Last modified on February 18, 2021, at 05:48


Climate activist and shaman Jake Angeli at the Arizona Climate March in 2019. In 2021, Angeli led the occupation of the U.S. Capitol building.[1] The reference to Ragnarok in the lower left hand is a doomsday scenario of the Nordic gods often cited by white supremacists.[2]

Shamanism is the practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Shamanic religions can be found in virtually all early civilizations. Shamanistic and animistic practicies and beliefs precede poly and monotheistic beliefs and were probably the first belief systems that we would recognize as a religion.


The Earth and Its Peoples A Global History, Bulliet et al., 2005.