/victims/main.html Lists of Victims] at CNN.com
+
*[https://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/victims/main.html Lists of Victims] at CNN.com
 +
 
 +
==External links==
 +
*[http://bertschlossberg.blogspot.com/ Two Flags, One God, and no escape]
 +
*[http://www.thecrossandthetowers.com/ The Cross and The Towers] (Documentary Film)
 +
*[http://bertschlossberg.blogspot.com/ Turkey's Islamic leader, Israel's Chief Rabbi, and Al Qaida's assassination attempt]
  
 
==Additional Information==
 
==Additional Information==
Line 85: Line 100:
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<References/>
+
{{reflist|2}}
[[category:United States History]]
+
 
 +
{{Terrorism}}
 +
[[Category:United States History]]
 +
[[Category:Riots and Terrorist Incidents in the United States]]
 +
[[Category:Afghanistan War]]
 +
[[Category:Islamic Terrorism]]
 +
[[Category:2000s]]
 +
[[Category:Military Strategies and Concepts]]

Latest revision as of 02:26, 13 September 2019

The view of the burning towers of the World Trade Center from Staten Island, New York City, September 11, 2001
The damage to the Pentagon, Washington D.C., September 11, 2001

The Islamic Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 occurred when al Qaeda Islamic extremists hijacked four transcontinental airliners and used them to strike targets in the United States; two aircraft destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City; the third crashed into a portion of the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.; and the fourth aircraft - in which the hijackers are believed to have targeted the White House or the Capitol Building - crashed into an empty field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after passengers fought back to re-take control.

The sheer audacity of the attack and the heavy loss of life that resulted from it caused the U.S. government to declare a War on Terror with the determination to hunt down terrorists worldwide; within two months of September 11, Afghanistan was completely occupied by Coalition forces, driving the ruling Islamo-fascist Taliban from power and causing the head of al Qaeda and the man who personally approved the attacks - Osama bin Laden - to flee into hiding before being killed in Pakistan in 2011, some 10 years after the attack.

The Hijacking

All 19 hijackers boarded the planes on the morning of September 11, having carefully chosen flights whose routes would be transcontinental. Two planes flew out of Boston's Logan Airport, one flew from Washington Dulles International Airport, and the fourth left an airport in Newark, New Jersey.

New York City

American Airlines Flight 11 left Logan Airport around 8 AM, carrying 11 crew and 81 passengers; its destination was Los Angeles, California. United Airlines Flight 175 left Logan a few minutes later, carrying 9 crew and 56 passengers, and also on a flight to Los Angeles. Both aircraft were Boeing 767-200s.

At 8:25 AM Boston air traffic controllers heard a strange voice from Flight 11: "We have some planes. Just stay quiet, and you will be OK. We are returning to the airport." The plane then headed south toward New York City; at 8:46 AM the plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center between the 93 and 99th floors. Sixteen minutes later, at 9:03 AM, Flight 175 crashed into the south tower - at a greater speed and more oblique angle - between the 77th and 85th floors.

The impact of the crashes took out any hope of getting to victims and survivors on the affected floors and the floors above; many people desperate to get away from the smoke and fire jumped to their deaths. Both towers were designed to survive the impact of a 1960s-era jet, but the Boeing 767 was larger and carried more fuel; it was determined later that the heat from the burning fuel weakened the central steel structure and supports. At 9:59 am the south tower collapsed; the upper floors had lost support in the damaged area and fell in a chain reaction - pancake style - to the ground. At 10:29 AM the north tower fell in a similar manner. The death toll was around 2,750, including more than 300 firefighters and 100 police officers and other rescue workers.

The building at 7 World Trade Center, commonly abbreviated as WTC7, also collapsed in the attacks not long after. This collapse is frequently cited in various conspiracy theories.

Washington, D.C.

American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757-200, left Dulles at 8:20 AM, carrying 6 crew and 58 passengers on a flight to Los Angeles. Forty minutes later the aircraft had turned back toward Washington; at 9:37 it crashed at high-speed into the west side of the Pentagon, killing a total of 184 people. Despite being built of reinforced concrete, the aircraft was able to penetrate to the third concentric ring of the building.

Shanksville, Pennsylvania

United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757-200, left Newark at 8:40 AM, with a destination of San Francisco. Unlike the other planes which had four hijackers each, Flight 93 had three; it also had passengers who, through onboard phone calls, learned of the previous hijackings and crashes and determined to wrest control of the aircraft back from the terrorists. Turned towards Washington, the plane ended up crashing in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 AM, the only one of the aircraft which failed to reach its target. Among the recorded conversations between the passengers and phone operators was the phrase "Let's roll" by Todd Beamer, made just before he set down his phone and took action with the other passengers involved; Beamer's last phrase would become a rallying cry in the coming war on Islamic terrorism.

Ground Casualties

The total loss of life is constantly being reevaluated to account for wrongly reported missing persons and, in some cases, occurrences of fraud. Estimates of more than 6,000 deaths were announced shortly after the attacks. The current estimate is 2,996 fatalities as a direct result of the attacks. About 500 foreign nationals from over 90 countries are believed to have died in the attack.[1]

The Department of Defense reported the deaths of 125 people at The Pentagon. The aftermath of the World Trade Center towers collapsing created a good deal of confusion and has been the main source of discrepancies in casualty estimates. As of October 29, 2003, New York City reported 2605 deaths in the attacks, not counting the passengers and crew of the planes.[2]

As a matter of course, the deaths of the 19 hijackers are not included in these casualty totals.

Economic Impact

The material costs of the attacks are well in excess of one hundred billion US dollars. Factoring in stock market losses, loss of revenue in New York City, loss of jobs, impact on air travel, and heightened security, some estimate the cost approaches two trillion dollars.[3]

Some estimates of the cost of executing the plan place it in the $400,000-$500,000 range, making it an extremely "profitable" operation for al-Qaeda.[4]

The Suspects

Suspicion fell on Osama bin Laden and his Islamic terrorist al-Qaeda organization almost immediately. Known to have harbored hatred for the United States since the basing of U.S. fighters and other military personnel in Saudi Arabia during the first Gulf War, bin Laden has tried "To kill Americans and their allies — civilians and military — is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it,",[5] and often succeeding. In four previous attacks, bin Laden's operatives

  • killed 6 in a bomb explosion in the first attack on the World Trade Center in 1993;
  • killed 19 soldiers in 1996 at a military housing complex in Saudi Arabia;
  • killed more than 200 people in the simultaneous bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania;
  • killed 17 sailors by putting an explosives-laden boat next to USS Cole while that destroyer was refueling in Yemen in 2000.

His personal fortune, estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars, had enabled him to finance well-coordinated operations, including the training of the hijackers in close-quarter fighting, commandeering of aircraft, and ironically to bankroll their education in American flight schools.

Commemorations

Rep. Ilhan Elmi Omar was criticized by name by victim survivors at the September 11, 2019 memorial observation.

Following the attacks there was a strong surge of patriotism in virtually all facets of American society. The government, being aware that the most deadly attack ever on American soil could stir up animosity against the ethnic or ideological group of the perpetrators, went out of its way along with the mainstream media to separate Islam from the actions taken by its more radical adherents, misleadingly referring to it at multiple times as a "religion of peace."[6] While people of Middle Eastern decent and adherents of Islam were concerned at first, the overall effect of hostility towards these groups was barely noticeable. Although there were literally millions of Muslims in America out of a total population of 300 million who could have sought out reprisals, in an entire year less than 500 cases of aggression of verbal hostility were reported. Like the Dome of the Rock, Muslims responded by constructing a victorious Ground Zero Mosque over conquered territory.

9/11 memorial services have been held throughout the nation every September 11 to commemorate the loss of loved ones and attack on American values.

Libyan jihadis, supported by the Obama administration, commemorated the massacre on September 11, 2012 by burning down the U.S. Consulate in Libya.[7] President Obama remarked, "The future does not belong to those who insult the Prophet of Islam."

In April 2019, Democrat Rep. Ilhan Omar speaking at a Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) conference remarked the terrorist-linked organization was founded because of "some people who did something."[8] At that years' Ground Zero ceremonies the son of a murder victim said there should be no confusion on who attacked the United States and killed almost 3,000 people.

I am here today to honor my 76-year-old mother, Frances, on the solemn 18th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Mom, we always miss you and love you very much. This day I also remember over 200 personal friends and co-workers that I knew that died.

'Some people did something,' said a freshman congresswoman from Minnesota to support and justify the creation of CAIR. Today I am here to respond to you, exactly who did what to whom. Madam, objectively speaking, we know who and what was done, there is no uncertainty about that. Why your confusion? On that day, 19 Islamic terrorist members of al Qaeda killed over 3,000 people and caused billions of dollars in economic damage. Is that clear?"

But as to whom? I was attacked. Your relatives and friends were attacked. Our constitutional freedoms were attacked. And our nation’s founding on Judeo-Christian principles were attacked. That’s what some people did. Got that now? We are here today, congresswoman, to tell you and ‘the Squad’ just who did what to whom. Show respect in honoring them, please.[9]

Consequences of the Attacks on U.S. Policy

Domestic Policy

The attacks were a direct or indirect cause of massive changes in United States domestic policy. Most notably, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 "established a Department of Homeland Security, as an executive department of the United States",[10] a cabinet level position. One of the tools implemented by the Department is the Homeland Security Advisory System, a color coded advisory system meant to "establish a comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." [11]

Another notable result of the attacks was the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism). The act was written to expand the authority of law enforcement and the justice system in the pursuit of terrorism suspects.[12]

Foreign Policy

In response to the attacks, the United States declared a War on Terror, which comprises United States military action in Afghanistan and Iraq as well as a significant increase in intelligence gathering and a new outlook on foreign relations.

American and British intelligene agencies forged a partnership with Muammar Gaddafi to spy on Libyan dissidents in the Western world, in exchange for permission to use Libya as a base for extraordinary rendition.[13][14][15][16][17]

Conspiracy Theories

For a more detailed treatment, see 9/11 conspiracy theories.

Many conspiracy theories have sprouted up from the events of September 11, 2001, including the "Loose Change" movies seen on YouTube.[18] These movies have been comprehensively disproven by independent experts.[19] Prominent endorsers of such theories include talk show host Rosie O'Donnell as well as actor Charlie Sheen. A third of the American public has bought into the idea of some sort of role by federal officials.[20] This view is much more common among those who get their news solely from the internet and is rare for those who read newspapers or watch the news on regular television.

In some cases, the leftists have also resorted to outright blaming the victims of 9/11 for terrorism instead of Osama Bin Ladin. A notable example of this was Robert Fisk, a British journalist who was on his way to America when his flight was redirected as a result of the events of the Trade Center collapse. Deducing what had happened, he then infamously wrote and submitted that very day an article that blamed the victims inside the World Trade Center buildings for causing terrorism all over the world.[21]

See also

Sources

External links

Additional Information

References

  1. "New York Reduces 9/11 Death Toll by 40" at CNN.com, Phil Hirschkorn, 10/29/03
  2. "New York Reduces 9/11 Death Toll by 40" at CNN.com, Phil Hirschkorn, 10/29/03
  3. The Cost of September 11 Institute for the Analysis of Global Security
  4. The 9/11 Commission Report
  5. [1]
  6. https://thereligionofpeace.com/
  7. https://www.amazon.com/REAL-Benghazi-Story-White-Hillary/dp/1531817130
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrql_Sb30B8
  9. https://youtu.be/w0JFwm-waiU
  10. H.R. 5005 The Homeland Security Act
  11. DHS Laws and Regulations Department of Homeland Security
  12. The USA PATRIOT Act Library of Congress
  13. Wedeman, Ben. "Documents shed light on CIA, Gadhafi spy ties", CNN, 3 September 2011. 
  14. Libya: Gaddafi regime's US-UK spy links revealed. BBC (4 September 2011).
  15. Abigail Hauslohner (Sep 2, 2011). How Libya Seems to Have Helped the CIA with Rendition of Terrorism Suspects. Time.
  16. "Files show MI6, CIA ties to Libya: reports", The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 September 2011. 
  17. Spencer, Richard. "Libya: secret dossier reveals Gaddafi's UK spy links", The Daily Telegraph, 3 September 2011. 
  18. Lying About 9/11? Easy as ABC, Eric Alterman, The Nation, September 14, 2006 (October 2, 2006 issue).
  19. "Debunking The 9/11 Myths" Popular Mechanics, Mar. 2005 Cover Story
  20. Third of Americans Suspect 9-11 Government Conspiracy Scrippsnews, Hargrove, Thomas, 8/01/06
  21. https://web.archive.org/web/20050612021521/https://www.newcriterion.com/archive/23/jun05/windschuttle.htm